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• Match a list of dates with events in European history. (Facts)Compute the square root of a number. (Procedures)Plot the path of a hurricane using longitude and latitude. (Rules)Create an original recipe for a cake. (Problem Solving)Explain the idea of friendship. (Concept)Negotiate for a “win-win” outcome. (Principles)

1. 1. Selecting the Appropriate Training Approach: Delivery Decision-Making By Karl M. Kapp, Ed.D., CFPIM, CIRM Professor, Instructional Technology Bloomsburg University
2. 2. What is this . . . The procedure is actually quite simple. First, you arrange things into different groups. One pile may be sufficient, depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again and puts them into their appropriate places. Eventually, they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then be repeated again. However, that is part of life. KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
3. 3. To deliver effective instruction, you must understand the context in which the learning will be used and choose an appropriate delivery mechanism. --Karl’s mom
4. 4. For More Continued Discussion: www.karlkapp.blogspot.com
5. 5. Results of Good Instructional Design • Standardized Process • Research-based principles guide selection of instructional strategies and media. • Learner assessments are tightly integrated with the objectives of the instruction. • Learner success increases • Courses are developed from learner’s perspective • Correct delivery methods if chosen KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
6. 6. Agenda • Adult learning theory applied to your organization • Introduction to the “ADDIE” model • What Method to Use?: instructor-led, computer based, OJT, read and understand, etc. • Aligning content and learning approach to your audience
7. 7. Which Topic is of the Most Interest? 1. Adult learning theory 1. Orange applied to your organization 2. Purple 2. Introduction to the “ADDIE” model 3. Pink 3. What Method to Use?: instructor-led, computer 4. Blue based, OJT, read and understand, etc. 5. All of the Above 4. Aligning content and learning approach to your audience 6. None of the Above
8. 8. Describe the Ideal Learning Event?
9. 9. Ideal Learning Event • Human interaction • Class size of one • Extremely focused • Takes place within 5 - 10 minutes of need • Answers individual questions • Effectively solves a problem
10. 10. Sad Reality • People are busy • OJT is not always done well • Time is a limited resource • People rush through training to get “back to real work” • Best delivery methods are not always chosen
11. 11. Solutions • Create a Bill of Learning • Standardize Design of Instruction • Apply Adult Learning Principles to Content Delivery • Apply Distributed Practice Concept • Focus on Behavioral Changes
12. 12. ADDIE One of the most common Instructional System Design models KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
13. 13. Analysis Without careful analysis instructional problems can occur • Define the characteristics of the prospective learners – Age Grouping – Educational Background – Role within Organization • Examine the type of content to be taught • Define the Business Goals • Identify audit risks • Define the Learning Objectives • Determine the delivery format Measure twice; Cut once Analyze fully; Design once
14. 14. Analysis • Teach someone how to write and send a letter • Write the letter, including the • Fold the letter and put it in the envelope introduction, body, and closing • Seal the envelope • Address an envelope properly and • Determine proper postage legibly • Affix the postage stamp in the correct • Affix proper postage to the envelope location • Deliver the envelope to the post office
15. 15. Analysis 1. Who is the intended training audience? a. What do they know? b. What do they need to know? 2. What risks are involved in terms of personnel and company? 3. What business need is driving this training? 4. What are the goals and objectives for this training? a. How do we know when they are met? 5. How will you define and measure success for both the learner and the organization? 6. What are my options for delivering this material? 7. Is it review or new material? 8. What is the criticality of not knowing this information?
16. 16. Design • Determine Knowledge Type and appropriate Instructional Strategies
17. 17. Design Facts • Associations of one piece of information to another and require memorization. Teaching Facts - Mnemonics - Chunking - Drill and Practice Drill and Practice - Association Association Chemical Quackers - Organization - Elaboration / Re-teach Put it Together
18. 18. Design Concepts • A class of items that share common features and is known by a common name • Hero • Disease • Inspection • Audit Teaching Concepts • Identification of attributes • Discrimination of examples/non-examples Manufacturing game
19. 19. Design Design for Concepts – Linking of Facts – Example, Non-Example – Attribute Classification Example One Example Two
20. 20. Design Design for Concepts – Linking of Facts – Example, Non-Example – Attribute Classification
21. 21. Design Rules • Rule is a statement that expresses a relationship between two or more concepts. Teaching Rules • If-Then • Cause/Effect • Concept Application
22. 22. Design Rules KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
23. 23. Design Rules KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
24. 24. Design Procedures • Procedure is a sequence of steps the learner performs to accomplish a task. Teaching Procedures – Whole to Part Review – Learn Parts – Assemble Procedure
25. 25. Design Procedures KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
26. 26. Simulations
27. 27. Design Procedures KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
28. 28. Design Principles • A non-sequential guideline that must be adapted to a specific situation when interacting with others. Teaching Principles – Modeling – Behavior Checklist – Examples
29. 29. Design Principles • Basic Feedback Loop Situation 1 Q1 Correct Situation 2 Incorrect Provide feedback in Situation 2 or independent of Situation 2 Feedback or go to Q1 KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
30. 30. Design Principles KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
31. 31. Design Problem-Solving • Problem is previously un-encountered situation that requires the application of previously learned concepts, rules, procedures, principles Teaching Principles – Realistic Application – Scenarios – Professional Experiences Example
32. 32. Pop Quiz Guess the Type of Content
33. 33. What Type of Knowledge? Match a list of dates with events in European history. 1. Facts 1. Orange 2. Concepts 3. Rules 2. Purple 4. Procedures 3. Pink 4. Blue
34. 34. What Type of Knowledge? Compute the Square Root of Number. 1. Concepts 1. Orange 2. Rules 3. Procedures 2. Purple 4. Problem-Solving 3. Pink 4. Blue
35. 35. What Type of Knowledge? Plot the path of a hurricane using longitude and latitude. 1. Concepts 1. Orange 2. Rules 3. Procedures 2. Purple 4. Problem-Solving 3. Pink 4. Blue
36. 36. What Type of Knowledge? Explain the idea of Compliance. 1. Facts 1. Orange 2. Concepts 2. Purple 3. Rules 3. Pink 4. Principles (Soft Skills) 4. Blue
37. 37. What Type of Knowledge? Negotiate for a “win-win” outcome. 1. Orange 1. Rules 2. Purple 2. Procedures 3. Pink 3. Principles (Soft Skills) 4. Problem-Solving 4. Blue
38. 38. Development • The creation of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase – Online course • Creation of Media assets (e.g. images, Flash, Audio, Video) – Stand Up Instruction • Instructor Guide • Learner Guide • Job Aids • Formative Evaluation – A test run of the materials
39. 39. Implementation • The Course ready to be launched - Online Course - Course Delivery - Computers and Connections - Registration - Instructor-led Course - Course Delivery - Room Logistics - Registration - OJT - Content Delivery - Assessment - Registration/Tracking
40. 40. Evaluation • The quality control process that ensures an instructional sound, bug-free course • Provides opportunity for feedback from the learners and assess learner outcomes – Do learners like the course? – Do learners achieve the learning objectives at the end of the course? – Do the learners change their behaviors in the workplace? – Does the course help the company achieve its business goals?
41. 41. Bill of Material Bill of Learning Mountain Maintain a High Level Bike of Product Quality Wheel Frame Handlebar Learn to use new Properly Document Assembly Assembly Assembly Quality system and Quality Problems 2 Understand integrated Understand the Rim nature of Quality system process of Assembly Tire documenting problems 2 2 Describe the dataflow Explain the concept of of the quality system “quality related error” Spokes Hub Rim Identify critical Quality Classify different types 36 system functions of errors that occur during production
42. 42. Type of Training • Read and Sign Considerations – Review of content – Focused on awareness – Minimal consequences for failure – Behavior is expected or common practice – No behavior change anticipated as a result – Best for teaching: Facts
43. 43. Type of Training • Online Considerations – Consistency of content critical – Evaluation of knowledge required – Large, geographically dispersed population – Material is relatively static – Behavior change expected – Best for teaching: Facts, Concepts, Rules, Procedures
44. 44. Type of Training • Instructor-Led – Opportunity to ask questions necessary – Content can have ambiguity – Initial orientation to organization – Interaction with peers desired for learning results – Best for teaching: Principles, Problem-Solving
45. 45. Type of Training • On-the-Job – Manipulation of Equipment Required – Evaluation of performance/behavior required – Small instructor/learner ratio available – Trainer is trained to deliver OJT – Highly specific instructions & directions required – Best for teaching: Rules, Procedural, Problem- Solving
46. 46. Type of Considerations Content Behavior Example Training Change Read and Review of content Facts No Mission Sign Focused on awareness Concepts Statement Minimal consequences for failure Ethics Statement Behavior is expected or common practice Instructor- Opportunity to ask questions necessary Problem Yes Sales Training Led Content can have ambiguity Solving Initial orientation to organization Principles Interaction with peers desired for learning results Online Consistency of content critical Facts Yes Lock out, Tag Out Evaluation of knowledge required Concepts Training Large, geographically dispersed population Rules MSDS Training Material is relatively static Procedures OJT Manipulation of Equipment Required Procedural Yes Operating a Evaluation of performance/behavior required Problem piece of Small instructor/learner ratio available Solving machinery Trainer is trained to deliver OJT Highly specific instructions & directions required
47. 47. Online vs. Instructor-Led Checklist 1. Are you teaching declarative knowledge: facts, concepts or rules? (procedures, principles, and problem- solving knowledge are more difficult to teach online without simulations.) 2. Is the material to be taught relatively static? (Material with frequent changes is less appropriate for online instruction) 3. Are the materials straightforward with little complexity? 4. Do you need to distribute the instruction to a large, geographically dispersed population of learners? 5. Do you need to track course completions?
48. 48. Online versus Instructor-Led Checklist 6. Do you need to evaluate learner achievement via quizzes or tests? 7. Is there time to create an effective online module? 8. Is there enough budget for online learning? (“Effective” online learning may require more budget upfront than ILT but it saves in the long run) 9. Would the learner benefit if the content was animated to show relationships among items or changes over time or how to perform certain actions?
49. 49. Online versus Instructor-Led Checklist 10. Will potential learners have different knowledge levels prior to taking the instruction? 11. Does an infrastructure already exist for distribution of an online module? 12. Do you have the resources for technically supporting online learning? 13. Do all the potential learners have easy access to a computer and, therefore, the instruction? 14. Are the potential learners comfortable and familiar with using a computer? KNOWLEDGE SUMMIT 2009
50. 50. General Adult Learning Delivery Principles • Link Behavior to Learning to avoid learning clutter • Distributed Practice • Immediate Feedback • Stress “Why” • Illuminate Consequences • Provide Multiple Learning Paths
51. 51. ENIAC's main control panel
52. 52. Link Task to Performance/Behavior How will this knowledge or skill contribute to better job performance?