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Global warming and_the_greenhouse_effect

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  • Recently I found this interesting article about a study by Nasa on greenhouse effect http://www.paperleap.com/articles/en/greenhouse-gases-are-warming-the-world
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Global warming and_the_greenhouse_effect

  1. 1. MS. KOPCHICK’S EARTH SCIENCE CLASS THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT and GLOBAL WARMING
  2. 2. GREENHOUSE GASES REGULATE OUR CLIMATE BY TRAPPING HEAT AND HOLDING IT IN A KIND OF WARM-AIR BLANKET THAT SURROUNDS THE PLANET. WITHOUT IT, OUR AVERAGE TEMPERATURE WOULD BE COLDER BY 54 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT WAAAAAAAAAAAAAAY TO COLD TO SUSTAIN OUR CURRENT ECOSYSTEM! The Greenhouse Effect is a GOOD THING!
  3. 3. An increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases leads to an increase in the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced greenhouse effect) This causes our atmosphere to heat up faster than it does naturally. The Enhanced Greenhouse is a BAD THING!
  4. 4. Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. What is global warming?
  5. 5. THE PROBLEM WITH THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT IS WHEN HUMAN ACTIVITIES DISTORT AND ACCELERATE THE NATURAL PROCESS BY CREATING MORE GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE The “Enhanced” Greenhouse Effect
  6. 6. • CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) – Source: Fossil fuel burning, deforestation Anthropogenic increase: 30% Average atmospheric residence time: 500 years METHANE (CH4) – Source: Rice cultivation, cattle & sheep ranching, decay from landfills, mining Anthropogenic increase: 145% Average atmospheric residence time: 7-10 years Greenhouse Gases
  7. 7. NITROUS OXIDE (N2O) – Source: Industry and agriculture (fertilizers) Anthropogenic increase: 15% Average atmospheric residence time: 140-190 years WATER VAPOR (H2O) THE MOST IMPORTANT GREENHOUSE GAS!! SOURCES: EVAPORATION ANTHROPOGENIC INCREASE: 35 % Greenhouse Gases
  8. 8. BURNING NATURAL GAS, COAL, OIL RAISES THE LEVEL OF CO2 IN THE ATMOSPHERE SOME FARMING PRACTICES AND LAND-USE CHANGES INCREASES THE LEVELS OF METHANE AND NITROUS OXIDE MANY FACTORIES PRODUCE LONG LASTING INDUSTRIAL GASES THAT DO NOT OCCUR NATURALLY AND THOSE GASES ENHANCE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT More greenhouse gases means more heat trapped which increases the Earth’s temperature
  9. 9. DEFORESTATION: TREES USE CO2 AND GIVE OFF O2 IN WHICH HELPS TO CREATE THE OPTIMAL BALANCE OF GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE. AS MORE FORESTS ARE LOGGED FOR TIMBER OR CUT DOWN TO MAKE WAY FOR FARMING, THERE ARE FEWER TREES TO PERFORM THIS CRITICAL FUNCTION. IN ADDITION WHEN THIS WOOD IS BURNED IT PRODUCES EVEN MORE CO2 IN THE ATMOSPHERE. Even more ways these gases are added to the atmosphere!
  10. 10. AS MORE PEOPLE USE FOSSIL FUELS FOR HEAT, TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRY, THE LEVEL OF GREENHOUSE GASES CONTINUE TO INCREASE. AS MORE FARMING OCCURS TO FEED MILLIONS OF NEW PEOPLE, MORE GREENHOUSE GASES ENTER THE ATMOSPHERE Population Growth
  11. 11. albedo: ability of the earth's surface to reflect light Greenland and Antarctic- high albedo - light colored ice sheets reflect sunlight back into space-if they melt, more sunlight would be absorbed by oceans and warming would be accelerated. What is Albedo?
  12. 12. ICE How do scientists measure the increase of greenhouse gases?
  13. 13. Increased Temperature Rising Sea Level Effects of Global Warming due to the increase of greenhouse gases
  14. 14. Habitat Damage and Species Extinction Changes in water supply; contamination of fresh water Effects of Global Warming due to the increase of greenhouse gases
  15. 15. More severe storms; hurricanes and floods Droughts, changes in weather patterns Effects of Global Warming due to the increase of greenhouse gases
  16. 16. Portage Glacier Alaska then…. Portage Glacier Alaska now…. Results of Global Warming
  17. 17. Colorado River, Az June 2002 Colorado River, Az December 2003 Results of Global Warming
  18. 18. Just the Facts! A. Scientifically there is no debate: greenhouse gases have risen in recent years. This is directly related to human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation and the use of inorganic fertilizers. B. There has been a significant increase in Carbon Dioxide levels since 1750 and a huge increase since 1950 C. There is more CO2 in the atmosphere than there has been in the last 420,000 years and is rising at a rate of .5% per year D. The 20th century was the hottest century on record in the past 1,000 years. E. Since 1860 the average global temperature near Earth’s surface has risen by .6-.7 C with most of the increase occurring since 1946. F. The 15 warmest years on record since 1860 have occurred in the last two decades. The five hottest years on record before 2000 were 1998, 1997, 1995, 1990, and 1999
  19. 19. Dealing with the Threat of Global Warming 3 schools of thought: 1 No Problem is a minority view- global warming is not a threat but a hoax. 2. Wait and See- Wait until more info is available about the global climate system. Why spend hundreds of billions of dollars phasing out fossil fuels and replacing deforestation with reforestation to help ward off something that might not happen. 3 Precautionary principle- take action instead of doing research 4. As a result of uncertainties in climate models scientists estimate that the projections from current climate models for the next 50-100 years could be half wrong or twice the current projections
  20. 20. How can we, as a society, slow Global Warming? We must reduce current global CO2 emissions by 66-83% a. quickest and cheapest way is to use energy more efficiently b. increased use of nuclear energy c. using natural gas- help to make the 40-50 year transition to an age of energy efficiency and renewable energy d. phase out gov’t subsidies for fossil fuels over a decade/gradually phase in carbon taxes on fossil fuels
  21. 21. Continued.. e. shift to renewable energy sources f. reduce deforestation g. slow population growth h. reduce emissions of methane from leaking pipes and landfills i. Increase government subsidies for renewable resources
  22. 22. Economics • 1997- ECONOMISTS & Nobel laureates signed statement: • a. sound economic analysis shows that greenhouse emissions can be phased out without harming American living standards • b. calling for carbon taxes as part of an international system of tradable permits for greenhouse gas emissions • Carbon tax based on • polluter- pays principle- requires industries & consumers to pay directly for the full environmental costs of the fuels they use • agree to global & national limits on greenhouse gas emissions
  23. 23. Can Techno-Fixes Help? Techno-fixes- technological solutions for dealing with possible global warming Adding iron to oceans-would remove more CO2 through photosynthesis  Unfurling gigantic foil-surfaced sun mirrors in space to reduce solar input.  Injecting sunlight - reflecting sulfate particulates into the stratosphere - mimics cooling effects of giant volcanic eruptions Massive reforestation, we need to plant trees in an area the size of Australia Injecting CO2 into the ground or deep ocean
  24. 24. N S -waste less _energy__ -develop ____crops_ that need less water -move hazardous materials (storage tanks) away from the __coast -prohibit new construction or remolding on low-lying coastal areas -stockpile 1-5 years supply of key food -expand existing wild life reserves with corridors
  25. 25. What can YOU do to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions?
  26. 26. Wind Power Solar Power Educate and Use!!
  27. 27. Fuel Efficient Cars Compact Fluorescent Educate and Use!!
  28. 28. -TURN OFF YOUR COMPUTER OR THE TV WHEN YOU’RE NOT USING IT. UNPLUG PHONE/COMPUTER CHARGERS -TAKE SHORTER SHOWERS. HEATING WATER USES ENERGY. - KEEP ROOMS COOL BY CLOSING THE BLINDS, SHADES, OR CURTAINS, OR OPEN SHADES TO USE NATURAL LIGHT. -TURN OFF THE LIGHTS WHEN YOU LEAVE A ROOM. - USE COMPACT FLUORESCENT BULBS -COMPOST! Today YOU can….

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