Twitter:@kkapp
By Karl M. Kapp
Bloomsburg University
Gamification of Learning and Instruction
May 2014
The Pedagogical Fou...
Please Play:
Tic Tac Toe
HO Page: 1-4
Please Play:
Hangman
HO Page: 1-4
Game Results
• Did you like the game?
• Was it fun?
• Did you score points?
• Who won?
I Won!
Index Card Game
1. On your own, answer your table
question.
2. Compare answers and discuss at your
own table.
3. Develop a...
Do you Know the…
Personnel Learning
Objective?
HO Page: 1-5
Brief history of…
The World
We’ve learned and struggled for a few
years here figuring out how to make a
decent phone. PC guys are not going
to just fi...
This is our best iPhone launch yet — more than
9 million new iPhones sold — a new record for
first weekend sales—Tim Cook,...
4 2
Games 1.0
3
4
Games 1.0
3
Where is my
opponent
going to go next?
In what direction
should I try to move
the ball?
How will the ball
bo...
Games 2.0
Games 2.0
Should I shoot the aliens
on the end or in the
middle or all the bottom
aliens first?
How long do I have to
shoo...
Games 3.0
Where do I explore
first?
What activities are of
the most value?
What must I do to
achieve my goal?
Games 4.0
Games 4.0 What activities give
me the most return
for my efforts?
Can I trust this person
who wants to team
with me to
acc...
Flippy wants to become
friends with you. Do you
want to add Flippy to
your friend’s list.
Games 4.0
I am going to
need more
coffee.
Not another
online
lecture.
Sorry, had you
on mute, could
you repeat the
question.
New
Instructional
Approaches
are Needed
Let’s Play
Fact or Fishy…
Rules
• A statement is presented
– Choose the best response
• Text Keyword Response:
– To 37607
Take out
your text-
machin...
Two Teams
teama teamb
How To Respond via Texting
1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number
2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spac...
Lectures involve…
Attempting to solve
problems or synthesis or
inter-relate content for only
1% of the time.
Is that Fact ...
Fact: Lectures are NOT effective for
fostering higher level thinking?
Gibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lectu...
During lectures students'
thoughts involved
attempting to solve
problems, or synthesize
or inter-relate
information for 1%...
21 studies found
lecturing to be less
effective than:
discussion, reading
and individual work in
class.
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, M...
The average child plays
over 10,000 hours worth of
games before graduating
high school.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
10,000 hrs of
Game play
13 hours
of console
games a
week
Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & Am...
Females play 5 hours a week of
console games. They make up the
majority of PC gamers at 63%.
Almost 43% of the
gamers are ...
“Games” and “Gamification”
are the same thing.
Is that Fact or Fishy?
Gamification is
the use of gaming
elements
integrated into a
training program
aligned with
educational goals
to promote
ch...
• Gamification is to Learning Game as:
– Part is to Whole
– Piece is to Puzzle
– Slice is to Pie
– Steering Wheel is to Ca...
Gamification + Simulation = Learning Game
What is this “game” stuff?
Whole Part
Gaming
Playing
(Serious ) Games Gamification
Toys Playful Design
From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defi...
Gartner Group predicts by 2015, 40 percent
of Global 1000 organizations will use
gamification as the primary mechanism to
...
Adding points, badges and
leaderboard to any training
makes it awesome!
Is that Fact or Fishy?
Fishy… if it was that easy…this would be the most engaging
game in the world.
20% increase in profile completion.
In a Meta-Analysis…
Knowledge retention for
game/simulation was 17%
higher than a lecture.
Fact!
Delivery Method vs.
Game/Simulation
% Higher
Lecture 17%
Discussion 5%
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examinati...
Retention
Type of
Knowledge
% Higher
Retention 9%
Procedural 14%
Declarative 11%
Fact!
It wasn’t the game, it was
level of...
Two Types of
Gamification
Structural
Content
HO Page: 1-8
Structural Gamification is
the application of game-
elements to propel a
learner through content
with no alteration or
cha...
Content Gamification This
is the application of game
elements and game
thinking to alter content to
make it more game-like...
Examples
HO Page: 1-9
Create your own
games.
Classroom Gamification
In the Classroom
• Form students into companies (teams)
• Provide Request for Proposal
• Students develop:
– 40 page propo...
Group
Group Results by
Assessment
Pre Post Final
Game
Mean
.378
5
.447 .5136
Std. Deviation .167 .168 .169
N 140 125 100
T...
Grading Game
http://www.gradinggame.com/
http://www.forbes.com/sites/jordanshapiro/2013/07/01/it-only-takes-about-42-minutes-to-learn-algebra-with-video-games/
Dra...
VENDOR
http://www.axonify.com/
Associates received daily reinforcement of the monthly
safety and loss prevention training.
In a quiz-type game, associate...
If they answered correctly, they played a slot-machine game titled
“Quiz to Win” for a chance to win cash prizes
If answer...
The entire process takes 30-90 seconds each day and
associates do it either at the beginning of a shift or during
downtime...
Business Results
• Voluntary participation rate of over 95 %.
• Safety incidents and claim counts reduced by more than 45%...
References
• The Gamification of Retail Safety and Loss
Prevention Training
– http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles...
14 Things We Know about How to
Design Games for Learning From
Research
Research Bingo
14. Variable Reinforcement, found
in the chance element of games
provides a physical stimulant.
Receiving a PREDICTABLE reward
releases one shot of dopamine.
Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Un...
Receiving an UNPREDICTABLE reward
releases two shots of dopamine.
Yeah, me!
Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, Sep...
13. Spaced Retrieval helps learners
retain access to memorized
information over long periods of
time.
Content Content Content
Spaced Retrieval
Carpenter SK, DeLosh EL. Application of the testing and spacing effects to name l...
Avoids 2 inherent problems with mass practice
-Learner fatigue
-Likelihood of interference with preceding & succeeding
lea...
12. Increasing the number of
competitors can decrease
competitive motivation.
Garci, S., & Tor, A. (2009) The N-Effect: More Competitors, Less Competition> Psychological Science, Volume
20—Number 7
Av...
11. What percentage of
adults 50 and older play
games?
48%
Gamers Over 50: You’re Never Too Old to Play http://www.theesa.com/newsroom/Elder_Gamer_Fact_Sheet.pdf
70%
Laptops
40%
Mobile Device
24%
Console
Gamers Over 50: You’re Never Too Old to Play http://www.theesa.com/newsroom/Elde...
56%
Card/Tile
52%
Puzzle/Logic Word/Trivia
Board Games
24%
Gamers Over 50: You’re Never Too Old to Play http://www.theesa....
10. Games Can Influence
People to Behave in a Pro-
social Manner
First Experiment indicated that playing the
game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater
willingness to help the Darfurian p...
Second Experiment indicated that playing
the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a
greater role taking and willingness to hel...
Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes:
Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encour...
Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior.
Journal of Personality and Social...
28% helped to
pick up pencils
33% helped to
pick up pencils
67% helped to
pick up pencils
22% intervened
56% intervened
9. Games Must be Embedded
into the Curriculum to be
Effective for Learning.
Engagement
PedagogyGame
Educational
Simulation
Instructional games should be embedded in
instructional programs that inclu...
Example
Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), February 4).
A Meta-Analysis of the ...
8. Games are more effective
than traditional instruction
when multiple sessions are
involved.
Conventional instruction for a one-off is better vs. one game session
Multiple game sessions better than
multiple conventi...
7. Games are more effective
than traditional instruction
when players work in groups.
With serious games, both learners playing
individually and those playing in a group learn
more than the comparison group, ...
6. Instruction with serious
games yields higher learning
gains than conventional
instruction.
Fact!
Retention/
Type of
Knowledge
% Higher
Retention 9%
Declarative 11%
Procedural 14%
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analyti...
Effects on Learning
Compared to Traditional
Instruction
% of
Studies
Positive Effect for Games 52%
Mixed Results 25%
No Di...
5. Third person view in a
game is better for changing a
person’s behavior than first
person.
First Person View
Third Person View
Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M....
Third Person View
Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M....
Why be a Character at
All?
Research indicates that human
social models influence behavior,
beliefs and attitudes.
Bandura,...
Avatar as Teacher
Research indicates that learners perceive, interact
socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic
...
5. While playing a game,
learners will voluntarily do
harder problems and work.
A math facts game deployed on a handled computer
encouraged learners to complete greater number of
problems at an increase...
4. An experience as an avatar
can change a person's real life
perceptions.
An experience as an avatar
can change a person's real
life perceptions. In a study
conducted by Yee and
Bailenson (2006), ...
Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?
A. Person who watched an avatar not like
them running
B. Person who watch an ava...
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like
themselves run, learners were more likely to
run than watching an avatar not li...
If learners watch an avatar that looks
like them exercising & losing weight,
they will subsequently exercise more in
the r...
4a. Avatars aid learning.
On tests involving different word
problems, the group who had a character
explain the problems generated 30%
more correct ...
3. Simulation/games build more
confidence for on the job
application of learned knowledge
than classroom instruction.
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness
of computer-based simulation games. Per...
2. Games don’t have to be
considered “entertaining” to be
instructional.
Do simulation/games do not have to be entertaining
to be educational?
Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of t...
1. An instructional game will only
be effective if it is designed to
meet specific instructional
objectives and was design...
Focusing on non-instructional elements
will make the game “fun” but not
necessarily educational. Clear
instructional objec...
1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet
specific instructional objectives and was design...
11) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple
sessions are involved.
12) Games Must be Embedded ...
The Quest for
Learner
Engagement
Design Takeaway Challenge
Rules
• A statement is presented
– Type in “Code word”
• Text Response:
Take out
your text-
machines
Standard Texting Fees...
How To Participate via Texting
1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number
2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but ...
How To Vote via PollEv.com/karlkapp
Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling doTIP
AMZ01
IAMZ02
ALRIGHT01
Po...
Observe the process, take notes for
debrief.
-What design techniques are used?
-What elements add to experience?
-What ins...
Summer Theatre
and
Karl M. Kapp
Present:
The Quest
for:
t was a quiet Monday morning, very
quiet, really quiet… almost too…
Then, out of nowhere, she flew into my office,
like a Dean who had a problem that needed
solved …
Hi Dean.
I have a problem that
needs to be solved.
We need more
engagement.
She wanted to increase student
engagement and have more interactive
learning for our students.
You came to the instructor
that’s what I do…
Yeah, I know…that’s
why I hired you. Ugh..
Now take the new person here
and go ask Clyde, he went to a
conference on the s...
For some reason, she didn’t seem bothered
by the fact that she was breaking the
school’s no smoking policy…
Here’s where you come in. Help me figure
out the clues …and fast.
Choose your disguise…
Stakes are high……
First stop…Clyde’s office…look for clues
Better way
To Learn
B)
Learning a little bit
of content at a time.
A)
Learning the
content in big
chunks all at
once.
Content Content Content
Time Time
Space learning out in small chunks
over time, 24 hours is the optimal
spacing. Break up content in
classroom every 8-10 mi...
I found three things written on one of
Clyde’s notebooks.
Could be a lead…or
…it could be this session’s
learning objectiv...
Let’s get going.
Now we need to find Ivan…the Informant...
I knew one of his old haunts.
He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly
strip convention.
Hello, Clueless…
Look I am going to ask you some
questions, the right answer gives you
a clue to interactive learning.
He was about as frie...
What do you and your lackies here have to
say about this?
Fact or Fishy…testing yourself is a better
way to learn than re-reading or re-listening
to material?
Enter Question Text
It’s a fact: “Retrieval Practice” alone can
provide improved recall performance by as
much as 10-20%.
Require students to recall content
to enhance learning.
In other words, use testing to
reinforce learning—not just for
eva...
Combining Spaced Retrieval and
Retrieval Practice is really
powerful.
One study in the subject of Anatomy and
Physiology r...
Ivan then grabbed his computer to show me an
example.
ExactTarget is a global marketing organization focused
on digital marketing tools – email, mobile, and web
and was recentl...
Introducing a new product, MobileConnect and
wanted to bring the sales force up-to-speed on the
features and functionality...
VENDOR
http://www.theknowledgeguru.com/
Screen captures courtesy of The Knowledge
Guru…Bottom Line Performance
“I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another
game solution.”
“The repetition of the different paths ...
Business Results
Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product.
First call resolution ($35 a call/aver...
Business Results
Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product.
First call resolution ($35 a call/aver...
Ivan had another question for me…I was the
one who was supposed to be ask’n questions….
Do learners remember facts better
...
Researchers have found that the human
brain has a natural affinity for narrative
construction.
People tend to remember fac...
Again with the computer….
Thanks, Ivan.Get out of here….
This mystery of interactive learning was
starting to take shape…
Let’s brief the Dean on what we know so far…
So what have we
learned?
So far, so good. Follow the next clue on the
matchbook I found in my desk drawer….
I arrived at the place on the matchbook, as
shady as a clump of oaks caught in an eclipse…
Enter Question TextHmm… What could this location and clue mean???
Tell me. Does engaging instruction start with:
Action draws in the learner and
encourages further engagement.
Make the learner do something
Answer a question
Identify a procedure.
Make a decision.
Solve a mystery.
Confront a challen...
Just as I was leaving, I found another
matchbook.
Seems like a clue…should
Learning be easy so we don’t discourage the
learners?
or
Challenging where some learners will str...
Look! Things that are too easy or too difficult will
not pique a learner’s interest because they lead to
boredom or frustr...
Let me show you Clyde’s
folder on this subject.
Do you know what
elements contribute to
flow?
Achievable Task
Clear Goals
Control Over Actions
(Autonomy)
Concentration
You can also add elements such as …
You can also add elements such as …Novelty
Inconsistency
Complexity
SurpriseIncomplete
information
Unpredictable Future
Suddenly, a voice appeared out of
nowhere…the mysterious Learning Lady
I saw her eyes in the shadows of the alley and
she simply said…
Consider the use of fantasy in
constructing learning event...
Ya’h sure about this
“fantasy” thing? This
make believe stuff?
Fantasy provides two learning benefits...
Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner apply old
knowledge to understand new t...
Then, suddenly, she emerged from the shadows.
I pictured you
differently…
Here are some more
matches for your boss. She
smokes a lot.
She shouldn’t smoke.
Well, here is the next clue, do we :
Put the learner at risk.
or
Let the learner safely explore the environment.
No risk, or danger equal no skin in the
game.
Get the learner emotionally involved
by putting him or her at “mock” risk.
Losing (points, game)
Not Solving the Problem
Social Credibility
Recognition
Then they mysterious stranger started
talking...
In games, failing is allowed, it’s acceptable,
and it’s part of the process.
Time for a recap with the Dean…she looked a
little frantic…she wanted to know one more
thing.
I want to know one more
thing.
What are the elements of
active learning?
What are some active learning
practices that can engage
learners?
Any Others?
Great stuff, you folks really seemed to have
cracked the case as to what makes engaging
learning.
Mystery solved, just in time for the
weekend. I was anxious to get some rest…
…to my surprise as… the Dean was driving
away, she threw another matchbook….
But we’ll have to leave that mystery for
later….
The End
QUESTIONS?
Credits:
Detective Artwork Courtesy of Vanessa Bailey
Flow Diagram by Kristin Bittner
Typewriter and Mysterious Eyes are C...
Covert Takeaways
• Learning should be engaging.
• Stories provide a context for learning.
• It is ok for a learner to stru...
Game Dynamics Exercise
HO Page: 1-10
Race to the Finish—
Territory Acquisition—
Exploration--
Collecting—
Rescue or Escape—
Alignment—
Forbidden Act—
Construct...
Goals
-Game Goals
-Instructional
Goals
Rules
-Operational Rules-Describe
how the game is played.
-Foundational Rules-
Underlying formal structures,
like the math...
Objectives
-The introduction of an
objective or a goal is what
differentiates a game from
play.
-It gives the players
some...
Story
Stories provide, context,
meaning and purpose
1. Characters
Story Elements
5. Conclusion
2. Plot (something has to happen).
3. Tension
4. Resolution
Write a story to ma...
Feedback
Games like The Sims provide feedback on
many dimensions which provide
opportunities to consider tradeoffs and
higher level...
The most helpful feedback provides specific
comments about errors and suggestions for
improvement. It also encourages lear...
Leaderboards provide
opportunities for players to
receive feedback about their
performance as compared to
others.
Leaderboards provide
opportunities for players to
receive feedback about their
performance as compared to
others.
Recommendations
• Provide authentic and realistic feedback.
• Feedback should be continuous through out
the learning.
• Fe...
Time Motivator for
player/learner
activity and action.
As a resource
allocated during the
game-play.
A game can compress t...
Curve of Interest
Monitor within the
instruction. Track
player movement,
time on task, level of
activity.
Replayability
• Replay provides learners
with a chance to try a
different approach,
explore different
hypothesizes and red...
Replay and exploration can be
placed in games by providing
additional pathways through the
content.
Achieving goals
Collec...
Conflict, Competition and
Cooperation
Conflict
Conflict-inflicting
damage on other
players
Competition
Competition-
competing against
other players
Cooperation
Cooperation-
working with
other players to
achieve a goal.
Rewards, Incentives and Points,
Achievements
Primarily use expected achievements so players can
establish goals for themselves and understand the
purpose and progressi...
Use coins, points and rewards to provide feedback on
performance, updates on progress and level of
correctness.
Kapp, K. M...
The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences
the motivational signal sent to the brain only within
the contexts...
Give players an opportunity to go over their earned
achievements using some kind of visual stored list.
Kapp, K. M. (2012)...
What can you do?
Use points, rewards and badges to
convey meaning, achievement and
progress.
http://www.coursehero.com/courses/
2 weeks after launching Courses (powered by gamification), CourseHero
received 350 suggested edits to existing courses and...
Since the implementation of gamification elements, time on
site overall has increased around 5 percent.
For Gamified courses, the time on site for the Courses are nearly
three times as long as time onsite for all of coursehero...
Aesthetics
• A large element of any game is how the game
looks and the overall congruency of the
artwork, interface and ac...
Artwork and the “look and feel” of
the game plays a major role in the
overall design and enjoyment of a
game.
Includes
aud...
Gaming uncertainty can transform the emotional
experience of learning. This may improve engagement
and improve encoding an...
Experimental results reveal that uncertainty enhances
learning and is positively associated with motivation.
As motivation...
Uncertainty in a learning game can enhance players’
experience in several ways, including changes in brain
chemistry and a...
Chance or luck is a highly motivational
element of games both of traditional
games of chance but in other video games
like...
What can you do?
Allow chance, risk-taking and
uncertainty into gamification efforts.
50% appears to be an optimal number.
Freedom to Fail
Recommendations
• Allow failure.
• Provide for multiple attempts.
• Focus on learning from mistakes and failure.
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
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Workshop Materials: Pedagogical Foundations for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning

  1. 1. Twitter:@kkapp By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning and Instruction May 2014 The Pedagogical Foundation for Games, Gamification and Immersive Learning
  2. 2. Please Play: Tic Tac Toe HO Page: 1-4
  3. 3. Please Play: Hangman HO Page: 1-4
  4. 4. Game Results • Did you like the game? • Was it fun? • Did you score points? • Who won? I Won!
  5. 5. Index Card Game 1. On your own, answer your table question. 2. Compare answers and discuss at your own table. 3. Develop a list of top three answers for the entire table. 4. Share out answers with group, as directed by instructor.
  6. 6. Do you Know the…
  7. 7. Personnel Learning Objective? HO Page: 1-5
  8. 8. Brief history of… The World
  9. 9. We’ve learned and struggled for a few years here figuring out how to make a decent phone. PC guys are not going to just figure this out. They’re not going to just walk in. --Palm CEO Ed Colligan, 16 Nov 2006
  10. 10. This is our best iPhone launch yet — more than 9 million new iPhones sold — a new record for first weekend sales—Tim Cook, 2013. Palm sold to HP in 2010, by 2011 Palm was done.
  11. 11. 4 2 Games 1.0 3
  12. 12. 4 Games 1.0 3 Where is my opponent going to go next? In what direction should I try to move the ball? How will the ball bounce off the wall?
  13. 13. Games 2.0
  14. 14. Games 2.0 Should I shoot the aliens on the end or in the middle or all the bottom aliens first? How long do I have to shoot before an alien shoots at me? What is the pattern these aliens are following?
  15. 15. Games 3.0
  16. 16. Where do I explore first? What activities are of the most value? What must I do to achieve my goal?
  17. 17. Games 4.0
  18. 18. Games 4.0 What activities give me the most return for my efforts? Can I trust this person who wants to team with me to accomplish a goal?
  19. 19. Flippy wants to become friends with you. Do you want to add Flippy to your friend’s list. Games 4.0
  20. 20. I am going to need more coffee.
  21. 21. Not another online lecture.
  22. 22. Sorry, had you on mute, could you repeat the question.
  23. 23. New Instructional Approaches are Needed
  24. 24. Let’s Play Fact or Fishy…
  25. 25. Rules • A statement is presented – Choose the best response • Text Keyword Response: – To 37607 Take out your text- machines Standard Texting Fees Apply!
  26. 26. Two Teams teama teamb
  27. 27. How To Respond via Texting 1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number 2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling do TIPS Amaze Inamaze alright Amaze
  28. 28. Lectures involve… Attempting to solve problems or synthesis or inter-relate content for only 1% of the time. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  29. 29. Fact: Lectures are NOT effective for fostering higher level thinking? Gibbs, G., (1981). Twenty Terrible Reasons for Lecturing, SCED Occasional Paper No. 8, Birmingham. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/20reasons.html and Bligh, D., (1972). What’s the Use of Lectures? Penguin. Bloom, B. S., (1953). “Thought Processes in Lectures and Discussions.” Journal of General Education Vol. 7. Isaacs, G., (1994). “Lecturing Practices and Note-taking Purposes.” Studies in Higher Education, 19:2.
  30. 30. During lectures students' thoughts involved attempting to solve problems, or synthesize or inter-relate information for 1% of the time. 78% of the lecture is spent in ‘passive thoughts about the subject’ and ‘irrelevant thoughts’.
  31. 31. 21 studies found lecturing to be less effective than: discussion, reading and individual work in class.
  32. 32. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics Scott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, Miles McDonougha, Michelle K. Smithb, Nnadozie Okoroafora, Hannah Jordta, and Mary Pat Wenderotha. PNAS Early Edition (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) Aoproved April 15, 2014
  33. 33. The average child plays over 10,000 hours worth of games before graduating high school. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  34. 34. 10,000 hrs of Game play 13 hours of console games a week Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. US Department of Commerce 87% of 8- to 17- year olds play video games at home. Average game player in US is 38.
  35. 35. Females play 5 hours a week of console games. They make up the majority of PC gamers at 63%. Almost 43% of the gamers are female and 26% of those females are over 18. Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life. US Department of Commerce
  36. 36. “Games” and “Gamification” are the same thing. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  37. 37. Gamification is the use of gaming elements integrated into a training program aligned with educational goals to promote change in behavior Game-based Learning is the use of a game to teach knowledge, skills and abilities to learners using a self-contained space. What is this “game” stuff? Simulation Learning is a realistic, controlled- risk environment where learners can practice specific behaviors and experience the impacts of their decisions. HO Page: 1-6
  38. 38. • Gamification is to Learning Game as: – Part is to Whole – Piece is to Puzzle – Slice is to Pie – Steering Wheel is to Car • Gamification uses elements of games but is not a game in-and-of itself. What is this “game” stuff?
  39. 39. Gamification + Simulation = Learning Game What is this “game” stuff?
  40. 40. Whole Part Gaming Playing (Serious ) Games Gamification Toys Playful Design From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”, Deterding, S. et. al
  41. 41. Gartner Group predicts by 2015, 40 percent of Global 1000 organizations will use gamification as the primary mechanism to transform business operations. Gamification as a term was coined in “2002”
  42. 42. Adding points, badges and leaderboard to any training makes it awesome! Is that Fact or Fishy?
  43. 43. Fishy… if it was that easy…this would be the most engaging game in the world.
  44. 44. 20% increase in profile completion.
  45. 45. In a Meta-Analysis… Knowledge retention for game/simulation was 17% higher than a lecture.
  46. 46. Fact! Delivery Method vs. Game/Simulation % Higher Lecture 17% Discussion 5% Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” HO Page: 1-7
  47. 47. Retention Type of Knowledge % Higher Retention 9% Procedural 14% Declarative 11% Fact! It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to learning. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  48. 48. Two Types of Gamification Structural Content HO Page: 1-8
  49. 49. Structural Gamification is the application of game- elements to propel a learner through content with no alteration or changes to the content. Structural:  Points  Badges  Leaderboard What is this “gamification” stuff?
  50. 50. Content Gamification This is the application of game elements and game thinking to alter content to make it more game-like but doesn’t turn the content into a game. Content:  Challenge  Story  Characters  Mystery What is this “gamification” stuff?
  51. 51. Examples HO Page: 1-9
  52. 52. Create your own games.
  53. 53. Classroom Gamification
  54. 54. In the Classroom • Form students into companies (teams) • Provide Request for Proposal • Students develop: – 40 page proposal – Working Prototype – Sales Presentation
  55. 55. Group Group Results by Assessment Pre Post Final Game Mean .378 5 .447 .5136 Std. Deviation .167 .168 .169 N 140 125 100 Task Mean Rating Before Mean Rating After Difference After- Before Calculate volume of 3-D shape 2.83 4.00 1.17 Calculate surface area of 3-D shape 2.33 3.83 1.50 Understand concept of conductivity and heat flow 1.50 3.82 2.32 Understand relationship between conductivity & heat flow. 1.17 3.17 2.00 Apply heat flow formula 1.00 3.33 2.33 Understand difference between dead and live load 1.50 3.33 1.83 Preliminary Survival Master Results
  56. 56. Grading Game http://www.gradinggame.com/
  57. 57. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jordanshapiro/2013/07/01/it-only-takes-about-42-minutes-to-learn-algebra-with-video-games/ Dragon Box 2 Students who played at least 1.5 hours, 92.9% achieved mastery. Of those students who played at least 1 hour, 83.8% achieved mastery. Of those students who played at least 45 minutes, 73.4% achieved mastery.
  58. 58. VENDOR http://www.axonify.com/
  59. 59. Associates received daily reinforcement of the monthly safety and loss prevention training. In a quiz-type game, associates answer quick, targeted questions related to risk, loss prevention, safety, and operational policies and procedures—standard questions in these areas.
  60. 60. If they answered correctly, they played a slot-machine game titled “Quiz to Win” for a chance to win cash prizes If answered incorrectly, the system immediately presented a short training piece designed to specifically address the topic covered in the initial question. Questions repeated at various intervals until the associate demonstrated mastery of the topic.
  61. 61. The entire process takes 30-90 seconds each day and associates do it either at the beginning of a shift or during downtime throughout the day.
  62. 62. Business Results • Voluntary participation rate of over 95 %. • Safety incidents and claim counts reduced by more than 45% with an increase in the number of stores and employees. • Reduction in shrinkage has been at a level of 55 %. • In the case of internal loss, each time a burst of content related to employee theft is pushed out, they see at least a 60% increase in their “Integrity Pays” hotline calls, resulting in a direct reduction in inventory loss.
  63. 63. References • The Gamification of Retail Safety and Loss Prevention Training – http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/1206/the- gamification-of-retail-safety-and-loss-prevention-training
  64. 64. 14 Things We Know about How to Design Games for Learning From Research
  65. 65. Research Bingo
  66. 66. 14. Variable Reinforcement, found in the chance element of games provides a physical stimulant.
  67. 67. Receiving a PREDICTABLE reward releases one shot of dopamine. Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  68. 68. Receiving an UNPREDICTABLE reward releases two shots of dopamine. Yeah, me! Howard-Jones. P.A., & Demetriou, S. (2008, September 11). Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science, 37, 519-536.
  69. 69. 13. Spaced Retrieval helps learners retain access to memorized information over long periods of time.
  70. 70. Content Content Content Spaced Retrieval Carpenter SK, DeLosh EL. Application of the testing and spacing effects to name learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology 19: 619–636, 2005. And Cull W. Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for cued recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology 14: 215–235, 2000.
  71. 71. Avoids 2 inherent problems with mass practice -Learner fatigue -Likelihood of interference with preceding & succeeding learning
  72. 72. 12. Increasing the number of competitors can decrease competitive motivation.
  73. 73. Garci, S., & Tor, A. (2009) The N-Effect: More Competitors, Less Competition> Psychological Science, Volume 20—Number 7 Average test scores fall as the average number of test takers at test-taking venues increases. People finished a timed quiz faster , trying to be in top 20%, if they believed they were in a pool of 10 versus a pool of 100. Called the “N-Effect”
  74. 74. 11. What percentage of adults 50 and older play games?
  75. 75. 48% Gamers Over 50: You’re Never Too Old to Play http://www.theesa.com/newsroom/Elder_Gamer_Fact_Sheet.pdf
  76. 76. 70% Laptops 40% Mobile Device 24% Console Gamers Over 50: You’re Never Too Old to Play http://www.theesa.com/newsroom/Elder_Gamer_Fact_Sheet.pdf 80 percent of gamers over 50 play on a weekly basis. 45 percent play on a daily basis.
  77. 77. 56% Card/Tile 52% Puzzle/Logic Word/Trivia Board Games 24% Gamers Over 50: You’re Never Too Old to Play http://www.theesa.com/newsroom/Elder_Gamer_Fact_Sheet.pdf
  78. 78. 10. Games Can Influence People to Behave in a Pro- social Manner
  79. 79. First Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater willingness to help the Darfurian people than reading a text conveying same information. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  80. 80. Second Experiment indicated that playing the game Darfur is Dying resulted in a greater role taking and willingness to help than either game watching or text reading. Peng, W., Lee, M., & Heeter. (2010) The effects of a serious game on role taking and willingness to help. Journal of Communications. 60, 723-724. Chapter 5 of “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruction.
  81. 81. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes: Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1-9. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical world
  82. 82. Greitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2., 211-221.
  83. 83. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  84. 84. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  85. 85. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  86. 86. 22% intervened
  87. 87. 56% intervened
  88. 88. 9. Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning.
  89. 89. Engagement PedagogyGame Educational Simulation Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming experience. Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  90. 90. Example Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & van der Sek E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  91. 91. 8. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved.
  92. 92. Conventional instruction for a one-off is better vs. one game session Multiple game sessions better than multiple conventional sessions Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S .. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  93. 93. 7. Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups.
  94. 94. With serious games, both learners playing individually and those playing in a group learn more than the comparison group, but learners who play serious games in a group learn more Wouters, P., van Nimwegen, C., van Oostendorp, H., & vam der S[el. E.D. (2013), February 4). A Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive and Motivational Effects of Serious Games. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advanced online publication. Doi: 10.1037/a0031311 39 Studies.
  95. 95. 6. Instruction with serious games yields higher learning gains than conventional instruction.
  96. 96. Fact! Retention/ Type of Knowledge % Higher Retention 9% Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  97. 97. Effects on Learning Compared to Traditional Instruction % of Studies Positive Effect for Games 52% Mixed Results 25% No Difference 18% Ke, F. (2009) A qualitative meta-analysis of computer games as learning tools. In R.E. Ferding (Ed.) , Effective electronic gaming in education (ol. 1, pp. 1-32). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. .Review of 65 studies. Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.” *One Study-Games better than traditional instruction. Qualitative Analysis!
  98. 98. 5. Third person view in a game is better for changing a person’s behavior than first person.
  99. 99. First Person View
  100. 100. Third Person View Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203.
  101. 101. Third Person View Carey, B. (2007) This is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. And Sestir, M. & Green, M. C. (2010). You are who you watch: Identification and transportation effects on temporary self-concept. Social Influence, 5, 272-288 and research by Libby, L.K., Shaeffer, E.M., Eibach, R.P., & Slemmer, J.A. ( 2007) Picture yourself at the polls: Visual perspective in mental imagery affects self-perception and behavior. Psychological Science. Vol. 18: 199-203. “Seeing oneself as acting in a movie or a play is not merely fantasy or indulgence; it is fundamental to how people work out who it is they are, and may become.” Ben Casey
  102. 102. Why be a Character at All? Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes. Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
  103. 103. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited. Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
  104. 104. 5. While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and work.
  105. 105. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer encouraged learners to complete greater number of problems at an increased level of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty. Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI '04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
  106. 106. 4. An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions.
  107. 107. An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people. Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  108. 108. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later? A. Person who watched an avatar not like them running B. Person who watch an avatar like them running C. Person watching an avatar like them loitering
  109. 109. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering . Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  110. 110. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group. Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
  111. 111. 4a. Avatars aid learning.
  112. 112. On tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct answers than the group with just on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character. Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  113. 113. 3. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.
  114. 114. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . 20% higher confidence levels. Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction.
  115. 115. 2. Games don’t have to be considered “entertaining” to be instructional.
  116. 116. Do simulation/games do not have to be entertaining to be educational? Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  117. 117. 1. An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet specific instructional objectives and was designed as it was intended.
  118. 118. Focusing on non-instructional elements will make the game “fun” but not necessarily educational. Clear instructional objectives must be met in the game. Game must be designed to meet the objectives. Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Chapter 4 “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  119. 119. 1) An instructional game will only be effective if it is designed to meet specific instructional objectives and was designed as it was intended. 2) Games don’t have to be considered “entertaining” to be instructional. 3) Simulation/games build more confidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction 4) An experience as an avatar can change a person's real life perceptions. 5) While playing a game, learners will voluntarily do harder problems and work. 6) Instruction with serious games yields higher learning gains than conventional instruction. 7) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when players work in groups. Take-Away
  120. 120. 11) Games are more effective than traditional instruction when multiple sessions are involved. 12) Games Must be Embedded into the Curriculum to be Effective for Learning. 13) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner. 14) Variable Reinforcement, found in the chance element of games provides a physical stimulant. 15) Spaced Retrieval helps learners retain access to memorized information over long periods of time. 16) Increasing the number of competitors can decrease competitive motivation. 17) 48% of people over the age of 50 play video games. Take-Away
  121. 121. The Quest for Learner Engagement
  122. 122. Design Takeaway Challenge
  123. 123. Rules • A statement is presented – Type in “Code word” • Text Response: Take out your text- machines Standard Texting Fees Apply!
  124. 124. How To Participate via Texting 1. Polleverywhere has no access to your phone number 2. Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling do AMZ01 IAMZ02 ALRIGHT01 AMZ01
  125. 125. How To Vote via PollEv.com/karlkapp Capitalization doesn’t matter, but spaces and spelling doTIP AMZ01 IAMZ02 ALRIGHT01 PollEv.com/karlkapp
  126. 126. Observe the process, take notes for debrief. -What design techniques are used? -What elements add to experience? -What instructional design principles are being followed or broken? How To Participate via Observation
  127. 127. Summer Theatre and Karl M. Kapp Present:
  128. 128. The Quest for:
  129. 129. t was a quiet Monday morning, very quiet, really quiet… almost too…
  130. 130. Then, out of nowhere, she flew into my office, like a Dean who had a problem that needed solved … Hi Dean.
  131. 131. I have a problem that needs to be solved.
  132. 132. We need more engagement. She wanted to increase student engagement and have more interactive learning for our students.
  133. 133. You came to the instructor that’s what I do…
  134. 134. Yeah, I know…that’s why I hired you. Ugh.. Now take the new person here and go ask Clyde, he went to a conference on the subject.
  135. 135. For some reason, she didn’t seem bothered by the fact that she was breaking the school’s no smoking policy…
  136. 136. Here’s where you come in. Help me figure out the clues …and fast.
  137. 137. Choose your disguise…
  138. 138. Stakes are high……
  139. 139. First stop…Clyde’s office…look for clues
  140. 140. Better way To Learn B) Learning a little bit of content at a time. A) Learning the content in big chunks all at once.
  141. 141. Content Content Content Time Time
  142. 142. Space learning out in small chunks over time, 24 hours is the optimal spacing. Break up content in classroom every 8-10 minutes. Some call it “drip learning.”
  143. 143. I found three things written on one of Clyde’s notebooks. Could be a lead…or …it could be this session’s learning objectives
  144. 144. Let’s get going.
  145. 145. Now we need to find Ivan…the Informant... I knew one of his old haunts.
  146. 146. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention. Hello, Clueless…
  147. 147. Look I am going to ask you some questions, the right answer gives you a clue to interactive learning. He was about as friendly as a fly at a fly strip convention.
  148. 148. What do you and your lackies here have to say about this?
  149. 149. Fact or Fishy…testing yourself is a better way to learn than re-reading or re-listening to material?
  150. 150. Enter Question Text It’s a fact: “Retrieval Practice” alone can provide improved recall performance by as much as 10-20%.
  151. 151. Require students to recall content to enhance learning. In other words, use testing to reinforce learning—not just for evaluation.
  152. 152. Combining Spaced Retrieval and Retrieval Practice is really powerful. One study in the subject of Anatomy and Physiology revealed retention benefits of between 35% and 61% with average of 41%.
  153. 153. Ivan then grabbed his computer to show me an example.
  154. 154. ExactTarget is a global marketing organization focused on digital marketing tools – email, mobile, and web and was recently purchased by Salesforce.com. ExactTarget is a leading cloud marketing platform used by more than 6,000 companies including Coca- Cola, Gap and Nike.
  155. 155. Introducing a new product, MobileConnect and wanted to bring the sales force up-to-speed on the features and functionality of the product.
  156. 156. VENDOR http://www.theknowledgeguru.com/ Screen captures courtesy of The Knowledge Guru…Bottom Line Performance
  157. 157. “I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another game solution.” “The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.” “I’m a pretty competitive person so challenging myself to get one of the top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect product.” “The game was a fun way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the scenario-type questions, which put it all into context.” Player Results
  158. 158. Business Results Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product. First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%. Of all the launches done in the previous two years prior to MobileConnect, the sales team built the quickest pipeline for this product.
  159. 159. Business Results Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product. First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45%. Of all the launches done in the previous two years prior to MobileConnect, the sales team built the quickest pipeline for this product. Larsen DP, Butler AC, Roediger HL 3rd. Repeated testing improves long-term retention relative to repeated study: a randomized controlled trial. Med Educ 43: 1174–1181, 2009. Dobson, J. L. (2013) Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information Advances in Physiology Education 37: 184–191, 2013; doi:10.1152/advan.00174.2012.
  160. 160. Ivan had another question for me…I was the one who was supposed to be ask’n questions…. Do learners remember facts better when presented in a bulleted list or when presented in a story?
  161. 161. Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.
  162. 162. Again with the computer….
  163. 163. Thanks, Ivan.Get out of here….
  164. 164. This mystery of interactive learning was starting to take shape…
  165. 165. Let’s brief the Dean on what we know so far…
  166. 166. So what have we learned?
  167. 167. So far, so good. Follow the next clue on the matchbook I found in my desk drawer….
  168. 168. I arrived at the place on the matchbook, as shady as a clump of oaks caught in an eclipse…
  169. 169. Enter Question TextHmm… What could this location and clue mean??? Tell me. Does engaging instruction start with:
  170. 170. Action draws in the learner and encourages further engagement.
  171. 171. Make the learner do something Answer a question Identify a procedure. Make a decision. Solve a mystery. Confront a challenge. Solve a Problem. Write a proposal Hands On
  172. 172. Just as I was leaving, I found another matchbook.
  173. 173. Seems like a clue…should Learning be easy so we don’t discourage the learners? or Challenging where some learners will struggle?
  174. 174. Look! Things that are too easy or too difficult will not pique a learner’s interest because they lead to boredom or frustration.
  175. 175. Let me show you Clyde’s folder on this subject.
  176. 176. Do you know what elements contribute to flow?
  177. 177. Achievable Task Clear Goals Control Over Actions (Autonomy) Concentration
  178. 178. You can also add elements such as …
  179. 179. You can also add elements such as …Novelty Inconsistency Complexity SurpriseIncomplete information Unpredictable Future
  180. 180. Suddenly, a voice appeared out of nowhere…the mysterious Learning Lady
  181. 181. I saw her eyes in the shadows of the alley and she simply said… Consider the use of fantasy in constructing learning events….
  182. 182. Ya’h sure about this “fantasy” thing? This make believe stuff?
  183. 183. Fantasy provides two learning benefits... Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner apply old knowledge to understand new things and help them remember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect with the experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
  184. 184. Then, suddenly, she emerged from the shadows. I pictured you differently…
  185. 185. Here are some more matches for your boss. She smokes a lot. She shouldn’t smoke.
  186. 186. Well, here is the next clue, do we : Put the learner at risk. or Let the learner safely explore the environment.
  187. 187. No risk, or danger equal no skin in the game. Get the learner emotionally involved by putting him or her at “mock” risk.
  188. 188. Losing (points, game) Not Solving the Problem Social Credibility Recognition Then they mysterious stranger started talking about what learners can “risk”… Starting Over Multiple Lives
  189. 189. In games, failing is allowed, it’s acceptable, and it’s part of the process.
  190. 190. Time for a recap with the Dean…she looked a little frantic…she wanted to know one more thing.
  191. 191. I want to know one more thing. What are the elements of active learning?
  192. 192. What are some active learning practices that can engage learners?
  193. 193. Any Others?
  194. 194. Great stuff, you folks really seemed to have cracked the case as to what makes engaging learning.
  195. 195. Mystery solved, just in time for the weekend. I was anxious to get some rest…
  196. 196. …to my surprise as… the Dean was driving away, she threw another matchbook….
  197. 197. But we’ll have to leave that mystery for later….
  198. 198. The End
  199. 199. QUESTIONS?
  200. 200. Credits: Detective Artwork Courtesy of Vanessa Bailey Flow Diagram by Kristin Bittner Typewriter and Mysterious Eyes are Clip Art Audience Response by Poll Everywhere Demo of Gamification Software by MindTickle
  201. 201. Covert Takeaways • Learning should be engaging. • Stories provide a context for learning. • It is ok for a learner to struggle. • Simply adding points, badges and leaderboards does not make learning effective.
  202. 202. Game Dynamics Exercise HO Page: 1-10
  203. 203. Race to the Finish— Territory Acquisition— Exploration-- Collecting— Rescue or Escape— Alignment— Forbidden Act— Construct/Build— Outwit— Solution— Name a game that Uses the Dynamic Below Page 1-10
  204. 204. Goals -Game Goals -Instructional Goals
  205. 205. Rules -Operational Rules-Describe how the game is played. -Foundational Rules- Underlying formal structures, like the mathematics involved with dice. -Behavior Rules-How players are expected to act toward one another. -Instructional Rules-What you want the learner to gain from playing the instructional game.
  206. 206. Objectives -The introduction of an objective or a goal is what differentiates a game from play. -It gives the players something to work toward. -Objectives are either obtained or not obtained and that is a quantifiable outcome.
  207. 207. Story
  208. 208. Stories provide, context, meaning and purpose
  209. 209. 1. Characters Story Elements 5. Conclusion 2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution Write a story to match your game.
  210. 210. Feedback
  211. 211. Games like The Sims provide feedback on many dimensions which provide opportunities to consider tradeoffs and higher level cognitive thinking.
  212. 212. The most helpful feedback provides specific comments about errors and suggestions for improvement. It also encourages learners to focus their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than on simply getting the right answer. Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata-Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295-321.
  213. 213. Leaderboards provide opportunities for players to receive feedback about their performance as compared to others.
  214. 214. Leaderboards provide opportunities for players to receive feedback about their performance as compared to others.
  215. 215. Recommendations • Provide authentic and realistic feedback. • Feedback should be continuous through out the learning. • Feedback should be instructional and provide knowledge of learner’s performance. • Allow learners to create their own social “leaderboard” of friends.
  216. 216. Time Motivator for player/learner activity and action. As a resource allocated during the game-play. A game can compress time to show consequences of actions more quickly than real-time.
  217. 217. Curve of Interest Monitor within the instruction. Track player movement, time on task, level of activity.
  218. 218. Replayability • Replay provides learners with a chance to try a different approach, explore different hypothesizes and reduces the “sting of failure”
  219. 219. Replay and exploration can be placed in games by providing additional pathways through the content. Achieving goals Collecting Items Exploring Socializing Easter Eggs
  220. 220. Conflict, Competition and Cooperation
  221. 221. Conflict Conflict-inflicting damage on other players
  222. 222. Competition Competition- competing against other players
  223. 223. Cooperation Cooperation- working with other players to achieve a goal.
  224. 224. Rewards, Incentives and Points, Achievements
  225. 225. Primarily use expected achievements so players can establish goals for themselves and understand the purpose and progression of interactions. Kapp, K. M. (2012) The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. New York: Pfeiffer. Chapter Ten. Pages 219-238.
  226. 226. Use coins, points and rewards to provide feedback on performance, updates on progress and level of correctness. Kapp, K. M. (2012) The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. New York: Pfeiffer. Chapter Ten. Pages 219-238.
  227. 227. The value, or size, of an anticipated reward influences the motivational signal sent to the brain only within the contexts of the reward system. Howard-Jones, P. A., & Demetriou, S. (2009) Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science. 37:519–536 DOI 10.1007/s11251-008-9073-6
  228. 228. Give players an opportunity to go over their earned achievements using some kind of visual stored list. Kapp, K. M. (2012) The Gamification of Learning and Instruction. New York: Pfeiffer. Chapter Ten. Pages 219-238.
  229. 229. What can you do? Use points, rewards and badges to convey meaning, achievement and progress.
  230. 230. http://www.coursehero.com/courses/
  231. 231. 2 weeks after launching Courses (powered by gamification), CourseHero received 350 suggested edits to existing courses and 122 requests for new courses. Another 68 people offered to augment existing courses by creating their own course to be hosted on coursehero.com.
  232. 232. Since the implementation of gamification elements, time on site overall has increased around 5 percent.
  233. 233. For Gamified courses, the time on site for the Courses are nearly three times as long as time onsite for all of coursehero.com. Social sharing of achievements increased nearly 400 percent in three months.
  234. 234. Aesthetics • A large element of any game is how the game looks and the overall congruency of the artwork, interface and activities.
  235. 235. Artwork and the “look and feel” of the game plays a major role in the overall design and enjoyment of a game. Includes audio as well as visual.
  236. 236. Gaming uncertainty can transform the emotional experience of learning. This may improve engagement and improve encoding and later recall. Howard-Jones, P. A., & Demetriou, S. (2009) Uncertainty and engagement with learning games. Instructional Science. 37:519–536 DOI 10.1007/s11251-008-9073-6
  237. 237. Experimental results reveal that uncertainty enhances learning and is positively associated with motivation. As motivation increases, participants tend to spend more time answering questions and have higher accuracy. Ozcelik, E., Cagiltay, N. E., & Ozcelik, N. S., (2013)The effect of uncertainty on learning in game-like environments. Computers & Education 67. 12–20
  238. 238. Uncertainty in a learning game can enhance players’ experience in several ways, including changes in brain chemistry and activity. Robinson, S. (2012) Taking a chance: Introducing uncertainty into learning games. Proceedings of the Academy of Educational Leadership, Volume 17, Number 2, 2012
  239. 239. Chance or luck is a highly motivational element of games both of traditional games of chance but in other video games like finding hidden treasures.
  240. 240. What can you do? Allow chance, risk-taking and uncertainty into gamification efforts. 50% appears to be an optimal number.
  241. 241. Freedom to Fail
  242. 242. Recommendations • Allow failure. • Provide for multiple attempts. • Focus on learning from mistakes and failure.

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