3D Visualization of DICOM datasets using a MakerBot


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3D Visualization of DICOM datasets using a MakerBot

  1. 1. Three Dimensional Radiologic Visualization and Modeling in Clinical Practice Kaylesh Pandya, OMS-IV Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><ul><li>Overview of diagnostic radiology technologies, shortfalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce Osirix DICOM viewer and demonstrate 3D reconstructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3D Printing and modeling of CT using a MakerBot </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><ul><li>Diagnostic radiology is a staple of most fields of medicine - guides both diagnosis and treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taught as a core competency starting in medical school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires understanding and knowledge of anatomy, imaging modality physics, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>'thinking in three dimensions while seeing in only two' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1.2% of US physicians are radiologists (AMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even fewer patients are radiologists! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating radiology findings between medical professionals and with patients can be difficult </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. DICOM Medical Imaging Format <ul><li>D igital  I maging and  CO mmunications in  M edicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry standard file format and network communication protocol for storing, retrieving, and manipulating medical imaging  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for centralized server storage of radiology studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PACS - P icture A rchiving and C ommunication S ystem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Mix and match&quot; DICOM viewers depending on specialty and modality: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MRI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PET / PET-CT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U/S </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone Scan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Imaging studies <ul><ul><li>Radiology modalities and technologies are evolving, yet interpreting these studies has remained relatively static </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PACS systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2D viewing on-screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printed films </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside studies on CD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different viewers depending on the imaging center </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not be opened on hospital-owned computers (security settings) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to view radiologic imaging at point-of-care </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. OSIRIX - osirix-viewer.com <ul><ul><li>Full featured DICOM / PACS viewing system for Mac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free for non-medical use, $600 for FDA-approved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>iPad / iPhone version </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive 3D (4D, 5D) viewing capability in clinical context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can export and interoperate with 3D modeling formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same tools used in other industries & sciences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Reality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CNC Mills  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Prototyping </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MakerBot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P&O? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2D vs 3D Visualization of a CVA  <ul><li>B.E.: 70M c/o 3 days confusion, difficulty reading </li></ul><ul><li>CT: Large left-sided parietal-occipital hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>Neuro: Transcortical sensory aphasia </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3D Visualization of a Head Trauma <ul><li>20Y, unknown history (anonymized CT) </li></ul><ul><li>s/p L Decompressive Craniectomy </li></ul><ul><li>s/p L Inferior Orbit Reconstruction </li></ul>
  9. 9. 3D CT Reconstructions Using OSIRIX
  10. 10. 3D Modeling using a Makerbot <ul><li>Automated 3D Desktop printer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses ABS, PVA, PLA extruded through a heated nozzle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~$1500, sold as a DIY kit (similar to IKEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Open source design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows and encourages users to modify their Makerbot </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Makerbot 101 (makerbot.com)
  12. 12. Workflow for CT to MakerBot Data Transformation Resource <ul><li>Export CT to ‘Surface Rendered’ Object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick appropriate density level for imaging </li></ul></ul>Osirix (osirix-viewer.com) <ul><li>“ Clean up” 3D model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce detail level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in dead spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add scaffolding </li></ul></ul>Blender (blender.org) MeshLab (meshlab.sourceforge.net) SketchUp (sketchup.google.com Generate Machine Code and print to MakerBot ReplicatorG (replicat.org) MakerBot (makerbot.com
  13. 13. Applications and Implications <ul><li>Patient and family education </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical and Rehab planning </li></ul><ul><li>Medical education </li></ul><ul><li>Prosthetics and Orthotics prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>FDA – approved implantable parts in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>HIPAA issues of manufacturing 3D models? </li></ul><ul><li>Souvenirs? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Acknowledgements <ul><ul><li>Allhandsactive.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>@Ech0labs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew Oishii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blender.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hackerspaces.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>@hackerspaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>@i3detroit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i3detroit.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>@makerbot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wiki.makerbot.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osirix-viewer.com </li></ul></ul>