Drought Iran


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Drought Iran

  1. 1. Presentation on Drought Mitigation 28-29th August, 2001 -Tehran<br />MANAGEMENT OF DROUGHT IN INDIA<br />By<br />VASU<br />
  2. 2. Country Profile<br />Population : 1027.0 Million<br />Rural Population: About 72%<br />Population growth (1991-2001) : 21.34 %<br />Area : 328.7 million hectares<br />Net Area Sown : 142.2 million hectares<br />Net Irrigated Area : 55.10 million hectares<br />States/UTs : 28 States (provinces) and 7 Union Territories<br />
  3. 3. Country’s Vulnerability to Drought<br />33 per cent area receives rainfall less than 750mm -chronically drought prone<br />35 per cent area receive rainfall between750-1125 mm- drought prone <br />Total 68 % area of the country prone to drought in varying degrees <br />
  4. 4. Rainfall distribution<br />India receives its annual rainfall in four spells:<br />Pre-Monsoon(March-May)----10.4 %<br />SouthWest Monsoon(Jun-Sept)--73.3%<br />NorthEast Monsoon(Oct-Dec)- 13.3%<br />Winter Rains (January-Feb.)-- 3.0 %<br />
  5. 5. Definition of Drought<br />Many definitions of drought available<br />“actual moisture supply at a given place consistently falls short of the climatically expected moisture supply”<br />“ a period of dry weather of sufficient length and severity to cause at least partial crop failure “ <br />
  6. 6. Definition of Drought<br />Common accepted definition is:<br />“ a temporary reduction in water or moisture availability significantly below the normal or expected level for a specified period “<br />“ a creeping situation of scarcity without recharging of resources “<br />
  7. 7. Drought Classification<br />Meteorological--significant decrease from normal precipitation over an area<br />Hydrological drought: marked depletion of surface water and fall in water tables <br />Agricultural Drought:soil moisture and rainfall inadequate to support crops<br />
  8. 8. Drought Proofing Programmes<br />Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP)-180 districts of 16 States (Rs. 19.0 billion)<br /><ul><li>Desert Development Programme (DDP) -40 districts of 7 States (Rs. 8.5 billion)
  9. 9. Watershed approach : a geo-hydrological approach for in situ soil and water conservation (Rs. 22.6 billion)</li></li></ul><li>Drought Management<br />Critical parameters:<br />Availability of Drinking water<br />Sustenance of Economic activity<br />Availability of Food-reasonable price<br />Health and Nutrition-vulnerable sections<br />Conservation of Livestock<br />
  10. 10. Drought Management-India<br />Employment Generation Programmes<br />Food For Work Programme (FFWP)<br /> Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) (Rs. 16.0 billion)<br />Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) (Rs. 16.5 billion) *<br />Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) (Rs. 25.0 billion)<br />Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) (Rs. 5.0 billion) *<br />
  11. 11. Drought Management- India<br />Social Security Programme<br />Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)<br />National Old Age Programme (NOAP)<br />Annapurna Scheme (Rs. 3.0 billion)<br />Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)<br />Mid Day Meal - School children<br />
  12. 12. Drought Management-Good Practices<br />In place contingency action plan<br />Monitoring of Rainfall and likely drought scenario from the beginning by Natural Disaster Management Division<br />Timely declaration of drought and initiation of drought relief measures <br />Effective coordination between Centre and States-Central Teams<br />
  13. 13. Drought Management-Good Practices<br />Monitoring by Group of Ministers and the Prime Minister at political level<br /> Constant Monitoring by Group of Secretaries under Cabinet Secretary <br />National Crop Forecasting Centre (NCFC) and Crop Weather Watch Group<br />Warning and forecasting by India Met Department (IMD)<br />
  14. 14. Drought Management-Good Practices<br />1978 exploratory bore wells handed over by CGWB for augmenting water supply<br />Free transportation of drinking water by Railways-19009 wagons and Fodder -386 wagons<br />Guidelines relaxed under Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP)<br />At least one source of drinking water earmarked in each habitat<br />
  15. 15. Drought Management-Good Practices<br />2.2 million MT Foodgrains free of cost for Food for Work Programme<br />440 million additional man-days generated for drought mitigation<br />Advance release of funds under drought mitigation related schemes<br />Expansion of social security schemes<br />
  16. 16. Drought Management-Good Practices<br />Special care of vulnerable sections like children, pregnant and lactating mothers, old and infirm<br />Opening of cattle camps and subsidised fodder<br />Association of NGOs and UN Agencies<br />Use of Information Technology- web sites e-mail for communication<br />
  17. 17. Management system Institutional mechanism<br />Natural Disaster’s management responsibility of State Governments<br />Union Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments by providing financial and logistic support<br />Set up at the National Level<br /> Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC) - Nodal Department<br />
  18. 18. Management system Institutional mechanism<br />National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) under Cabinet Secretary<br />Crisis Management Group under Central Relief Commissioner (CRC) in the DAC<br />Krishi Control Room- to monitor the situation regularly<br />Constitution of Ministerial-level Body for expeditious decision making<br />
  19. 19. Financial arrangements<br />Ready availability of funds with the State Governments in the form of Calamity Relief Fund(CRF)<br />State wise allocation in CRF based on the recommendations of the Finance Commissions-Rs. 21 .0 billion for 2001-02<br />CRF sharing between Central and State Government in the ratio of 3:1<br />
  20. 20. Financial arrangements<br />Additional assistance provided in the wake of disaster of severe nature from National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF)-released Rs. 20.0 billion<br />Funds are also available from many on-going Plan Schemes of the Central and State Governments <br />
  21. 21. Community Participation<br />Community participation is key to effectiveness of Governments efforts<br />Gram Sabha/Panchayat recommend relief work<br />Districts & Block level committees involved in sanctioning and monitoring of relief works<br />NGOs play a significant role training and motivation<br />
  22. 22. External Assistance-Policy<br />No formal appeal is issued on behalf of the Government, directly or through any other agency, for assistance<br />Relief offered on voluntary basis accepted and acknowledged as a sign of international solidarity <br />Areas of assistance are Nutrition, Health, Community capacity, Water harvesting etc.<br />
  23. 23. Drought a Management Issue<br />Country experience is that-<br />Drought can be prevented<br />Drought can be mitigated<br />Hardships can be minimised<br />Sufferings can be reduced<br /> If we at all levels work together<br /> Drought is not a Disaster but<br /> a Management Issue<br />
  24. 24. THANKS<br />