Leading with Values    and Virtues  Summit 2011       1 December 2011         Kim Cameron     University of Michigan      ...
• Thank you for the honor of being invited.• I have a special love for the Marriott School,  for its leaders, and for BYU....
As of Today . . .• More than 69,000 books on “Leadership” are listed on  Amazon.com, and 400,000 books are listed on “Valu...
Criteria for This Presentation• Empirically verified – Validity• Theoretically grounded – Explanation• Practically applica...
Understanding Values and Virtues     |                                                        |                           ...
Explanation    Focusing on    Abundance                                                   The       Gaps                  ...
Effects of Abundance and Virtuousness    Comparisons between individuals characterized by the right-    hand factor compar...
Heart Health8     © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
Coherence in the Body                                                                                At the highest       ...
Effects of Virtuousness*                                              LOW VIRTUOUS SCORES                                 ...
Effects of Virtuousness*                                                  LOW VIRTUOUS SCORES                             ...
Effects of Virtuousness Training*                                         CONTROL/NORMAL                                TR...
9th Grade Literature Classes                          Exposed to positive                                   *Training =   ...
Positivity, Virtuousness, and Brain                  FunctioningMental acuity is greater when  individuals contemplate   p...
The Implication is NOT:•    Just smile and everything will be fine•    If you’re good, nothing goes wrong•    Always be po...
The Implication IS:• Fostering virtuousness has significant impact on:   – Physical health   – Mental health   – Brain act...
But, What About Organizations?• Merely gathering happy or positive people together  does not make for an effective organiz...
My Own Central Research Questions• What is the effect of virtuous practices on  organizational performance?• Can positivel...
Some Research Findings•    Communication in TMTs•    Seven matched organizations within a parent corporation•    Intervent...
Dimensions of Virtuousness•    Meaningfulness and Purpose•    Gratitude and Appreciation•    Dignity and Respect•    Suppo...
One Practical Illustration     • Strategy 1       –Jobs       –Financial Capital       –Compliance     • Strategy 2       ...
Illustrating Ideological Capital22               © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
Engagement and Suicide• Research on suicide is notoriously poor because obtaining accurate data  in advance is essentially...
Ideas for Increasing Ideological Capital• Connect to a person or to human benefit• Connect to an important personal value•...
Conclusion     • Abundant empirical evidence suggests that       virtuousness in leadership produces       dramatically he...
Questions, Concerns, Yeah Buts,                        Thoughts?SOME REFERENCES:Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn (2003) Positive O...
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Kim Cameron - Leading with Values - 2011

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Kim Cameron - Leading with Values - 2011

  1. 1. Leading with Values and Virtues Summit 2011 1 December 2011 Kim Cameron University of Michigan 1 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  2. 2. • Thank you for the honor of being invited.• I have a special love for the Marriott School, for its leaders, and for BYU.• I will try my best to add value to the impressive program that has been planned. 2 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  3. 3. As of Today . . .• More than 69,000 books on “Leadership” are listed on Amazon.com, and 400,000 books are listed on “Values.”• More than 8300 new books are published each day, but the average book sells less than 200 copies.• A tiny percentage of leadership and business books are based on validated research findings. Most are based on personal experiences and story telling. “Evidence-based practice” is rare. 3 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  4. 4. Criteria for This Presentation• Empirically verified – Validity• Theoretically grounded – Explanation• Practically applicable - Utility4 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  5. 5. Understanding Values and Virtues | | | Negative Deviance Normal Positive Deviance Individual: Physiological Illness Health Vitality Psychological Illness Health Flow Organizational: Economics Unprofitable Instrumental Values Profitable Generous Effectiveness Ineffective (standards of conduct) Effective Virtues Excellent Efficiency Inefficient Terminal values Efficient (the best of the humanExtraordinary condition) Quality Error-prone (ends or goals) Reliable Perfect Ethics Unethical Ethical Benevolent Relationships Harmful Helpful Honoring Adaptation Threat-rigidity Coping Flourishing Deficit gaps Abundance gaps5 SOURCE: Cameron, 2003. © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  6. 6. Explanation Focusing on Abundance The Gaps Heliotropic Leading with Effect Virtuousness6 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  7. 7. Effects of Abundance and Virtuousness Comparisons between individuals characterized by the right- hand factor compared to the left-hand factor have shown dramatic differences: Gratitude Journal versus Frustration Journal Capturing the Best versus Capturing the Worst Virtuous Condition versus Non-Virtuous Condition – more antibodies after vaccines – stronger genetic expression – more mental alertness, acute and long lasting memory, and faster learning – enhanced filtration, bodily fluid exchange, energy efficiency, coherence – more inquisitiveness, creativity, and exploration – higher levels of productivity and quality performance – recovery from disease – avoidance of depression after spouse loss SOURCES: See Cameron & Lavine, 2006; Cameron, 2007 for references7 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  8. 8. Heart Health8 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  9. 9. Coherence in the Body At the highest levels of heart coherence, the power spectrum of the heart peaks at 0.1 hertz (the ideal). Coherence refers to the coordinated oscillation of heart and brain rhythms. SOURCE: McCraty & Childre, 20049 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  10. 10. Effects of Virtuousness* LOW VIRTUOUS SCORES HIGH VIRTUOUS SCORES Heart Rate Variability (Predicts cardiovascular illness) Blood Pressure LOW HIGH BASE STRESSOR RECOVERY LEVELS LEVELS Inflammation Cortisol BASE STRESSOR RECOVERY LOW MEDIUM HIGH LEVELS LEVELS LEVELS* Compassion, Gratitude, Love, Kindness, Forgiveness, Positive regard, etc. Source: Steptoe, 2011 10 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  11. 11. Effects of Virtuousness* LOW VIRTUOUS SCORES HIGH VIRTUOUS SCORES (Anti-Aging Hormone) Death Rate DHEAS DEATH RATE Lo = 25% 3rd = 14% 2nd = 11% Hi = 7% 0 20 40 60 80 LOW HIGH MONTHS LEVELS LEVELS Brain Activity Triglycerides COMPASSIONATE LOW MEDIUM HIGH REST CONTEMPLATION LEVELS LEVELS LEVELS* Compassion, Gratitude, Love, Kindness, Forgiveness, Positive regard, etc. Source: Steptoe, 2011; Davidson, 2011 11 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  12. 12. Effects of Virtuousness Training* CONTROL/NORMAL TRAINED IN PRACTICING VIRTUOUSNESS ADHD children Rating of Pain Brain Activity Control Trained 0 TIME 3 Months NORMAL TRAINED Trained Wound Healing After Flu Shot Antibodies Control 0 TIME 2 Weeks CONTROL TRAINED* Compassion, Gratitude, Love, Kindness, Forgiveness, Positive regard, etc. Source: Steptoe, 2011 12 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  13. 13. 9th Grade Literature Classes Exposed to positive *Training = training and • Kindness virtuousness* • Purpose • Gratitude Performance ** • Virtuousness • Nobility Normal • Etc. curriculum ** Performance = • Social skills • Zest for learning • Writing competence • Absence of depression Semester’s Time13 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  14. 14. Positivity, Virtuousness, and Brain FunctioningMental acuity is greater when individuals contemplate positive, virtuous outcomes. Sharot, Riccardi, Raio & Phelps (2007) Nature 450, 102-10514 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  15. 15. The Implication is NOT:• Just smile and everything will be fine• If you’re good, nothing goes wrong• Always be positive and avoid the negative• Don’t worry about problems and obstacles• Everyone gets a blue ribbon15 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  16. 16. The Implication IS:• Fostering virtuousness has significant impact on: – Physical health – Mental health – Brain activity – Social relationships – Work productivity – Life expectancy• The heliotropic effect is inherent and universal.16 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  17. 17. But, What About Organizations?• Merely gathering happy or positive people together does not make for an effective organization.• Organizational dynamics are much more complex than merely aggregating admiral people.17 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  18. 18. My Own Central Research Questions• What is the effect of virtuous practices on organizational performance?• Can positively deviant performance be produced by virtuous leaders?18 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  19. 19. Some Research Findings• Communication in TMTs• Seven matched organizations within a parent corporation• Intervention studies aimed at an abundance culture change• Public and private companies in 16 industries• The airline industry after 9-11• Financial services performance• Health care organizations• Leadership energyConclusion: Implementing virtuous practices and enabling anabundance culture significantly and positively related toorganizational effectiveness (e.g., profitability, productivity,quality, innovation, customer satisfaction, employee retention)and outside-of-work well-being.19 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  20. 20. Dimensions of Virtuousness• Meaningfulness and Purpose• Gratitude and Appreciation• Dignity and Respect• Support and Compassion• Caring and Concern• Inspiration and Positive Energy• Forgiveness and Understanding• Trust and Integrity20 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  21. 21. One Practical Illustration • Strategy 1 –Jobs –Financial Capital –Compliance • Strategy 2 –Careers –Social and Intellectual Capital –Commitment • Strategy 3 –Callings –Ideological Capital –Devotion SOURCE: Adapted from Wrzesniewski, 2003; Godfrey, 2005.21 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  22. 22. Illustrating Ideological Capital22 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  23. 23. Engagement and Suicide• Research on suicide is notoriously poor because obtaining accurate data in advance is essentially impossible. However, an annual survey is now being conducted of physical, social, family, spiritual well-being in the U.S. Army.• Soldiers who score in the bottom one percent on two items: “I have an important purpose in my life.” “I can find something meaningful associated with my role in the Army.” – Have a ___?___ higher probability of suicide.• The suicide rate is 50 percent higher among this group of soldiers (not to mention addiction, PTSD, depression).23 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  24. 24. Ideas for Increasing Ideological Capital• Connect to a person or to human benefit• Connect to an important personal value• Identify a benefit that extends beyond the immediate• Connect to the organization’s core purpose• Connect to virtues— e.g., benevolence, compassion, integrity, love, hop e• Connect to the ripple effect (others extend the influence)24 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  25. 25. Conclusion • Abundant empirical evidence suggests that virtuousness in leadership produces dramatically healthier and more successful employees and organizations. • Leaders may want to consider basing their leadership strategies on virtuousness, not just on values.25 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan
  26. 26. Questions, Concerns, Yeah Buts, Thoughts?SOME REFERENCES:Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn (2003) Positive Organizational Scholarship. Berrett Koehler.Hess & Cameron (2006) Leading with Values. Cambridge University Press.Cameron (2008) Positive Leadership. Berrett Koehler.Cameron & Spreitzer (2012) Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. Oxford University Press. 26 © Kim Cameron, University of Michigan

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