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Province

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Province

  1. 1. PROVINCIAL AMRICA LIVING AND DYING IN COLONIAL AMERICA
  2. 2. POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>IMMIGRATION AND NATURAL INCREASE </li></ul><ul><li>WHO CAME TO AMERICA? </li></ul><ul><li>SOME YOUNGER SONS OF UPPER CLASS </li></ul><ul><li>MOSTLY ENGLISH LABORERS </li></ul>
  3. 3. POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>INDENTURED SERVANTS </li></ul><ul><li>4 TO 7 YEAR TERMS </li></ul><ul><li>¾ MEN AND ¼ WOMEN </li></ul><ul><li>SOMETIMES INVOLUNTARY! </li></ul>
  4. 4. POPULATION GROWTH <ul><li>1670S SEES DECLINE IN SERVITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>DECLINE OF ENGLISH ECONOMY AND POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>CONCERNS OVER POLITICAL AND SOCIAL INSTABILITY </li></ul>
  5. 5. BIRTH AND DEATH <ul><li>LONGER LIFE SPANS IN NEW ENGLAND </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD CLIMATE </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD WATER </li></ul><ul><li>NO LARGE POPULATION CENTERS </li></ul>
  6. 6. BIRTH AND DEATH <ul><li>MEDICINE – LIMITED MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>RUDIMENTARY MEDICAL PROFESSION </li></ul><ul><li>MIDWIVES </li></ul><ul><li>THE FOUR HUMOURS </li></ul>
  7. 7. BIRTH AND DEATH <ul><li>THE CHESAPEAKE – WEAK FAMILY STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH RATE OF ILLIGITIMATE CHILDREN </li></ul><ul><li>RELATIVE FREEDOM FOR WOMEN IN THE SOUTH </li></ul>
  8. 8. BIRTH AND DEATH <ul><li>NEW ENGLAND – SEX RATIO IS MORE EQUAL </li></ul><ul><li>STRONG FAMILY STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINED BY RELIGION </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH DEMAND FOR LABOR </li></ul>
  9. 9. SLAVERY <ul><li>TOBACCO CULTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>HORRORS OF THE MIDDLE PASSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>1620 – STATUS OF FIRST BLACKS UNCLEAR </li></ul>
  10. 10. SLAVERY <ul><li>ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY OF ENGLAND </li></ul><ul><li>1690S – MONOPOLY IS BROKEN </li></ul><ul><li>1760 – 250,000 AFRICANS IN COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>THE COMING OF THE SLAVE CODES </li></ul>
  11. 11. IMMIGRATION <ul><li>FRENCH HUGUENOTS – LATE 16 TH CENTURY </li></ul><ul><li>GERMAN PROTESTANTS – THE “PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH” </li></ul><ul><li>SCOTCH- IRISH </li></ul><ul><li>RAPID POPULATION GROWTH </li></ul>
  12. 12. COLONIAL ECONOMIES <ul><li>THE SOUTH </li></ul><ul><li>TOBACCO – PRIMARY CROP </li></ul><ul><li>AN UNSTABLE MARKET </li></ul><ul><li>RICE – SOUTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA </li></ul><ul><li>AFRICAN SLAVES AND RICE CULTIVATION </li></ul>
  13. 13. COLONIAL ECONOMIES <ul><li>SOUTH CAROLINA </li></ul><ul><li>ELIZA LUCAS AND THE INDIGO MARKET </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTH LACKS COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY </li></ul>
  14. 14. COLONIAL ECONOMIES <ul><li>THE NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>DOMINANCE OF AGRICULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>NEW ENGLAND – ROCKY SOIL AND UNFAVORABLE CLIMATE </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND AND MIDDLE COLONIES </li></ul><ul><li>FAVORABLE SITES </li></ul>
  15. 15. COLONIAL ECONOMIES <ul><li>WORK AT HOME </li></ul><ul><li>THE METAL INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>SAUGUS IRONWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>NEW EXPORT INDUSTRIES – LUMBER, FISHING, MINING </li></ul><ul><li>THE MYTH OF SELF SUFFICIENCY </li></ul>
  16. 17. COLONIAL ECONOMIES <ul><li>MONEY </li></ul><ul><li>A BARTER ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE WITH THE WEST INDIES </li></ul><ul><li>THE TRIANGLE TRADE </li></ul><ul><li>A MERCHANT CLASS AND STABILITY </li></ul>
  17. 18. COLONIAL ECONOMIES <ul><li>GROWTH OF CONSUMERISM </li></ul><ul><li>PLANTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHERN STRATIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>THE SLAVE SOCIETIES </li></ul>
  18. 19. COLONIAL ECONOMICS <ul><li>PURITANS </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY AS KEY SOCIAL UNIT </li></ul><ul><li>TOWN MEETINGS </li></ul><ul><li>FATHERS AND SONS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNITY LIFE </li></ul>
  19. 20. WITCH TRIALS <ul><li>WHAT HAPPENED IN SALEM (AND ELSEWHERE)? </li></ul><ul><li>WHO WERE THE WITCHES? </li></ul><ul><li>THE CRIME OF NONCONFORMITY </li></ul><ul><li>NO TOLERANCE FOR INDEPENDENCE </li></ul>
  20. 22. CITIES <ul><li>PHILADELPHIA – 28,000 IN 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>NEW YORK – 25,000 </li></ul><ul><li>BOSTON – 16,000 </li></ul><ul><li>CHARLESTON – 16,000 </li></ul><ul><li>THE ROLE OF CITIES </li></ul>
  21. 23. RELIGION <ul><li>RELIGIOUS TOLERATION IN AMERICA </li></ul><ul><li>BUT NOT FOR CATHOLICS </li></ul><ul><li>JEWS IN AMERICA </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY 18 TH CENTURY CONCERNS WITH DECLINE IN PIETY </li></ul>
  22. 24. RELIGION <ul><li>ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS </li></ul><ul><li>THE GREAT AWAKENING – 1730S THROUGH 1740S </li></ul><ul><li>APPEAL TO WOMEN </li></ul><ul><li>TO START ANEW WITH GOD </li></ul>
  23. 25. RELIGION <ul><li>JOHN & CHARLES WESLEY </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE WHITEFIELD </li></ul><ul><li>JONATHAN EDWARDS </li></ul>
  24. 26. EDUCATION <ul><li>LITERACY FOR MALES </li></ul><ul><li>LITTLE OPPORTUNITY FOR WOMEN. </li></ul><ul><li>COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES </li></ul>

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