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Chapter 6 - Standardized
   Measurement and
     Assessment




 http://www.offthemarkcartoons.com/cartoons/2005-08-21.gif
What is measurement?
• the act of measuring
• assigning symbols or numbers to
  something according to a specific set of
  rules
What are the four different
levels or scales of
measurement?

•Nominal Scale
•Ordinal Scale
•Interval Scale
•Ratio Scale
What is essential to know
about the Nominal Scale?

• it’s the simplest form of measurement
• it uses symbols, such as words or
  numbers
• it measures categorical variables

               IDENTIFY
  LABEL                       CLASSIFY
What is essential to know
about the Ordinal Scale?

• it’s a rank-order scale
• it doesn’t indicate how much greater
  one ranking is over another
What is essential to know
about the Interval Scale?

• it’s also a rank-order scale
• includes equal distances
  or intervals between
  adjacent numbers
• the absence of a zero
  points means you cannot
  make “ratio statements”
What is essential to know
about the Ratio Scale?

• it’s the highest level of quantitative
  measure
• it has all the properties of the nominal,
  ordinal, and interval scales plus it has a
  true zero point
• it is not often used in educational
  research
Scales of Measurement


   Nominal           Ordinal                    Interval                Ratio
-labels things-   -ranks things-       -ranks w/ equal distances   -ranks & labels-
How do we define testing?
• the measurement of variables
How do we define assessment?

• gathering data to make evaluations
How do we define error?

• the difference between true scores and
  observed scores
How do we define traits?

• distinguishable, enduring ways in which
  one individual differs from another
How do we define states?

• distinguishable but less enduring ways
  in which individuals vary
What are the twelve assumptions
underlying testing and
measurement?
psychological           psychological
traits & states         traits & states
      exist           can be measured


                                          assessments
     various approaches                    can answer
      to measurement                      some of life’s
           can be                         most important
            useful                          questions
What are the twelve assumptions
underlying testing and
measurement?        various sources
                                    of data
assessment
                               enrich & are part
can pinpoint
                              of the assessment
 phenomena
                                    process
 that require
further study

                various sources          measurement
                     of error              techniques
                  are always             have strengths
                  part of the                  &
                  assessment              weaknesses
                    process
What are the twelve assumptions
 underlying testing and
 measurement?           testing
                           &
   test-related                   assessment
     behavior                 can be done in a fair
predicts non-test                and unbiased
      related                         way
     behavior

                                              testing
               present-day sampling              &
                      predicts              assessment
                  future behavior             benefit
                                              society
What is the difference between
reliability and validity?
• Reliability refers to   • Validity refers to the
  the consistency of a      accuracy of the
  score                     interpretations you
                            make from the scores




If you want validity, you must have reliability.
What is a reliability coefficient?

• a correlation coefficient that is used as an
  index of reliability
• Researchers want reliability coefficients to be
  as close to +1.00 as possible
What are four different ways of
assessing reliability?
1.   Test-Retest Reliability
2.   Equivalent Forms Reliability
3.   Internal Consistency Reliability
4.   Interscorer Reliability
What is test-retest reliability?

•   a measure of the consistency of scores over
    time
•   the time interval can have an effect on test-
    retest reliability because people change over
    time
What is equivalent forms reliability?

•   the consistency of a group of individuals’
    scores on two equivalent forms of a test
    measuring the same thing
•   the success of this method depends on the
    ability to construct two equivalent forms of the
    same test
What is internal consistency
reliability?
•   the consistency with which the items on a test
    measure a single construct
What is are two indexes of internal
consistency?
•   split-half reliability: splitting a test into two
    equivalent haves and then assessing the
    consistency of the scores across the two
    halves of the test
•   each ha
What is split-half reliability?

•   splitting a test into two equivalent halves and
    then assessing the consistency of the scores
    across the two halves of the test
•   each half needs to be equal to the other in
    format, style, content, and other aspects
What is coefficient alpha?

•   a formula that provides an estimate of the reliability
    of a homogeneous test or an estimate of the
    reliability of each dimension in a multidimensional
    test
•   tells you the degree to which the items are
    interrelated
•   need to consider the number of items; don’t just
    assume that because the coefficient alpha is large,
    the items are strongly related
What is interscorer reliability?

•   the degree of agreement or consistency
    between two or more scorers, judges, or
    raters
•   some degree of training and practice for the
    scorers is advised to improve the reliability of
    an evaluation
What is the definition of validity?

•   the accuracy of the inferences, interpretations, or
    actions made on the basis of test scores
•   to make sure that our test is measuring what we
    intended it to measure for the particular people in a
    particular context and that the interpretations we
    make on the basis of the test scores are correct
•   we want our inferences to be accurate and aour
    actions to be appropriate
What is the definition of validity
evidence?
•   the empirical evidence and theoretical
    rationales that support the inferences or
    interpretations made from the test scores
What is the definition of validation?

•   the process of gather evidence that supports
    inferences made on the basis of test scores
•   the best rule is to collect multiple sources of
    evidence

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Chapter 6 - Standardized Measurement & Assessment

  • 1. Chapter 6 - Standardized Measurement and Assessment http://www.offthemarkcartoons.com/cartoons/2005-08-21.gif
  • 2. What is measurement? • the act of measuring • assigning symbols or numbers to something according to a specific set of rules
  • 3. What are the four different levels or scales of measurement? •Nominal Scale •Ordinal Scale •Interval Scale •Ratio Scale
  • 4. What is essential to know about the Nominal Scale? • it’s the simplest form of measurement • it uses symbols, such as words or numbers • it measures categorical variables IDENTIFY LABEL CLASSIFY
  • 5. What is essential to know about the Ordinal Scale? • it’s a rank-order scale • it doesn’t indicate how much greater one ranking is over another
  • 6. What is essential to know about the Interval Scale? • it’s also a rank-order scale • includes equal distances or intervals between adjacent numbers • the absence of a zero points means you cannot make “ratio statements”
  • 7. What is essential to know about the Ratio Scale? • it’s the highest level of quantitative measure • it has all the properties of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales plus it has a true zero point • it is not often used in educational research
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. Scales of Measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio -labels things- -ranks things- -ranks w/ equal distances -ranks & labels-
  • 11. How do we define testing? • the measurement of variables
  • 12. How do we define assessment? • gathering data to make evaluations
  • 13. How do we define error? • the difference between true scores and observed scores
  • 14. How do we define traits? • distinguishable, enduring ways in which one individual differs from another
  • 15. How do we define states? • distinguishable but less enduring ways in which individuals vary
  • 16. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? psychological psychological traits & states traits & states exist can be measured assessments various approaches can answer to measurement some of life’s can be most important useful questions
  • 17. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? various sources of data assessment enrich & are part can pinpoint of the assessment phenomena process that require further study various sources measurement of error techniques are always have strengths part of the & assessment weaknesses process
  • 18. What are the twelve assumptions underlying testing and measurement? testing & test-related assessment behavior can be done in a fair predicts non-test and unbiased related way behavior testing present-day sampling & predicts assessment future behavior benefit society
  • 19. What is the difference between reliability and validity? • Reliability refers to • Validity refers to the the consistency of a accuracy of the score interpretations you make from the scores If you want validity, you must have reliability.
  • 20. What is a reliability coefficient? • a correlation coefficient that is used as an index of reliability • Researchers want reliability coefficients to be as close to +1.00 as possible
  • 21. What are four different ways of assessing reliability? 1. Test-Retest Reliability 2. Equivalent Forms Reliability 3. Internal Consistency Reliability 4. Interscorer Reliability
  • 22. What is test-retest reliability? • a measure of the consistency of scores over time • the time interval can have an effect on test- retest reliability because people change over time
  • 23. What is equivalent forms reliability? • the consistency of a group of individuals’ scores on two equivalent forms of a test measuring the same thing • the success of this method depends on the ability to construct two equivalent forms of the same test
  • 24. What is internal consistency reliability? • the consistency with which the items on a test measure a single construct
  • 25. What is are two indexes of internal consistency? • split-half reliability: splitting a test into two equivalent haves and then assessing the consistency of the scores across the two halves of the test • each ha
  • 26. What is split-half reliability? • splitting a test into two equivalent halves and then assessing the consistency of the scores across the two halves of the test • each half needs to be equal to the other in format, style, content, and other aspects
  • 27. What is coefficient alpha? • a formula that provides an estimate of the reliability of a homogeneous test or an estimate of the reliability of each dimension in a multidimensional test • tells you the degree to which the items are interrelated • need to consider the number of items; don’t just assume that because the coefficient alpha is large, the items are strongly related
  • 28. What is interscorer reliability? • the degree of agreement or consistency between two or more scorers, judges, or raters • some degree of training and practice for the scorers is advised to improve the reliability of an evaluation
  • 29. What is the definition of validity? • the accuracy of the inferences, interpretations, or actions made on the basis of test scores • to make sure that our test is measuring what we intended it to measure for the particular people in a particular context and that the interpretations we make on the basis of the test scores are correct • we want our inferences to be accurate and aour actions to be appropriate
  • 30. What is the definition of validity evidence? • the empirical evidence and theoretical rationales that support the inferences or interpretations made from the test scores
  • 31. What is the definition of validation? • the process of gather evidence that supports inferences made on the basis of test scores • the best rule is to collect multiple sources of evidence