Game based learning

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Game based learning

  1. 1. Game‐Based Learning Twitter:@kkapp By Karl M. Kapp Bloomsburg University  July 21, 2013
  2. 2. Google “Kapp Notes”Google “Kapp Notes” Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” Book: “The Gamification of Learning and Instruction” September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer September 2011 Training Quarterly Article Improving Training: Thinking Like a Game Developer July 2011 T&D Article Matching the Right Instruction to the Right Content July 2011 T&D Article Matching the Right Instruction to the Right Content
  3. 3. 1 Agenda How do I use game-based learning in the classroom? How do you apply game-based strategies to the presentation of learning content? 2 3 What are 3 principles for adding serious games to learning curriculums?
  4. 4. 10,000 hrs of Game play 13 hours of console games a week Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life.  US Department of Commerce 87% of 8- to 17- year olds play video games at home.
  5. 5. Females play 5 hours a week of console games. They make up the majority of PC gamers at 63%. Almost 43% of the gamers are female and 26% of those females are over 18. Digital divisions. Report by the Pew /Internet: Pew Internet & American Life.  US Department of Commerce
  6. 6. What Research Says about Games for Learning
  7. 7. Type of  Knowledge/ Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness  of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies
  8. 8. Type of  Knowledge/ Retention % Higher Declarative 11% Procedural 14% Retention 9% Percentages of Impact Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness  of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology .Review of 65 studies It wasn’t the game, it was level  of activity in the game. In other words, the engagement  of the learner in the game leads  to learning.
  9. 9. Sitzmann, T. (2011) A meta‐analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness  of computer‐based simulation games. Personnel Psychology . 20% higher  confidence levels. Simulation/games build more confidence for  on the job application of learned knowledge  than classroom instruction.
  10. 10. A math facts game deployed on a handled computer  encouraged learners to complete greater number of  problems at an increased level of difficulty.  Learners playing the handheld game completed  nearly 3 times the number of problems in 19 days  and voluntarily increased the level of difficulty.  Lee, J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games:  Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. Paper presented at the CHI '04  Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria.
  11. 11. ..it’s the instructional methods and  not the delivery system that  provides the active ingredients for  learning…in a game/simulation. ‐‐Jeanne Farrington
  12. 12. Recommendations  1) Use a game/simulation to provide a context for the learning.  2) Embed the game in the curriculum.  3) Carefully craft the simulation/game to provide opportunities  to increase engagement and interactivity to increase  learning.
  13. 13. Use game-based mechanics, aesthetics and game thinking to engage people, motivate action, promote learning, and solve problems. Gamification
  14. 14. Elements of Games that Aid Learning • Story • Character • Recognition • Levels • Challenges • Chance • Replayability • Aesthetics • Time • Continual Feedback
  15. 15. Elements of Games that Aid Learning • Story • Character • Recognition • Levels • Challenges • Chance • Replayability • Aesthetics • Time • Continual Feedback NOT Enough Time 
  16. 16. Four Elements of Games that Aid Learning 1. Tell a Story 2. Provide a Challenge 3. Competition and Cooperation 4. Feedback
  17. 17. Tell a Story
  18. 18. Researchers have found that the  human brain has a natural affinity for  narrative construction. Yep, People tend to remember facts  more accurately if they encounter  them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more  convincing when built into narrative  tales rather than on legal precedent. Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times. Melanie  Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
  19. 19. 1. Characters Story Elements 5. Conclusion 2. Plot (something has to happen). 3. Tension 4. Resolution
  20. 20. NikePlus Stats for Karl
  21. 21. Challenge and Consolidation– Good games offer players a set of challenging problems and then let them solve these problems until they have virtually routinized or automated their solutions. Games then throw a new class of problem at the players requiring them to rethink their now, taken-for-granted mastery, learn something new, and integrate this new learning into their old mastery. James Paul Gee, University of Wisconsin-Madison
  22. 22. Provide a challenge Jones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology  for educational reform. North Central Regional  Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:  http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing  better schools: An action plan for educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey‐Bass
  23. 23. Re‐design the Instruction to  Start with a Challenge
  24. 24. Recommendations  • Embed facts to be learned in the context of stories. • Start the learning process by providing a challenge to  the learner. • Use stories that are related to the context of the  desired learning outcome. 
  25. 25. Competition and Cooperation
  26. 26. In the Classroom • Form students into companies (teams) • Provide Request for Proposal • Students develop: – 40 page proposal – Working Prototype – Sales Presentation
  27. 27. Feedback
  28. 28. Games like The Sims provide feedback on  many dimensions which provide  opportunities to consider tradeoffs and  higher level cognitive thinking. 
  29. 29. Level One: Talking with the  receptionist.
  30. 30. Level Two: Talking with the nurse  gatekeeper.
  31. 31. Level Three: Talking with the  physician.
  32. 32. Level One:  Demonstration
  33. 33. Practice Level Two:  Guided  Practice
  34. 34. Level Three:  Performance  Assessment
  35. 35. Recommendations  • Provide feedback on several dimensions.  • Use feedback to help change behavior.  • Discussion of feedback aids the learning  process. • Feedback should be continuous throughout  the learning process. 
  36. 36. Learned Procedure
  37. 37. 1 Summary Games/Simulations are effective for learning because of learner engagement. Apply stories, competition & cooperation, And feedback as effective game elements to learning. 2 3 Embed games within a curriculum, Not as stand alone elements..
  38. 38. Go ahead…jump in!
  39. 39. Questions/More Information • Google Kapp Notes – Recommended books – Samples and Examples • Email: kkapp@bloomu.edu • Email: karlkapp@gmail.com • Twitter: @kkapp • Pinterest: Gamification Happenings • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/gamificationLI “The Gamification of Learning  and Instruction”

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