Ralf Klamma RWTH Aachen University Professional Training Facts Stuttgart, November 13, 2007 Communities of Practice  and C...
Agenda <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice  </li></ul><ul><li>Social Software </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Communities of practice <ul><li>Community of practice (CoP) as the basic concept for community information systems </li></...
Working Knowledge and Practice <ul><li>Lave and Wenger (1991) first introduced the concept of a Community of Practice in 1...
Features of CoP <ul><li>Situated Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is a function of the activity, context and cultur...
Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP) <ul><li>LPP is complex and composite: legitimation, peripherality and participat...
CoPs and the world of work <ul><li>Wenger (1998) studied a CoP in a large insurance company and identified two key process...
CoPs and Work <ul><li>A CoP is now defined in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>What it is about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The activ...
Web 2.0 and  Communities of Practice Web 2.0 „ The long tail“ Use of Collective Intelligene Web as Platform <ul><li>YouTub...
Social Software Second Life <ul><li>Data is the Next Intel Inside -> Unique data  </li></ul><ul><li>Users Add Value -> no ...
Social Software and Communities: The Long Tail & Fragmentation <ul><li>The Web is a scale free, fragmented network </li></...
Competences in CoPs <ul><li>Social structures reinforce or hinder innovation activities and diffusion [Rizova06, MIT Sloan...
Competences in Social Networks a) Technical Star b) Organizational Star Figure: MIT Sloan School Review
Technical Star in Blog
Organizational  Star in Blog
StarDiscovery: Competence Management Tool
Web 2.0 Competence Management
Conclusions and Outlook <ul><li>Communities of practice as competence management resource </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 and So...
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Communities of Practice and Competence Management

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Ralf Klamma
Communities of Practice and Competence Management
Professional Training Facts, Stuttgart, November 13, 2007

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  • Sehr verehrte Mitglieder der Fachgruppe Informatik, meine Damen und Herren. Ich möchte sie auf das herzlichste zu meinen Vortrag „Social Software und Community Informationssysteme“ begrüßen. Meine Name ist Ralf Klamma und ich bin akademischer Oberrat am Lehrstuhl für Informatik 5.
  • Communities of Practice and Competence Management

    1. 1. Ralf Klamma RWTH Aachen University Professional Training Facts Stuttgart, November 13, 2007 Communities of Practice and Competence Management
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Social Software </li></ul><ul><li>Compentence Development in the Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Star-Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and Outlook </li></ul>
    3. 3. Communities of practice <ul><li>Community of practice (CoP) as the basic concept for community information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and who interact regularly to learn how to do it better </li></ul><ul><li>Usability & Sociability </li></ul>Wenger: Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, 1998 Preece: Online Communities: Designing Usability, Supporting Sociability, 2000
    4. 4. Working Knowledge and Practice <ul><li>Lave and Wenger (1991) first introduced the concept of a Community of Practice in 1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… an intrinsic condition for the existence of knowledge&quot; (p98) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;… a set of relations among persons, activity and world, over time and in relation with other tangential and overlapping CoPs&quot; (p98) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The acquisition of knowledge is a social process and people participate at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>The community and participation in it are inseparable from the practice </li></ul>
    5. 5. Features of CoP <ul><li>Situated Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is a function of the activity, context and culture in which it occurs (i.e. it is situated) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal and Co-located </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gradual acquisition of knowledge and skills learned from experts in the context of their everyday activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is mediated through social interaction and collaboration in the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novices move from peripheral to full participation as they gain legitimacy in the group </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP) <ul><li>LPP is complex and composite: legitimation, peripherality and participation are each indispensable in defining the other: </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concerned with power and authority relations in the community but is not necessarily formal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripherality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not a physical concept or a measure of acquired knowledge, but concerned with degree of engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an activity where the participants have a shared understanding of what it means in their lives </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. CoPs and the world of work <ul><li>Wenger (1998) studied a CoP in a large insurance company and identified two key processes in CoPs: participation and reification. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ... the social experience of living in the world in terms of membership in social communities and active involvement in social enterprises” (p 55 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ... the process of giving form to our experience by producing objects that congeal this experience into thingness” (p 58) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. CoPs and Work <ul><li>A CoP is now defined in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>What it is about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The activity/body of knowledge that the community has organized itself around - a joint enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How it functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How people are linked through their involvement in common activities - mutual engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What it produces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The set of resources the members of a CoP build up over time - their shared repertoire </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Web 2.0 and Communities of Practice Web 2.0 „ The long tail“ Use of Collective Intelligene Web as Platform <ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Del.icio.us </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon </li></ul>[Wenger 1998] [O‘ Reilly 2005]
    10. 10. Social Software Second Life <ul><li>Data is the Next Intel Inside -> Unique data </li></ul><ul><li>Users Add Value -> no restrictions, Inclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Network Effects by Default -> Collective Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Some Rights Reserved </li></ul><ul><li>-> Standards, Remix </li></ul><ul><li>The Perpetual Beta -> Smaller modular Components </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperate, Don't Control -> Light Web Services, Loose Syndication of data and systems (RSS, Mash-ups) </li></ul><ul><li>Software Above the Level of a Single Device </li></ul><ul><li>-> Software mobile and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>The Long Tail -> Small Communities </li></ul>O‘Reilly: What is Web 2.0?, 2005 7 WOW 70 MySpace 171 Skype 120 MSN Space 11 LiveJournal 4 Wikipedia 3 Second Life Akteure (in Millionen, Stand Ende 2006) Social Software
    11. 11. Social Software and Communities: The Long Tail & Fragmentation <ul><li>The Web is a scale free, fragmented network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Laws (Pareto Distribution etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>95 % of users are in the long tail (Communities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration and Learning is based on trust and passion </li></ul></ul>Islands Tendrils IN Continent Central Core OUT Continent Tubes Barabasi: Linked – The New Science of Networks, 2002 Anderson: The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, 2006
    12. 12. Competences in CoPs <ul><li>Social structures reinforce or hinder innovation activities and diffusion [Rizova06, MIT Sloan Management Review] </li></ul><ul><li>4 crucial elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open communication pattern and low degree of formal reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong and sustained project support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of a technical star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaks ”technical languages” fluently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable for team and company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of a managerial star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well connected within </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knows how to play politics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The conditions must interact to reinforce each other </li></ul>
    13. 13. Competences in Social Networks a) Technical Star b) Organizational Star Figure: MIT Sloan School Review
    14. 14. Technical Star in Blog
    15. 15. Organizational Star in Blog
    16. 16. StarDiscovery: Competence Management Tool
    17. 17. Web 2.0 Competence Management
    18. 18. Conclusions and Outlook <ul><li>Communities of practice as competence management resource </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 and Social Software offers new forms of participations for companies </li></ul><ul><li>Technical and Organizational Competences can be analyzed within communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>StarDiscovery Tool and Web 2.0 Environment for companies </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies with the tool in the near future </li></ul>

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