The atomic bomb


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This is a power-point on how the Atomic Bomb ended World War II.

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The atomic bomb

  1. 1. Atomic Bomb: The End of WWII<br />Ms. Apostolo<br />9th Grade: Social Studies<br />
  2. 2. Fair Use Statement<br />“This project was created using the fair use guidelines.”<br />
  3. 3. Albert Einstein Warns President Roosevelt<br />On August 2, 1932 Albert Einstein and many other scientist wrote President Roosevelt of Nazi Germany’s efforts to purify Uranium-253. The Uranium could be used to create an Atomic Bomb. Shortly after, the United States Government began seriously working on the “Manhattan Project.” <br />
  4. 4. The Manhattan Project<br />The Manhattan Project’s main objective was to conduct research that would produce an Atomic Bomb. The project took six years (1939-1945) to complete it’s goal at a cost of more than $2 billion dollars. The key member of the Project was Robert Oppenheimer, who oversaw the designing and building of the Atomic Bomb. <br />
  5. 5. Testing “The Gadget”<br />“The Gadget,” as the Atomic Bomb was known, was first tested on July 16, 1945 at the Trinity Site in New Mexico. The bomb excelled upward at 360 feet per second and the characteristic mushroom cloud materialized at 30,000 feet. All that remained of the soil at the blast site were fragments of jade green radioactive glass created by the heat of the reaction. The explosion was even seen from residents living in far away neighborhoods, who swore the sun had come up twice that day due to the blast’s intensity. The creators of the bomb had mixed reactions. Although ecstatic, Oppheimer quoted the Bhagavad Gita stating, “I am Death, the destroyer of Worlds.” <br />
  6. 6. The Potsdam Declaration <br />On July 26, 1945, President Truman, Prime Minister Churchill, and President Chiang Kai-Shek, issued the Potsdam Declaration. The Declerationoutlined the terms Japan’s unconditional surrender as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatumstated that, if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction". Japan's initial rejection to the Declaration led directly to Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombson the Japanese cities of Hiroshimaand Nagasakion August 6 and August 9.<br />
  7. 7. Hiroshima, Japan: The Dropping of “Little Boy” <br />On August 6, 1945 a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay, piloted by Paul Tibbits headed for the city of Hiroshima, Japan. Hiroshima was an important military center with 43,000 soldiers and 300,000 civilians. At 8:15 A.M. the 9,700 pound uranium bomb called “Little Boy” was released. The bomb detonated 1,900 feet above Hiroshima with a blast equivalent to 15,000 tons of T.N.T. <br />
  8. 8. Hiroshima, Japan: Before The Atomic Bomb<br />
  9. 9. Hiroshima, Japan: After the Atomic Bomb<br />
  10. 10. Effects of “Little Boy” on Hiroshima, Japan<br />Those closet to the explosion died instantly as their bodies where turned into black char. The bomb’s white light acted like a giant flashbulb and burned the dark fabrics of clothing into victim’s skin and the shadows of bodies onto walls. Everywhere else, people experienced a blinding flash, followed by intense heat, and a deafening explosion. Within minutes 9-out-of-10 people half-a-mile or less from ground zero were dead. Less than 10% of the buildings in Hiroshima survived the blast. <br />
  11. 11. Effects of “Little Boy” on Hiroshima, Japan<br />A firestorm broke out, engulfing 4.4 square miles of the city, killing more people. Several days later, medical staff began to notcing the first signs of radiation sickness among the survivors. The death toll increased and peaked 3-4 weeks after the initial blast and only tapered 7-8 weeks later. An estimated 70,000 people died from the initial blast, heat, and radiation effects. The 5-year death total may have reached or exceeded 200,000 as the lingering effects of radiation (such as cancer) and other long-lasting effects took hold. <br />
  12. 12. Effects of “Little Boy” on Hiroshima, Japan<br />
  13. 13. Nagasaki, Japan: The Dropping of <br />“Fat Man”<br />
  14. 14. Nagasaki, Japan: The Dropping of <br />“Fat Man”<br />On August 9, 1945 a B-29 bomber plane named Brock’s Car unleashed A second Atomic Bomb upon Japan. Nicknamed “Fat Man,” this plutonium bomb missed its target by half-a mile-due to clouds, but still leveled half of the city of Nagasaki, Japan-an industrial center. The bomb erupted with a force 40% greater than the Hiroshima bomb. However, the hills of Nagasaki, its geographic layout, and the bomb's detonation over an industrial area helped shield portions of the city from the weapon's blast, heat, and radiation effects.<br />
  15. 15. Effects of “Fat Man” on Nagasaki, Japan <br />Almost everything up half-a-mile from ground zero was completely destroyed. According to a Nagasaki Prefectural report "men and animals died almost instantly" within 1 kilometer (0.62 miles) of the point of detonation. Although there was no firestorm, numerous secondary fires erupted throughout Nagasaki. The best estimate is that 40,000 people died initially, with 60,000 more injured. By January 1946, the number of deaths approached 70,000, with perhaps doubled within five years.<br />
  16. 16. Effects of “Fat Man” On Nagasaki, Japan<br />
  17. 17. The Unconditional Surrender of Japan<br />The day after the attack on Nagasaki, Emperor Hirohito of Japan, overruled the military leaders of Japan and forced them to offer to surrender. The only condition being that the emperor be allowed to remain the nominal head of state.  On August 12, the United States announced that it would accept the Japanese surrender, however, the emperor could only remain as a purely ceremonial figure. On August 15, 1945, the emperor broadcasted to all of Japan on the radio the surrender of Japan. The emperor explained that "the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage," and that "the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb." <br />
  18. 18. The End of World War II<br />Over the next few weeks, the Japanese and United States worked out the details of the surrender. on September 2, 1945, the formal surrender ceremony took place on the deck of the U.S.S. Missouri. The surrender of the Japanese forces officially ended World War II. <br />
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