WHAT ARE INCENTIVES? <ul><li>An incentive is defined as: </li></ul>1. An object, person or situation that is viewed as capable of reducing the drive of an organism to satisfy a need. 2. An external stimulus or rewards that pull us toward certain actions. 3. Something that encourages or motivates somebody to do action or to do something.
Classification of Incentives 1. Remunerative Incentive (financial incentive)- It is said to exist where an agent can expect some form of material reward. 2. Moral Incentive- It is said to exist where a particular choice is widely regarded as the right thing to do. 3. Coercive Incentive- It is said to exist where a person can expect that the failure to act in a particular way will result in physical force by others.
= explains motivation in terms of the nature of the external stimuli, the incentives that direct and energize behavior. = emphasizes the motivational role of external events or objects of desire. = focus especially on the relationship of learning and experience to the control of motivation. I N C E N T I V E States that individuals are motivated to attain positive incentives and avoid the negative ones. T H E O R y
Incentive value This is the value of a goal above and beyond its ability to fill a need. *High-incentive value goal *Low-incentive value goal Some goals are so desirable that they motivate behavior in the absence of an internal need. Other goals are so low in incentive value that they will be rejected even though they might meet the internal need. Need Drive Response Need Drive Response
Two-incentive related systems: Wanting is the anticipation of pleasure, as in the cravings that you experience when you think ahead to a delicious meal. Liking is the pleasure that you experience in the moment that you begin to eat that meal.
BEHAVIOR vs. MOTIVES <ul><li>The way motives are expressed is not the same in every person, nor in every culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The same motive may be indicated through a different behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Different motives may be shown through like/same behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The manifested behavior may be a representative of an unconscious motive. </li></ul><ul><li>One motive may be a result of several motives. </li></ul>Explaining their relationship
Incentives and Goals? Incentives are objects or events that are valued. However, people will not necessarily be willing to work to obtain everything that has incentive value. THEREFORE Goals are always incentives, but incentives may or may not be also be goals.
Fast Facts <ul><li>Drive does not necessarily get stronger when need gets stronger. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive incentives attract behavior; negative ones repel. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms seek to fulfill needs even when incentives are not apparent. </li></ul><ul><li>The activation of drive leads to random behavior. In the course of behavior, the organism accidentally performs a response that reduces a drive. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual motivation in man is incentive-related, rather than need-related. </li></ul>