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Philadelphia ASTD eLearning SIG Meeting


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Presentation was part of an interactive game that explained some research-based information about the design and delivery of learning.

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Philadelphia ASTD eLearning SIG Meeting

  1. 1.  The Learning Game:  What Research Tells Us about Games, Gamification and  Immersive LearningBy Karl M. KappBloomsburg University Twitter:@kkappJuly 19, 2012
  2. 2. Agenda 1 2 How do you apply game-based strategiesWhat does research say about to the presentation of learning content?games and game elements forlearning? 3 4 What are tips for creatingWhat are some principles for e-learning games and simulationsadding serious games to change behavior?to learning curriculums?
  3. 3. Google “Kapp Notes” 2012 New Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2012 T&D ArticleGames, Gamification and the Quest for Interactive Learning
  4. 4. Let’s PlayFact or Fishy…
  5. 5. Rules• A statement is presented – If “true” indicate: FactX – If “false” indicate: FishyX• Text Response:
  6. 6. In a Meta-Analysis…It was found that knowledgeretention for games was11% higher than fortraditional instruction. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  7. 7. Fact Type of  % Higher Knowledge /Retention Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  8. 8. Percentages of Impact It wasn’t the game, it was Type of  level of activity in the game. % Higher Knowledge /Retention Declarative 11% In other words, the Procedural engagement of the learner in 14% the game leads to learning. Retention 9%Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. PersonnelPsychology .Review of 65 studies
  9. 9. Use game-based mechanics,aesthetics and game thinking toengage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  10. 10. Games/Simulations must befun to be Educational. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  11. 11. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  12. 12. Simulation/games build moreconfidence for on the job application of learned knowledge than classroom instruction. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional  effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel
  13. 13. 20% higher confidence Fact levels.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .
  14. 14. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner anddoes not facilitate learningas well as simple text. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  15. 15. On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A “realistic” character did not facilitate learning any better than a “cartoon-like” character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
  16. 16. Who is more likely to run 24 hours later?C.Person who watched an avatar that didnot look like them runningD.Person who watched an avatar thatlooked like them runningE.Person watching an avatar that lookedlike them loitering /hanging out
  17. 17. Within 24 hours of watching an avatar like themselves run, learners were more likely to run than watching an avatar not like them or watching an avatar like them loitering .Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology,21 (3), 95-113.
  18. 18. If learners watch an avatar that looks like them exercising & losing weight, they will subsequently exercise more in the real world as compared to a control group.Fox, J., Arena, D., & Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual Reality: A survival guide for the social scientist. Journal of Media Psychology, 2(3), 95-113.
  19. 19. Avatar as Teacher Research indicates that learners perceive, interact socially with and are influenced by anthropomorphic agents (avatars) even when their functionality and adaptability are limited.Baylor, A. 2009 Promoting motivation with virtual agents and avatars: R ole of visual presence and appearance.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal B Society. 364, 3559–3565
  20. 20. Two avatars are better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert Fact or Fishy?
  21. 21. Yes, two avatars are better than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
  22. 22. Learners remember facts better…When presented as bulletedlist rather than presented asa story.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  23. 23. Yep, People tend to remember Researchers have found that the facts more accurately if they human brain has a natural affinity encounter them in a story rather for narrative construction. than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times.Melanie Green
  24. 24. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  25. 25. Story Elements 1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Ten s ion 4. Resolution te rs pr ob le m C h a ra ct er en co u n n si on 5. Conclusion P ro bl em bu il d s te re d A so lu ti on is of fe te d /p os it iv e R es u lt s a re pr es en
  26. 26. One way to engage learners is to…Present them with a difficultchallenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  27. 27. Fact. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educationalreform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An actionplan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
  28. 28. Re-design the Instructionto Start with a Challenge
  29. 29. Investigatory Training• Course Objectives – Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation – Practice Interview Techniques – Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
  30. 30. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
  31. 31. Games are effective tools for learningbecause…They provide interactivity tothe learner and forcecognitive processing. Is that Fact or Fishy?
  32. 32. It wasn’t the game, it was the level of interactivity within the game. Fact In other words, the engagement of the learner in the game leads to the learning.Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games. PersonnelPsychology .Review of 65 studies
  33. 33. Games can influencepeople to behave in a pro-social manner.Is that Fact or Fishy?
  34. 34. FactGreitemeyer, T. & Osswald, S. (2010) Effective of Prosocial games on prosocialbehavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 98 . No. 2.,211-221.
  35. 35. 28% helped to pick up pencils
  36. 36. 33% helped to pick up pencils
  37. 37. 67% helped to pick up pencils
  38. 38. 22%intervened
  39. 39. 56%intervened
  40. 40. Take-Away1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge retention for declarative and procedural knowledge.2) Games/Simulations do not need to be fun to be educational.3) On screen characters can enhance e-learning.4) Two on screen characters (mentor and expert) are better then one.5) Onscreen avatars can influence off-screen behavior.6) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts.7) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and motivate them.8) Games can influence people to behave in a pro-social manner.
  41. 41. Questions ? Available at Twitter:@kkapp