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What Does the Future Hold for e-Assessment?


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Presentation given by Martin Ripley at eAssessment Scotland 2010

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What Does the Future Hold for e-Assessment?

  1. 1. What does the future hold for e-assessment?<br />Martin Ripley<br />World Class Arena Ltd<br /><br />
  2. 2. Development and adoption of project<br />Cisco, Intel, Microsoft joint contribution to improve education<br />Joint company taskforce – 9 members<br />Dr Robert Kozma as consultant<br />Aim to improve 21st century skills<br />Define them clearly<br />Make them measurable<br />Connect with the classroom<br />Cisco, Intel Microsoft now supporting an international team<br />
  3. 3. Assessment in 21st Century<br />Existing models of assessment are typically at odds with the skills, knowledge, attitudes and characteristics of self-directed and collaborative learning that are increasingly important for our global economy and fast changing world. <br />New assessments are needed that measure these skills and provide information that is needed by students, teachers, parents, administrators, and policymakers to catalyze and support systemic education reform. <br />These assessments should engage students in the use of technology and digital resources and the application of a deep understanding of subject knowledge to solve complex, real world tasks and create new ideas, content, and knowledge.<br />Intel, Microsoft, and Cisco Education Taskforce<br />Transforming Education: <br />Assessing and Teaching the Skills Needed in the 21st Century<br />A Call to Action <br />
  4. 4. Engagement of countries and other companies<br />Founder Countries<br />Australia, Finland, Portugal, Singapore, UK, USA<br />Other countries can join<br />Collaborative electronic space<br />Other companies can fund work<br />If it fits the project’s program<br />If the company has relevant expertise<br />If the company agrees thatall results will be in the public domain, asCisco, Intel and Microsoft have.<br />
  5. 5. White papers developed in 2009 by working groups<br />Defining 21st Century Skills<br />Ms Senta Raizen, WestEd<br />Methodological Issues<br />Dr Mark Wilson, University of California, Berkeley<br />Technological Issues<br />Dr Beno Csapo, University of Szeged, Hungary<br />Classrooms and Formative Evaluation. <br />Dr John Bransford, University of WashingtonDr Marlene Scardamalia, University of Toronto<br />Policy Frameworks for New Assessments <br />Dr Linda Darling-Hammond, Stanford University<br />
  6. 6. Defining 21st Century Skills<br />
  7. 7. Defining 21st Century Skills<br />
  8. 8. Defining 21st Century Skills<br />
  9. 9. Defining 21st Century Skills<br />Conceptual structure<br />Ways of thinking<br />Creativity and innovation<br />Critical thinking, problem solving<br />Learning to learn, metacognition<br />Ways of working<br />Communication<br />Collaboration (teamwork)<br />Tools for working<br />Information literacy<br />ICT literacy<br />Living in the world<br />Citizenship – local and global<br />Life and career<br />Personal, social responsibility<br />
  10. 10. A framework for 21st century skills<br />Assessments signal priorities for curriculum and instruction <br />Teachers model the pedagogical approach<br />Curriculum developers respond<br />Schools and teachers tend to focus on what is tested rather than underlying standards or learning goals<br />May encourage a one-time performance orientation and transmission-type teaching<br />Instructional/teaching time is diverted to specific test preparation activities<br />
  11. 11. WCAL research<br />Collaborative problem solving<br />
  12. 12. Participation skills<br />Low<br />Peripheral participation<br />Low subjective responsibility for outcomes of collaboration, leading to lurking behaviour<br />Simple epistemological beliefs (knowledge is perceived as fixed and to be transmitted from teacher/textbook to learner)<br />Middle<br />Activity in scaffolded environments <br />Responding to cues in communication<br />Medium subjective responsibility for outcomes of collaboration<br />Developed epistemological beliefs (knowledge is perceived as fixed, but can be elaborated through communication and collaboration)<br />High<br />Initiating and promoting interaction<br />Activating and scaffolding others in participation<br />Ensuring equal participation rates among group members<br />High subjective responsibility for outcomes of collaboration<br />Sophisticated epistemological beliefs (knowledge is perceived as fluid, constructed, and inherently social/collaborative in nature)<br />
  13. 13. Perspective taking skills<br /> Low<br />Low levels of empathy<br />High egocentric bias<br />Social projection (expectation of others as highly similar to oneself)<br />Ignoring contributions from others<br />Contributions are not tailored to participants<br />Middle<br />Medium levels of empathy<br />Medium level of egocentric bias<br />Receptive ability (being able to understand what others want to convey, e.g. from overhearing)<br />Contributions from others are taken into account<br />Contributions are moderately tailored to recipients<br />High<br />High levels of empathy<br />Low or no egocentric bias<br />Contributions from others are embraced and contextualized with respect to collaborators’ opinions and skills<br />Eliciting contributions from others (e.g. through questions)<br />Contributions are tailored to recipients (audience design)<br />
  14. 14. Task regulation skills<br />Low<br />Trial and error hypothesis testing<br />Unorganized sequence of solution attempts<br />Little or no goal setting<br />Variety of taskwork mental models will be ignored<br />Middle<br />Forward search through a problem space<br />Organized sequence of solution attempts<br />Setting of unspecific goals<br />Variety of taskwork mental models will be taken into account<br />High<br />Reflective regulation<br />Forward and backward search through a problem space<br />Strategic oversight over collaborative strategy<br />Setting of specific goals<br />Variety of taskwork mental models will be harnessed productively<br />
  15. 15. Knowledge building skills<br />Low<br />Knowledge telling<br />Sharing of information<br />Isolated contributions<br />Lack of argumentation patterns<br />Middle<br />Critical analysis of information<br />Building on input from others<br />Adding information/data<br />Forming of incomplete arguments<br />High<br />Knowledge transforming<br />Integration and synthesis of multiple artefacts <br />Forming of complete, proper arguments (explanatory coherence) <br />
  16. 16. Social regulation skills<br />Low<br />Low tolerance for ambiguity<br />Competitive or individualistic social value orientation<br />Low readiness to negotiate joint understanding<br />Tendency to withdraw after conflict arises<br />Middle<br />Cooperative social value orientation<br />Attempts to negotiate joint understanding<br />Conflicts will be avoided<br />Initiation of compromises<br />High<br />Pro-social attitudes<br />Strategies for conflict resolution<br />Conflicts are regarded as productive tensions<br />Initiation of successful compromises<br />
  17. 17. WCAL research<br />Collaborative problem solving<br />A simple task (i.e. one we don’t want)<br />
  18. 18. WCAL research<br />More complex problem solving model<br />
  19. 19. WCAL research<br />Collaborative problem solving<br />A complex task (parallel rather than serial processes)<br />
  20. 20. Sample task<br />
  21. 21. WCAL approach<br />
  22. 22. Sample task<br />
  23. 23. Sample task<br />