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Cancer

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Cancer

  1. 1. Cancer<br />Page 64<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />A. Demonstrate understanding of how cancer relates to cell division<br />B. Assess the risk factors that cause cancer<br />C. Explain how cancer progresses within the body<br />D. Distinguish the different types of cancers<br />E. Compare and contrast different cancer treatments<br />
  3. 3. What is Cancer?<br />Cells in the body that divide out of control<br />So What?<br />Displaces normal cells so they can not work<br />Who gets it?<br /> Males<br /> 1 in 2<br /> Females<br /> 1 in 3<br />
  4. 4. How Dangerous?<br />1 in 4 deaths is the U.S. are caused by cancer<br />How does it happen?<br />A cell changes its function<br />How do you do that?<br /> Change the proteins that a cell makes<br />How do you change a protein?<br /> Exposure to a mutagen<br />
  5. 5. How does a mutagen work?<br /> Causes a change in the DNA<br /> The sequence of letters is changed<br />Carcinogens?<br /> Anything that causes cancer<br />
  6. 6. Carcinogens<br />Radiation<br />1. Sunlight – <br /> 2. Soil –<br /> 3. Radon gas -<br /> 4. Food –<br /> 5. Nuclear Power – <br /> 6. Medical X rays –<br /> 7. Possible – <br /> Denver gets twice the U.S. ave.<br /> Colorado is four times U.S. ave.<br /> Four more than from sun<br /> Half the sun exposure<br /> Minimal exposure<br /> Equal to one year of sun<br /> Electric Power, Cell Phones, TV, Radio, Wireless internet<br />
  7. 7. Carcinogens<br />Chemical<br />Tobacco Smoke<br />53 known carcinogens<br /> 1 in 3 cancer deaths due to smoking<br />2. Pesticides, Herbicides, Solvents<br />
  8. 8. Carcinogens<br />Food<br />1. High saturated fat & low fiber diets<br />2. Salt<br />3. Obesity<br />4. Food additives<br /> i. Food Coloring - “Red Dye #2”<br /> ii. Sugar substitues - Saccharin<br />
  9. 9. Carcinogens<br />Other<br />1. Pollution<br />2. Viruses<br /> Hepatitis B, Papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr, HTLV-1<br />3. Heredity<br />4. Immunodeficiency<br /> Healthy immune system keeps in check<br />
  10. 10. Progression<br />Initial mutation<br />66<br />
  11. 11. Progression<br />2. Tumor<br />66<br />
  12. 12. Progression<br />3. Metastasis<br /> Cancer moves to a new site in the body<br />67<br />
  13. 13. Which cells?<br />Cell that already divide a lot for repair<br /> Skin, Lung, and intestinal cells (Colon)<br /> Males<br /> Prostate<br /> Females<br /> Breast<br />
  14. 14. Why so many?<br />Cancer is named by the original cell that started to grow out of control<br /> Carcinoma - Epithelial cell<br /> (skin, breast, lung, intestine)<br /> Sarcoma – Muscle/Connective tissue<br /> Leukemia - Blood cells<br />
  15. 15. Altered Genes<br />Cell Cycle Genes<br />1. Oncogenes<br /> - Rapid Cell Division<br /> Cancer cell turns these ON<br />2. Tumor-Suppressor Gene<br /> - Genes that stop cell division<br /> Cancer cell turns these OFF<br />
  16. 16. Current Treatments<br />1. Surgery - Cut out cells<br />2. Radiation - Kill cells<br />3. Drugs<br /> Chemotherapy - Stop cell division<br /> Hormone Therapy - Block hormones<br /> Bone Marrow Transplant - Replace all blood cells<br /> Block Angiogenesis - No new blood vessels<br /> Block Metastasis - Don’t let cells enter and level blood vessels<br />66<br />
  17. 17. Future Treatments<br />Immunotherapy - Kill cells with certain surface proteins<br />Gene Therapy - Replace mutated genes<br />

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