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  1. 1. Behave for A Change Office of State Personnel
  2. 2. Today’s Discussion <ul><li>The Change Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Change and Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Why People Resist Change </li></ul><ul><li>Kotter’s 8 Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Mistakes </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Change Situation <ul><li>Change hasn’t changed </li></ul><ul><li>Change upsets our understanding of the the reality of things </li></ul><ul><li>Change requires risks </li></ul><ul><li>Change unhinges us – it requires new behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Change threatens us on all levels </li></ul>
  4. 4. Change… <ul><li>Is a process, not an event </li></ul><ul><li>Is made by individuals, then organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Is a highly personal experience for those involved </li></ul><ul><li>Involves gradual growth in feelings and skills </li></ul>
  5. 5. It Isn’t the Changes That Do You In... It’s the Transitions <ul><li>Change is situational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move to a new site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganization of roles on the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revisions to the pension plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transition is psychological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has an emotional, feeling component </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Ending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin with the ending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letting go; identify and acknowledge the loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give people something to take with them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Neutral Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity, creativity, learning, involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The New Beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop new identity </li></ul></ul>3 Phases of Transition
  7. 7. Why Do People Resist? <ul><li>Feel they will suffer </li></ul><ul><li>Organization does not communicate clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive more work with few opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Required to give up ingrained habits </li></ul><ul><li>Organization lacks adequate rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Organization lacks sufficient resources </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit employee input </li></ul><ul><li>Script a clear, logical message </li></ul><ul><li>Provide rewards and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify new behaviors to support the change </li></ul><ul><li>Develop rewards aligned with the change </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize work based on available resources </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why Do People Resist? <ul><li>Loss of job security </li></ul><ul><li>Employees harbor unresolved resentments </li></ul><ul><li>Change has poor introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Organization has poor internal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate how employees and the organization will benefit from renewed relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Allow employees to express their grief </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge missteps; reaffirm commitment and clarify expectations & timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate communication tasks to one person/team </li></ul>
  9. 9. Producing change <ul><li>Is 80 percent leadership- establishing direction, aligning, motivating, and inspiring people- </li></ul><ul><li>And 20 percent management - planning, budgeting, organizing, and problem solving </li></ul>Unfortunately, in most of the change efforts, these percentages are reversed
  10. 10. What is change management? <ul><li>A structured process and set of tools </li></ul><ul><li>for leading the people side of change. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Change Management Improves Your Odds <ul><li>More than 70% of change efforts fail because of failure to focus on people issues </li></ul><ul><li>Why change efforts fail: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to change 82% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate sponsorship 72% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealistic expectations 65% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor project management 54% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate business case 46% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No change management program 43% </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Kotter’s 8 Stages of Change Management <ul><li>Increase Urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Build the Guiding Team </li></ul><ul><li>Get the Vision Right </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate for Buy-In </li></ul><ul><li>Empower Action </li></ul><ul><li>Create Short Term Wins </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Let Up </li></ul><ul><li>Make Changes Stick </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage 1: Increase Urgency <ul><li>Raise a feeling of urgency so folks say- </li></ul><ul><li>“let’s go”! </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Show others the need for change [use valid information and data] </li></ul><ul><li>Never underestimate how much complacency, fear and anger may exist </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stage 2: Build the Guiding Team <ul><li>Form a group that has the capability </li></ul><ul><li>to guide the change process </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Showing enthusiasm and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling trust and teamwork </li></ul>
  15. 15. Team Functions <ul><li>Task Orientation – Set clear and simple goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles - Assign a unique job to each team member. </li></ul><ul><li>Share Ideas – Brainstorm methods </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback – Share positive, frequent feedback on progress </li></ul><ul><li>High Expectations – Challenge team members to produce the best work possible </li></ul>
  16. 16. Managing Team Meetings <ul><li>Call meetings only when they are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Invite only only those persons needed </li></ul><ul><li>Keep meetings on track </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare an agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Make your goal a short meeting </li></ul>
  17. 17. Stage 3: Get The Vision Right <ul><li>Create the right vision and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>to guide action </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to see -literally- possible futures </li></ul><ul><li>Vision so clear- it can be articulated in one minute or written on 1 page </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stage 4: Communicate for Buy-In <ul><li>Communicate change vision and strategies to </li></ul><ul><li>create understanding and buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping communication simple and heartfelt- not complex and technical </li></ul><ul><li>Know what your folks are “feeling” </li></ul><ul><li>Speak to anxieties, fear, confusion, anger </li></ul>
  19. 19. Communicating the Change <ul><li>Identify the what and why of the change. </li></ul><ul><li>Target specific results. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t dump information on people. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcome questions and feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the feelings associated with the change </li></ul>
  20. 20. Communication Tips <ul><li>Give constructive feedback.  </li></ul><ul><li>Be tolerant of mistakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Praise in public, criticize in private. </li></ul><ul><li>Once you've delegated, never take it back (except in impending disaster!) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Remember this… SHOW ME I might remember INVOLVE ME I will never forget TELL ME I will forget
  22. 22. Stage 5: Empower Action <ul><li>Deal effectively with obstacles that block </li></ul><ul><li>action. </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Find folks with change experience who can state “we won and you can too” </li></ul>
  23. 23. Stage 6: Create Short-Term Wins <ul><li>Produce short-term wins to energize the change </li></ul><ul><li>helpers, enlighten pessimists, defuse cynics </li></ul><ul><li>and build momentum </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Early wins that come fast </li></ul><ul><li>Wins that are visible to as many people as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Wins that speak to powerful players whose support you need but do not yet have </li></ul>
  24. 24. Stage 7: Don’t Let Up <ul><li>Continue with wave after wave of change, </li></ul><ul><li>not stopping until the vision is a reality </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for ways to keep the urgency up </li></ul><ul><li>As always- show ‘em, show ‘em, show ‘em </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stage 8: Make Change Stick <ul><li>Be sure the changes are embedded so </li></ul><ul><li>that the new way of operating will stick </li></ul><ul><li>What Works: </li></ul><ul><li>Not stopping at Step 7- it isn’t over until the changes have roots </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The Four Most Popular Mistakes for Failure </li></ul>
  27. 27. Writing A Memo Instead of Lighting A Fire <ul><li>Change efforts fail at the first critical step - establishing a sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Too often leaders launch their initiatives by calling a meeting then expect people to “buy-in” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Talking Too Much and Saying Too Little <ul><li>Most leaders under-communicate their change vision by a factor of 10 </li></ul><ul><li>An effective change vision must include new, aligned behaviors on the part of senior executives </li></ul><ul><li>Leading by example </li></ul><ul><li>People watch their bosses very closely </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent behavior by a manager fuel the cynicism and frustration </li></ul>
  29. 29. Declaring Victory Before the War Is Over <ul><li>It is important to celebrate results but underestimating the difficulty and duration of organizational transformation can be catastrophic </li></ul><ul><li>If you settle for too little too soon, you will probably lose it all </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrating incremental improvements is good to mark progress and sustain commitment - but don't forget how much work is still needed </li></ul>
  30. 30. Looking For Villains In All The Wrong Places <ul><li>The perception that organizations are filled with managers who resist all change is not only unfair but untrue </li></ul><ul><li>People at every level are engaged in change processes </li></ul><ul><li>That's why it is crucial to build a guiding coalition that represents all levels of the organization </li></ul>
  31. 31. Points to Remember <ul><li>Change takes time and persistence </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals go through stages in the change process </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have different needs at different stages </li></ul><ul><li>Successful change efforts require planning, organization, resources and action </li></ul><ul><li>Change is more likely to occur when a team is given responsibility for managing implementation </li></ul>
  32. 32. References <ul><li>Kotter, John P., (2002) The Heart of Change , Real Life Stories of How people Change Their Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges, William (2003) Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change 2 nd edition </li></ul>
  33. 33. Good Luck !