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Motivation Concepts


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Motivation Concepts

  1. 1. Motivation Concepts Motivation Concepts
  2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Outline the motivation process </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Maslow’s needs hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors </li></ul><ul><li>List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the types of goals that increase performance </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss ways self-efficacy can be increased </li></ul><ul><li>State the impact of under rewarding employees </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the key relationships in expectancy theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Motivation? <ul><li>The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity 強度 – how hard a person tries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction 方向– one that benefits the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence 持續性– how long the effort is maintained </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 需求層次理論
  5. 5. Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it </li></ul><ul><li>Must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction </li></ul><ul><li>Place security above all factors and will display little ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>View work as being as natural as rest or play </li></ul><ul><li>Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Can make innovative decisions on their own </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two-Factor Theory 兩因子理論 High High Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction 0 Hygiene factors ( 保健因子 ) affect job dissatisfaction Motivator factors ( 激勵因子 ) affect job satisfaction <ul><li>Quality of supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Company policies </li></ul><ul><li>Physical working conditions 物質的工作條件 </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with others </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for personal growth 個人成長機會 </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition 受肯定 </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul>
  7. 7. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 兩因子理論 <ul><li>Managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>If a manager wants to motivate people on their jobs, he should emphasize factors associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. McClelland's Theory of Needs <ul><li>Need for achievement (nAch) 成就需求 - drive to excel </li></ul><ul><li>Need for power (nPow) 權力需求 - the need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise </li></ul><ul><li>Need for affiliation (nAff) 親和需求 - the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships </li></ul>
  9. 9. McClelland's Theory of Needs <ul><li>High achievers prefer jobs with personal responsibility , feedback , and intermediate degree of risk 中度風險 . </li></ul><ul><li>High achievers are not necessarily good managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Low need for affiliation and high need for power closely related to managerial success </li></ul><ul><li>Employees can be trained to stimulate their achievement need. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Evaluation Theory 認知評價論 <ul><li>Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal rewards ( 語言的褒揚 ) increase intrinsic motivation, while tangible rewards ( 實質的獎酬 ) undermine ( 減損 ) it </li></ul>
  11. 11. Goal-Setting Theory 目標設定論 <ul><li>Specific goals lead to increased performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher output than easy goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-generated feedback ( 自己給予的回饋訊息 ) is a more powerful motivator than externally generated feedback ( 外在給予的回饋訊息 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Influences on goal-performance relationship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task characteristics ( 愈簡單、熟練與獨立的目標愈有效 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National culture </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Management by Objectives (MBO) <ul><li>Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Common ingredients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal specificity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance feedback </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Self-Efficacy Theory 自我效能理論 <ul><li>Refers to an individual’s belief that they are capable of performing a task </li></ul><ul><li>Ways self-efficacy can be increased: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enactive mastery 曾經熟練的– gain experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicarious modeling 設身假想他人的模仿– see someone else do the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal persuasion – someone convinces you that you have the skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arousal 覺醒– get energized </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Equity Theory <ul><li>Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome). </li></ul><ul><li>Then they compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Equity Theory
  16. 16. Choices when perceived inequity <ul><li>Change their inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Change their outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Distort perceptions of self </li></ul><ul><li>Distort perceptions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a different referent ( 比較的對象 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the field </li></ul>
  17. 17. Forms of justice 公平正義的類型
  18. 18. Expectancy Theory 期望理論
  19. 19. Theories are Often Culture-Bound <ul><li>Most motivation theories were developed in the U.S. by Americans and about Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Not all cultures have the same characteristics as American culture </li></ul><ul><li>Many cultures desire interesting work and other factors </li></ul>
  20. 20. Implications for Managers <ul><li>Look beyond need theories </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting leads to higher productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational justice has support </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy theory’s power in explaining productivity increases </li></ul>