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Compromising

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Compromising

  1. 1. SLAVERY, POLITICS, AND WAR COMPROMISING OUR WAY INTO A CRISIS
  2. 4. THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE <ul><li>MISSOURI APPLIES FOR STATEHOOD IN 1819 </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY IS ESTABLISHED THERE </li></ul><ul><li>TALLMADGE AMENDMENT - PROHIBITS FURTHER SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORY AND ALLOWS GRADUAL EMANCIPATION </li></ul>
  3. 5. THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE <ul><li>UPSETTING THE BALANCE </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ABOUT MAINE? </li></ul><ul><li>HENRY CLAY - THE GREAT COMPROMISER </li></ul>
  4. 6. THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE <ul><li>MAINE - A FREE STATE IN 1819 </li></ul><ul><li>MISSOURI - A SLAVE STATE IN 1820 </li></ul><ul><li>NO SLAVERY NORTH OF 36/30 PARRELLELL </li></ul><ul><li>A CRISIS AVERTED </li></ul>
  5. 8. THE QUESTION OF TEXAS <ul><li>MEXICO WINS INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN </li></ul><ul><li>1820S - MEXICO INVITES AMERICAN SETTLERS INTO TEXAS. </li></ul><ul><li>TOO MANY CULTURAL AND POLITICAL DIFFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY IS ONE OF THEM </li></ul>
  6. 9. THE QUESTION OF TEXAS <ul><li>TEXAN LAND CLAIMS </li></ul><ul><li>1836 - AN INDEPENDENT TEXAS </li></ul>
  7. 10. THE QUESTION OF TEXAS <ul><li>SEEKING ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES </li></ul><ul><li>A POLITICAL HOT POTATO </li></ul><ul><li>THE ISSUE SUBSIDED UNTIL 1841 </li></ul>
  8. 11. THE QUESTION OF TEXAS <ul><li>JOHN TYLER - A PRESIDENT WITHOUT A PARTY </li></ul><ul><li>TYLER IGNITES THE “TEXAS ISSUE” </li></ul><ul><li>TOO MUCH OPPOSITION </li></ul>
  9. 12. THE QUESTION OF TEXAS <ul><li>ELECTION OF 1844 </li></ul><ul><li>HENRY CLAY - WHIG CANDIDATE </li></ul><ul><li>MARTIN VAN BUREN - LEADING DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATE </li></ul><ul><li>THE SOUTH SOURS ON VAN BUREN </li></ul>
  10. 13. JAMES POLK <ul><li>DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATE IN 1844 </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONALIST AND EXPANSIONIST </li></ul><ul><li>A SLAVEHOLDER </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN TYLER IS SWEPT OFF THE STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>POLK’S VICTORY AND THE RISE OF THE LIBERTY PARTY </li></ul>
  11. 16. JAMES POLK <ul><li>POLK AND MANIFEST DESTINY </li></ul><ul><li>TYLER’S FINAL ACT </li></ul><ul><li>TEXAS IS A STATE - 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>FIFTY-FOUR-FORTY OR FIGHT - THE OREGON TERRITORY </li></ul>
  12. 18. ISSUES WITH MEXICO <ul><li>ANNEXATION OF TEXAS </li></ul><ul><li>THE TEXAS BORDER - THE NUEVES VERSUS THE RIO GRANDE </li></ul><ul><li>CALIFORNIA AND NEW MEXICO </li></ul>
  13. 20. THE MEXICAN WAR <ul><li>POLK’S TWO PRONGED APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR AND THE “INCIDENT” </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ABOUT THE OREGON TERRITORY? </li></ul>
  14. 21. THE MEXICAN WAR <ul><li>WHIG AND NORTHERN RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>MILITARY SUCCESS </li></ul><ul><li>THE DEAL WITH MEXICO </li></ul><ul><li>15 MILLION DOLLARS FOR MEXICO </li></ul><ul><li>UNITED STATES ASSUMES MEXICAN DEBTS </li></ul>
  15. 22. THE MEXICAN WAR <ul><li>UNITED STATES OBTAINS NEW MEXICO AND CALIFORNIA </li></ul><ul><li>THE WILMOT PROVISO </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY IN THE NEWLY ACQUIRED TERRITORIES? </li></ul>
  16. 23. POPULAR SOVERIGNTY <ul><li>THE PEOPLE OF A TERRITORY WILL DECIDE ON WHETHER IT WILL BE A FREE OR A SLAVE STATE </li></ul>
  17. 24. THE ELECTION OF 1848 <ul><li>POLITICAL REPURCUSSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>POLK IS NOT A CANDIDATE </li></ul><ul><li>LEWIS CASS - DEMOCRATIC NOMINEE WITH VAGUE POSITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>WHIG CANDIDATE - ZACHARY TAYLOR, HERO OF THE MEXICAN WAR </li></ul>
  18. 26. ELECTION OF 1848 <ul><li>WHIGS HAVE NO PLATFORM </li></ul><ul><li>DO THEY HAVE A QUALIFIED CANDIDATE? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT DO THEY HAVE? </li></ul><ul><li>A HERO! </li></ul><ul><li>SOME THIRD PARTY EFFORTS </li></ul>
  19. 27. THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>CALIFORNIA AND THE GOLD RUSH </li></ul><ul><li>NEW MEXICO </li></ul><ul><li>UTAH AND THE MORMON SUCCESS </li></ul><ul><li>GOLD FORCES THE ISSUE </li></ul>
  20. 28. COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>TAYLOR’S APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>OTHER ISSUES.. </li></ul><ul><li>RUNAWAY SLAVES - A STRONG FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW IS NEEDED? </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY IN WASHINGTON D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>WHO CAN SAVE THE REPUBLIC? </li></ul>
  21. 29. COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>HENRY CLAY TO THE RESCUE </li></ul><ul><li>A SERIES OF COMPROMISES </li></ul><ul><li>CALIFORNIA - A FREE STATE </li></ul><ul><li>UTAH AND NEW MEXICO - POPULAR SOVERIGNTY WILL DETERMINE IT </li></ul><ul><li>NO SLAVE TRADE IN WASHINGTON D.C. BUT SLAVERY IS ALLOWED </li></ul>
  22. 30. COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>TEXAS DEBT ASSUMED </li></ul><ul><li>A STRONGER FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW </li></ul><ul><li>CLAY’S EFFORTS DENIED </li></ul><ul><li>SENATOR STEPHEN DOUGLAS </li></ul><ul><li>TAYLOR’S RESPONSE - “I WILL VETO” </li></ul>
  23. 31. STEPHEN DOUGLAS
  24. 32. COMPROMISE OF 1850 <ul><li>TAYLOR’S DEMISE </li></ul><ul><li>PRESIDENT MILLARD FILLMORE </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN RESPONSE </li></ul>
  25. 33. THE CHANGING VIEW OF SLAVERY <ul><li>RADICAL PROTESTANT DENOMINATIONS (QUAKERS) </li></ul><ul><li>THE ENLIGHTENMENT </li></ul><ul><li>LAISSEZ FAIRE ECONOMICS </li></ul><ul><li>SLAVERY DIES OFF IN THE REST OF THE WORLD </li></ul>
  26. 34. HOW TO END IT? <ul><li>COLONIZATION? </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERIA </li></ul>
  27. 35. ABOLITIONISM <ul><li>CHARLES GRANDISON FINNEY - PREACHER OF SECOND GREAT AWAKENING </li></ul><ul><li>NO COMPROMISE </li></ul><ul><li>WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON - “THE LIBERATOR” </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICAN ANTI SLAVERY SOCIETY </li></ul>
  28. 37. ABOLITIONISM <ul><li>SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN OPPOSITION </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERTY PARTY AND JAMES BIRNEY </li></ul><ul><li>AMISTAD </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS IS IN NEW ENGLAND </li></ul><ul><li>THE VIRTUE OF HONOR </li></ul>
  29. 38. ELECTION OF 1852 <ul><li>STEPHEN DOUGLAS - DEMOCRATIC FRONT RUNNER </li></ul><ul><li>30 BALLOTS TO A DARK HORSE </li></ul><ul><li>ENTER FRANKLIN PIERCE </li></ul>
  30. 39. ELECTION OF 1852 <ul><li>WHIG PARTY IS DIVIDED </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHERN WHIGS HOLD THE PARTY HOSTAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MILLARD FILLMORE- FRONT RUNNER </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER 52 BALLOTS, IT’S WINFIELD SCOTT </li></ul>
  31. 40. ELECTION OF 1852 <ul><li>THE FREE SOIL PARTY - NOMINEE JOHN HALE </li></ul><ul><li>THE WHIGS FRACTURE </li></ul>
  32. 42. SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES <ul><li>WHAT ABOUT FUTURE TERRITORIES? </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS ON CUBA, CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA </li></ul>
  33. 43. UNCLE TOM’S CABIN <ul><li>HARRIET BEECHER STOWE </li></ul><ul><li>AIMED AT FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW </li></ul>
  34. 44. NATIVISM AND KNOW NOTHINGS <ul><li>INCREASED IMMIGRATION IN 1840S </li></ul><ul><li>1846 TO 1855 - 3 MILLION IMMIGRANTS </li></ul><ul><li>87% WENT TO FREE STATES </li></ul><ul><li>HALF ARE CATHOLICS TO THE NORTHEAST </li></ul><ul><li>IRISH CATHOLICS IN URBAN AREAS </li></ul>
  35. 45. NATIVISM AND KNOW KNOTHINGS <ul><li>OPPOSITION GROWS </li></ul><ul><li>“I KNOW NOTHING” </li></ul><ul><li>THE KNOW-NOTHING AGENDA </li></ul><ul><li>20 YEAR WAIT FOR CITIZENSHIP </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERENCE AND EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL VICTORIES IN 1850S AT EXPENSE OF THE WHIGS </li></ul>
  36. 46. KANSAS-NEBRASKA <ul><li>STEPHEN DOUGLAS </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEBRASKA TERRITORY </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL WAS A RAILROAD FROM MIDWEST TO CALIFORNIA </li></ul><ul><li>1853- AREA CREATED NORTH OF MISSOURI COMPROMISE LINE </li></ul>
  37. 48. KANSAS-NEBRASKA <ul><li>SOUTHERN OPPOSITION </li></ul><ul><li>DOUGLAS WEIGHS HIS OPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>POPULAR SOVERIGNTY </li></ul><ul><li>“A HELL OF A STORM” </li></ul>
  38. 49. KANSAS- NEBRASKA <ul><li>THE KANSAS AND NEBRASKA SPLIT </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ABOUT THE LOGISTICS? </li></ul><ul><li>THE POLITICAL FALLOUT </li></ul>
  39. 50. WINNERS AND LOSERS <ul><li>WHIG PARTY - A BIG LOSER </li></ul><ul><li>NORTHERN DEMOCRATS - LOSERS </li></ul><ul><li>NORTHERN OPPOSITION PARTIES (REPUBLICAN) - WINNERS </li></ul><ul><li>SOUTHERN DEMOCRATS - WINNERS </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE DO THE KNOW-NOTHINGS GO? </li></ul>

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