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  • John was the son of Frank Lindh, a Catholic lawyer, and Marilyn Walker, a health-care worker who became a Buddhist. He grew up in Maryland and was the second of three children. When John was 10, his family moved to Marin County, California – an affluent, socially liberal community north of San Francisco – where he attended an alternative school for self-directed students. At 16, John became interested in Islam and joined a local mosque. After graduating from high school, he moved to the Middle East. Two years later, in November of 2001, he was a captured Taliban prisoner of war in Afghanistan, charged with bearing arms against American troops. What led this young man to surrender all that was familiar in search of a new religion and culture? At a time when his peers were consumed by sports, music, school, and romance, what inspired him to leave his family, his home, and his country, and dedicate his life to Islam? At about the same time, news of a business scandal rocked Houston, Texas. Enron was one of the world’s largest energy trading companies, marketing electricity and natural gas. In 2000, Enron’s revenues topped 101 billion. One year later, the company filed for bankruptcy, forcing CEO Kenneth Lay to resign and causing thousands of workers to lose their life savings in retirement plans. Government investigators soon alleged that some company executives engaged in illegal transactions, broke basic rules of accounting, misled investors, and shredded documents as part of a cover up. Why would millionaires who already have more money than they could reasonably spend in a lifetime break the law and harm others for MORE financial gain? On a lighter note, but also puzzling, I cannot help but wonder about the behaviors that seemingly ordinary people display on ‘reality tv’ shows such as Survivor or Fear Factor. To be honest, I can’t really even stomach to watch that show but my roommate loves it and I have seen some CRAZY things. In one episode….. This all begs the question…WHY do people do these things?? Hopefully by the end of this chapter, we’ll have a greater understanding for why people do the things that they do!
  • Motivation

    1. 1. Motivation “ Hope is a good thing - maybe the best thing. And good things never die.” Andy Duphrene The Shawshank Redemption
    2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>An inner state (either a need or desire) that energizes & directs us and keeps us moving toward our goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why we do what we do </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Instinct Theory <ul><li>Instincts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherited tendencies to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freud: instincts toward sex/aggression (i.e. the id) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theory: we are ‘hard-wired’ to reproduce and perpetuate genetic makeup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 flaws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circular logic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many so-called instinctual behaviors are learned, shaped, and influenced by those around us </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Drive-Reduction Theory <ul><li>Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A motivation that pushes you to reach a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension induced by need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food, water, sex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal is to reduce the tension and restore homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis: A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flaw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive-reduction theory can’t explain behavior that increases, rather than reduces, stress </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Additional Theories <ul><li>Arousal Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimum level of bodily arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies show that too little arousal and we get bored; too much arousal and we withdraw, in an effort to lower our levels of arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incentive Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are motivated to behave in ways that produce a valued incentive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives work when we expect that we can gain the incentive and when we value the incentive </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. What DO motivation theorists agree on? <ul><li>The amazing diversity of human behavior! </li></ul>Biological Hunger Thirst Sex Temperature Excretion Sleep/Activity Aggression Social Achievement Affiliation Autonomy Nurturance Dominance Exhibition Order Play
    7. 7. More Theories on Motivation <ul><li>Maslow’s hierarchy of needs </li></ul>Physiological Safety & Security Belongingness & Love Esteem Cognitive & Aesthetic needs Self-actualization
    8. 8. A closer look . . . at hunger <ul><li>Influenced by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood sugar level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose - a simple sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dips in glucose levels lead to increases in hunger </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The lateral hypothalamus ‘starts’ the feeling of hunger, the ventromedial hypothalamus ‘stops’ feelings of hunger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin - must be present to extract glucose from blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin stimulates the storage of food molecules as fat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set point – the particular body weight that is easiest for an animal to maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are relatively constant but can go up with prolonged over-eating (but does not tend to go down with prolonged under-eating) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. A Closer Look . . . at hunger <ul><li>If it were only that simple… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors which influence hunger/eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learned preferences & habits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STRESS!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s “dinnertime” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary restraints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with eating can result in all sorts of problems . . . </li></ul>
    10. 10. Problems with eating <ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 20% above norm for height/build </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can’t lose fat cells, only shrink them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal metabolic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rate at which body burns calories just to stay alive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic activity will increase basal metabolic rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating disorder marked by self-starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating disorder marked by binging & purging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BOTH caused by combo of brain & social malfunctioning </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Affiliation Motive <ul><li>Need to associate with others & maintain social bonds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baumeister & Leary’s Sociometer hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-esteem is a measure of how well we fit in with the group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important because social bonds offer survival & reproductive benefits </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Achievement Motive <ul><li>Need to master difficult challenges, outperform others, & meet high standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior depends on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy </li></ul></ul></ul>