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Gamification of Learning

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Gamification of Learning

  1. 1. Twitter:@kkapp By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University Gamification of Learning &Instruction April 23, 2013  Gamification of Learning
  2. 2. Interactivity (I) + Immersion (I) = Sustained Engagement (E) Results in meaningful learning.
  3. 3. Interactivity (I) + Immersion (I) = Sustained Engagement (E) Results in meaningful learning.
  4. 4. Content ripped from the pages of “The Gamification of Learning and  Instruction” Content ripped from the pages of “The Gamification of Learning and  Instruction” Slides for This Presentation Google  “Kapp Notes” Look for ASTD Mid NJ 2013 Presentation Resources Slides for This Presentation Google  “Kapp Notes” Look for ASTD Mid NJ 2013 Presentation Resources
  5. 5. 1 Agenda What are three simple, low‐tech  techniques for creating engaging  learning experiences? What are four instructional design methods  that encourage immersive learning 2 3 How do I, create learning experiences tied to interactivity,  immersion and game‐based elements? 
  6. 6. Use game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking to engage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  7. 7. • Gamification is to Learning Game as: – Part is to Whole – Piece is to Puzzle – Slice is to Pie – Steering Wheel is to Car • Gamification uses parts of games but is not a game in-and-of itself. What is this “game” stuff?
  8. 8. Gamification of Learning Adding game elements to traditional learning. Structural:  Points  Badges  Leaderboard Content:  Characters  Challenge  Feedback Gamification is using game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game- thinking to engage people, motivate action promote learning, and solve problems. What is this “game” stuff?
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Some people think Gamification is only about points,  badges and rewards…
  11. 11. … if it was, this would be the most engaging game in the  world.
  12. 12. 20% increase in profile completion.
  13. 13. … the possibilities of “gamification” are far larger than  points, badges and rewards.
  14. 14. Two Examples of the Concepts of  Games and Gamification
  15. 15. Malone’s Theory of Intrinsically  Motivating Instruction  Challenge Fantasy Curiosity
  16. 16. Challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology  for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available: and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing  better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass. Chapter 2  “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  17. 17. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  18. 18. Fantasy– There are both cognitive and emotional reasons for evoking fantasy. Cognitively a fantasy can help a learner apply old knowledge to understand new things and help them remember the content. Emotionally, a person can connect with the experiences and not bring with it “real-world” concerns or fears.
  19. 19. Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a set of challenging problems and then let them solve these problems until they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions. Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiring them to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learn something new, and integrate this new learning into their old mastery. James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  20. 20. Transfer The ability of simulations to teach skills that transfer to real‐ life, on‐the‐job situations seems abundantly positive…  Computer‐based simulations—assessed as an alternative to  other means of training, as a supplement to other means of  training, as a device to combat skill decay in experienced  trainees, and as a means of improving performance levels as  they stand prior to training—show positive results for transfer  a majority of the time. In 22 out of 26 studies, trainees demonstrated equal or  superior transfer to the control group from simulations. Shenan Hahn ADL Research and Evaluation Team
  21. 21. Learners assume the role of an aspiring  Venetian merchant in the late 15th century,  an era when Venice was the center of  commerce in the Mediterranean, and  therefore the world. 6‐levels. 
  22. 22. Recommendations  1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.  2) Include Fantasy to overcome resistance, encourage  generalization and invoke curiosity.   3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities  to increase engagement and interactivity to increase  learning. 4) Transfer of learning occurs when tasks are cognitively the  same.
  23. 23. Story
  24. 24. Researchers have found that the  human brain has a natural affinity for  narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts  more accurately if they encounter  them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie Green Chapter 2 “The Gamification of Learning and  Instruction. 
  25. 25. 1. Characters Story Elements 5. Conclusion 2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution
  26. 26. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  27. 27. Recommendations  • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. • Start the learning process by providing a challenge to  the learner. • Use stories that are related to the context of the  desired learning outcome. 
  28. 28. We’ve Always Wanted Characters Characters
  29. 29. Rosenberg, R.S. Baughman, S.L., Bailenson, J.N. (2013) Virtual Superheroes:  Using Superpowers in Virtual Reality to Encourage Prosocial Behavior. PLOS One., 8(1), 1‐9. Flying around a virtual world as a superhero made subjects nicer in the real world. physical  world
  30. 30. An experience as an avatar  can change a person's real  life perceptions. In a study  conducted by Yee and  Bailenson (2006), it was  found that negative  stereotyping of the elderly  was significantly reduced  when participants were  placed in avatars of old  people compared with those  participants placed in avatars  of young people. Yee, N. & Bailenson, J.N. (2006). Walk A Mile in Digital Shoes: The Impact of Embodied Perspective‐Taking on The Reduction of Negative Stereotyping in Immersive Virtual Environments.. Proceedings of PRESENCE 2006: The 9th Annual  International Workshop on Presence. August 24 – 26, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  31. 31. On tests involving different word problems, the group who had  a character explain the problems generated 30% more correct  answers than the group with  just on‐screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids  to learning.  A “realistic” character did not facilitate  learning any better than a “cartoon‐like” character. Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194. Chapter 4 “The Gamificaiton of Learning and Instruciton”
  32. 32. Guru Carlo Vecchio
  33. 33. Recommendations  • Use characters/agents to model desired behavior. • Use characters/agents to provide feedback and  instruction to learners. • Characters should  speak in a natural, conversational tone. • Use two characters, one for coaching and one for  expertise is better than just having one character trying to  do both.
  34. 34. Feedback
  35. 35. Games like The Sims provide feedback on  many dimensions which provide  opportunities to consider tradeoffs and  higher level cognitive thinking. 
  36. 36. The most helpful feedback provides specific  comments  about errors and suggestions for  improvement. It also encourages learners to focus  their attention thoughtfully on the task rather than  on simply getting the right  answer. Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., Bauer, M. I., & Zapata‐Rivera, D. (2009). Melding the power of serious games and  embedded assessment to monitor and foster learning: Flow and grow. In U. Ritterfeld, M. J. Cody, & P.  Vorderer (Eds.), Serious Games: Mechanisms and Effects. Philadelphia, PA: Routledge/LEA. 295‐321.
  37. 37. Embed into a larger Curriculum E-learning Training Manuals Classroom instruction
  38. 38. Engagement PedagogyGame Educational Simulation Instructional games should be embedded in  instructional programs that include  debriefing and feedback.  Instructional support to help learners  understand how to use the game increases  instructional effectiveness of the gaming  experience. g Hays, R. T. (2005). The effectiveness of instructional games: A literature review and discussion. Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (No 2005‐004). Chapter 4  “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction.”
  39. 39. Example
  40. 40. “I can’t tell you how many people are coming to me wanting another  game solution.”  “The repetition of the different paths helped me retain the information.” “I’m a pretty competitive person so challenging myself to get one of the  top scores added a layer of fun to learning about the MobileConnect  product.” “The game was a fun way to learn about MobileConnect. I enjoyed the  scenario‐type questions, which put it all into context.” Player Results
  41. 41. Business Results Average contract value 2x higher than for previous mobile product. First call resolution ($35 a call/average) is up 45% Of all the launches done in the previous two years to  MobileConnect, the sales team has built the quickest pipeline for  this product.
  42. 42. Player Results “I really had a good time with Merchants.  It’s original, fun, challenging,  outside of the ordinary.  It hooks you!” “This is the best online training I know of.  It has had a positive impact on our  business.” “It’s a very new and interesting program.  The lessons from the mentor and  the readings are very beneficial.  You learn concepts to help you plan, and  afterwards negotiate in situations that reflect real negotiations that you have  with clients.” “Very interesting cases.  You learn very efficiently and effectively.  Applicable  to real life.” “I found it very interesting, especially the lessons of the mentor.  The main  concepts are completely applicable to our day‐to‐day.  I am already looking  forward to the next course!”
  43. 43. Learning Results Average course evaluation, to date:  9.4 out of 10 Average assessment of educational value:  9.3 out of 10 Percentage answering “Yes” to “I find it applicable to real life”:  98% Percentage answering “Yes” to “I will recommend this course”:  99% Percentage of learners who completed the course after starting it:  92% The above results are aggregate averages from over 30,000 learners who have  taken this course.
  44. 44. Special Thank You!  • Game On! Learning – Bryan Austin – • The Knowledge Guru – Sharon Boller –
  45. 45. 1) Interactivity of games leads to higher knowledge. 2) Fantasy, curiosity and challenge are key elements for  instructional games. 3) Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories.  4) On screen characters can enhance e‐learning. 5) Use stories rather than bulleted lists to present facts. 6) Present learners with a difficult challenge to engage and  motivate them.  7) Use stories that are related to the context of the desired  learning outcome.  8) Feedback needs to be targeted. 9) Embedded the game into a larger curriculum.  Takeaways
  46. 46. Contact Karl via  Twitter or email Twitter:@kkapp Twitter:@kkapp Look for Fieldbook  in 2014!