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Self Efficacy Presentation


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I presented this powerpoint in my seminar class at Bridgewater State College in May 2009.

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Self Efficacy Presentation

  1. 1. BY: KATELYN KERVIN Self-Efficacy Theory
  2. 3. History/Orientation <ul><li>Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic & ongoing process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors, environmental factors, human behavior exert influence upon each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors influence likelihood of changed behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy, goals & outcome expectancies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Self-efficacy is a construct in SCT </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura: Most important personal factor in behavior change </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for increasing self-efficacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting goals, behavioral contracting, monitoring and reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Early Research <ul><li>Bandura focused on extraordinary symbolizing capacity of humans. </li></ul><ul><li>When people symbolize their experiences it gives structure, meaning & continuity to their lives. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Common Theme <ul><li>Emphasis given to one’s sense of personal efficacy to produce and regulate events in one’s lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary determinants of human behavioral change are outcome expectancies & efficacy expectancies. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Outcome & Efficacy Expectancy <ul><li>Outcome expectancy is the probability that engaging in a specific behavior will lead to a specific outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacy expectancy refers to the belief that one is capable of completing the desired behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Development of Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Primitive times, people had limited understanding of the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed supernatural agents who were believed to have control over their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People practiced elaborate rituals in an attempt to gain favor from or protection against the supernatural powers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even in contemporary life, people tend to call upon superstitious rituals to sway outcomes in their favor. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Rational <ul><li>System of self-efficacy is foundation of human motivations & personal achievements. </li></ul><ul><li>If people don't believe they can achieve a desired outcome from their actions, they have little to no incentive to act, or continue action when presented with difficulties. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Constructs <ul><li>Personal mastery (performance accomplishments) </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal encouragement (verbal persuasion) </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious mastery (vicarious experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic & emotional states (physiological information) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Personal Mastery <ul><li>PRACTICING! </li></ul>
  11. 12. Vicarious Mastery <ul><li>Ability to see others perform successfully </li></ul>
  12. 13. Verbal Persuasion <ul><li>Most often used source: very easy to use </li></ul>
  13. 14. Physiological and Emotional States <ul><li>People can expect to be more successful when they are not stressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress can have a negative effect upon SE </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Key Study <ul><li>Bobo Doll Study </li></ul><ul><li>Young female </li></ul><ul><li>Beating a bobo doll. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Variations on Bobo Doll Study <ul><li>Model being rewarded or punished </li></ul><ul><li>Kids were rewarded for their imitations </li></ul><ul><li>Model was changed to be less attractive/less prestigious. </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on motivation </li></ul>
  16. 17. Motivation <ul><li>Past reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Promised reinforcement (incentives that we can imagine) </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious reinforcement (seeing and recalling the model being reinforced) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcements: past punishment, promised punishment & vicarious punishment </li></ul>
  17. 18. Key Study #2 <ul><li>Control Theory Vs. Self Efficacy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Control theory asserts that self-awareness plays an important role in self-regulation; the self-efficacy theory does not. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Manipulations <ul><li>Self-efficacy expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul>
  19. 20. Results <ul><li>Did not support either self-efficacy theory or control theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacy, outcome & self-awareness expectancies all contribute to persistence. </li></ul><ul><li>The results of this study largely supported predictions derived from self-efficacy theory. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Weaknesses <ul><li>Non experimental designs can only suggest how behavior might be controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental designs: know if & how psychosocial variables might be manipulated to effect behavior change. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants in nutritional study were affected by their own expectations of negative self-evaluation. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Strengths <ul><li>As self-efficacy improves in interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative outcome expectations would be offset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulatory behavior boosted leading to healthier food choices </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Criticisms <ul><ul><li>Argue SE is a cause of behavior, not merely a predictor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest theory predicts that it is student interest in a subject that predicts student achievement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution theory </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Survey <ul><li>5 point scale: “Very confident,” “confident,” “neither confident nor not confident,” “not confident,” and “very not confident.” </li></ul><ul><li>25 questions total, assessing the four constructs </li></ul>
  24. 25. Subjects <ul><li>30 student-athlete adolescents from a local north shore high school. </li></ul><ul><li>Ages ranged from 14-18 yrs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16 females & 14 males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomly selected: Track and Field program. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Objective <ul><li>Nutrition Education Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>16-week intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral approach to lifestyle change & nutrition education to improve self-efficacy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of nutritious dietary options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend nutrition education & behavior modification sessions every week along with their parent(s). </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Goals <ul><li>To have the entire track and field team of 94 individuals to have high self-efficacy about eating healthy and making nutritious decisions daily by the end of the 2009 season. </li></ul><ul><li>To have the local north shore high school make positive changes in their lunch menu to increase personal mastery of eating healthy and making nutritious decisions. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Goals Continued… <ul><li>To have the communities in which the local north shore high school is located have a positive impact on the changes within the high school. </li></ul><ul><li>To have local restaurants improve their menu’s to accommodate a healthy student-athlete diet. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>To have the parents and colleagues of the student-athletes have a high self-efficacy themselves about eating healthy and making nutritious decisions daily. </li></ul><ul><li>To have all athletic sports teams to have high self-efficacy about eating healthy and making nutritious decisions daily by the end of the 2010 school year. </li></ul>More Goals
  29. 30. Strategies <ul><li>Healthy foods more accessible at school </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage foods high in fat & sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Peer role models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer led nutrition education activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To provide role models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers, parents, celebrities for healthy eating </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Posters & incentives that students design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages students to make healthy choices about eating </li></ul></ul>