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Coping With Stress


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Coping With Stress

  1. 1. Coping With Stress Katie Killby
  2. 2. Stress <ul><li>Stress is a subjective sensation associated with varied symptoms that differ for each of us. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is not always a synonym for distress. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress increases productivity up to a point, after which things rapidly deteriorate. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental and physical health are aspects of functioning that are most strongly influenced by exposure to stress. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of Stress in Children
  4. 4. Sources of Stress by Age <ul><li>Infancy and early childhood: Stressors come from the environment </li></ul><ul><li>School age: In addition to environmental stressors, sources of stress also include school, peers, and neighborhood variables. Stressors can impact a child’s sense of security, dignity and honor, or sense of self-worth. A stress that is becoming more prominent for school-age children is the pressure related to high stakes testing and overbooked extracurricular schedules. </li></ul><ul><li>Early adolescence: Developmental milestones such as puberty, school level transitions, and peer relationships become primary sources of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Late adolescence: Children are required to transition from dependence on the family to reliance on oneself and one’s friends. With independence come financial and social stressors related to higher education, career, building a family, and family relationships. (Copeland, 2004) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Grant, Compas, Thurm, McMahon, & Ey, (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Found that psychosocial stress is a significant and pervasive risk factor for psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>The ways in which children and adolescents cope with stress are potentially important mediators and moderators of the impact of stress on current and future adjustment and psychopathology. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaplan, Liu, Kaplan (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Found a negative relationship between student perceived school-related stress and academic performance. </li></ul><ul><li>University of Washington (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Found that a single exposure to uncontrollable stress impairs decision making in rats for several days. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms of Stress in Children <ul><li>Irritability or unusual emotionality or volatility. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep difficulty or nightmares. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to concentrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in grades or other functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Toileting or eating concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches or stomachaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplained fears or increased anxiety (that also can take the form of clinging). </li></ul><ul><li>Regression to earlier developmental levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation from family activities or peer relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug or alcohol experimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>(Copeland, 2004) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Coping <ul><li>Lazarus and Folkman (1984) defined coping as &quot;constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person&quot; (p. 141). </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary vs Involuntary Response </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament, Reactivity and Self-Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Subtypes of Coping </li></ul><ul><li>(Compass et al., 2001) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Building Resilience to Stress <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decreasing sources of stress in school environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing the coping skills of all students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Targeted Intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helping the individual change the source of stress, or teaching specific coping skills to help the child adapt to a situation that cannot be changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Hess, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. School Psychologist’s Role <ul><li>Be familiar with with common stressors in your district </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture of Classrooms, School & Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforce the importance of clear, consistent, and reasonable expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Teach problem-solving & coping skills </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce stress prevention and reduction strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Educate administration and faculty on mental health issues for students and staff (Hess, 2006) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problem Solving & Coping Skills <ul><li>Allow student to express difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use their experiences as a lesson guide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach problem solving & coping skills by modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Use cognitive restructuring & coping statements </li></ul><ul><li>Provide scenarios for students to practice learned skills </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with practical skills such as prioritizing, organizing, and self-advocating </li></ul><ul><li>A good resource for finding new and effective mental health programs is </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stress Prevention & Reduction Techniques <ul><li>Take a break from stressful situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities like listening to music, exercising, talking to a friend, drawing, writing, or spending time with a pet can reduce stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autogenic relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive muscle relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul>
  12. 12. Practice Click on flower!