What Research Tells us About Designing and Creating Game-Based Learning
What Research Tells us About Creating Game-Based Learning By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Twitter:@kkapp
Google “Kapp Notes” www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly ArticleImproving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer
Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3 4 What are 4 motivational aspectsWhat are 3 principles for adding of games that improve learningserious games to learning curriculums? recall and application?
Percentages of Impact Type of % Higher Knowledge/ Retention Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
Percentages of Impact Type of % Higher Knowledge/It wasn’t the game, it was level of activity in the game. Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the engagement Procedural of the learner in the game leads 14% to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
Simulation Game. 20% higher.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
Do simulation/games have to be entertaining to be educational? (poll question two)
NOSitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectivenessof computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
Simulation Educational SimulationGame Pedagogy Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
Instructional games should be embedded in instructional programs that include debriefing and feedback. Simulation Instructional support to help learners understand how to use the game increases instructional effectiveness of the gaming Educational experience. Simulation Game PedagogyHays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review anddiscussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005-004). Aldrich, C. Learning by Doing. Pfeiffer, page 80
Recommendations1) The context of the learning environment is important.2) Simulation/games don’t need to be “entertaining” to be instructional.3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities to increase learning (engagement and interactivity).
4 Motivational Elements ofGames that Aid Learning1. Avatars2. Stories & Challenges3. Levels4. Feedback
Why be a Character at All? Research indicates that human social models influence behavior, beliefs and attitudes.Bandura, A. 1986 Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall.
Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
An experience as an avatar can change a persons real life perceptions. In a study conducted by Yee and Bailenson (2006), it was found that negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants were placed in avatars of old people compared with those participants placed in avatars of young people.Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective-Taking on TheReduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th AnnualInternational Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (3), 95-113.
Are two avatars better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert
Motivator Yes, two avatars are better than one. MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogicalagents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
Recommendations1) Avatars can effectively model behavior for both learners and instructors.2) Avatars that look like learners are more influential on the learners.3) Two avatars are better than one provided they are stratified in their usage (one as knowledge, one as coaching)4) Third-person perspective is more powerful for learning than first person.
Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember factshuman brain has a natural affinity for more accurately if they encounter narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.
Story Elements1.Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a setof challenging problems and then let them solve these problemsuntil they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions.Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiringthem to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learnsomething new, and integrate this new learning into their oldmastery.James Paul Gee,University of Wisconsin-Madison
Recommendations1) Use stories and provide challenges in the beginning of the learning process.2) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired learning outcome.
Learners journey through aseries of activities designed to synthesize conceptual learning.
Learning changes from being Disembodied andTransactional to Embodied, Relational and Experiential.
Summary 1 2 Apply stories, avatars, feedback andGames/Simulations are effective levels as effective game elements tofor learning? e-learning. 3 4 Four motivational aspects of gamesProvide support materials around games that improve learning recallInclude as part of curriculum, and application are: interactivity,“fun” doesn’t need to be the goal. context, challenge, and story.
Questions/More Information• http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/ – Recommended books – Samples and Examples• Learning in 3D – www.learningin3d.info• Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning – www.gadgetsgamesandgizmos.com• Email: email@example.com• Email: firstname.lastname@example.org “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” in Spring 2011 published by Pfeiffer.