COLONIAL AMERICA

    1675-1763
GOOGLE
•   BACON’S REBELLION
•   KING PHILIP’S WAR
•   PUEBLO REVOLT
•   DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND
•   SALEM WITCHCRAFT CRIS...
KING PHILIP’S WAR
• Bloodiest Indian war in New England
  history: about 1,000 settlers and 3,000
  natives dead
• Triggered by Plymouth’s p...
• 
 Religion a major factor as both sides
  saw the hand of God in each victory or
  defeat
• Indians employed total war s...
• Praying Indians, despite being attacked
  by the Puritans as an easy target,
  fought in the war on the side of the
  co...
1680 PUEBLO REVOLT
• Pope’ a charismatic Pueblo shaman
  who led a revolt against a divided
  Spanish elite in what is today New
  Mexico
• D...
• THE GREATEST SETBACK EVER
  INFLICTED BY NATIVES ON EUROPEAN
  EXPANSION IN NORTH AMERICA
• United in their hatred of th...
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND
• Triggered by the attempts in England
  of the controversial Catholic king,
  James II, to consolidate/increase his
  pow...
• Colonial assemblies stripped of power
• Traditional town meetings weakened
• Anglican judges and officials replace
  Pur...
• 1688 Glorious Revolution changes
  everything
• New rulers, William and Mary, dissolve the
  entire Dominion experiment ...
RESULTS
• Compromise gradually worked out
  between England and the colonies in
  which a royal governor shares power with...
SALEM WITCHCRAFT CRISIS
• Occurred in Essex County, Massachusetts,
  1692
• Witchcraft accusations against 144
  residents (38 of whom were male)
...
• Tensions between residents of Salem
  Village and Salem Town: many of the
  accusers lived in the Village while
  many o...
YAMASEE WAR
• Similarities to Metacom’s War two
  generations earlier in New England
• Here, however, the added dimension of
  the com...
• As in the New England wars, English
  adept at deepening Indian rivalries
  via the allure of the fur trade…and
  then r...
• Brutality and ruthlessness on both
  sides, but, morally, which bears the
  greater burden?
• Thomas Nairne
• as in the ...
BOSTON SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC
• 1721: 5,889 Bostonians struck/844
  died
• Single largest epidemic disease
  ravaging and weakening Native
  American po...
• Other Boston leaders passionately
  disagreed, suggesting that plagues
  were a sign of God’s displeasure
• Or a heathen...
EARLY GEORGIA
• Created in 1732 by the Georgia Trustees,
  headed by landed gentleman and ex-
  military officer, James Oglethorpe
• Dre...
• Slavery also threatened to harm the
  labor discipline that Oglethorpe
  believed so necessary to rehabilitating
  the a...
• By 1775, 18,000 whites/15,000 slaves
• A planter elite dominated society,
  handsomely profiting from rice and indigo
• W...
ZENGER TRIAL
• Most famous legal trial in colonial
  American history: freedom of the press
• Haughty, greedy New York royal governor
 ...
• Zenger’s eloquent Virginia attorney, hired
  only because his two New York lawyers
  were disbarred by the governor’s ju...
• “what is good law at one time and in
  one place is not so at another time and
  in another place”
• He thus persuaded t...
STONO REBELLION
• Southern plantation owners paid a
  heavy psychological price for adopting
  the West Indian slave system: malaria
  and...
• Their leisurely pace southward allowed a
  white militia to form and ambush them,
  but only after they had burned 7
  p...
• Masters, incredible to us today, pitied
  themselves that they were burdened
  with such a dangerous form of
  property
...
NEW YORK CITY
• 20% of New Yorkers are slaves: highest
  concentration in a non-southern colony
• Tensions heightened by a severe winter...
• Interpretations of this “event” further
  muddied because many were executed
  on the coerced and bribed testimony of
  ...
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
• Class discussion based on Walter
  Isaacson’s essay in “Portrait of
  America”
THE FIRST GREAT
• “establishment” churches in the colonies,
  mainly Congregationalist in New England (450
  churches) and Anglican (300 c...
• Emotion over Reason
• Jonathon Edwards: “Sinners in the Hands
  of an Angry God”
• Ben Franklin encounters George
  Whit...
ALBANY CONGRESS
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
COLONIAL AMERICA
COLONIAL AMERICA
COLONIAL AMERICA
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  • COLONIAL AMERICA

    1. 1. COLONIAL AMERICA 1675-1763
    2. 2. GOOGLE • BACON’S REBELLION • KING PHILIP’S WAR • PUEBLO REVOLT • DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND • SALEM WITCHCRAFT CRISIS • DEERFIELD ATTACK • YAMASEE WAR • BOSTON SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC • FOUNDING OF GEORGIA • ZENGER TRIAL • STONO REBELLION • NEW YORK CITY CONSPIRACY • BENJAMIN FRANKLIN • GREAT AWAKENING • ALBANY CONGRESS
    3. 3. KING PHILIP’S WAR
    4. 4. • Bloodiest Indian war in New England history: about 1,000 settlers and 3,000 natives dead • Triggered by Plymouth’s public execution of three Wampanoags convicted of killing a praying Indian they considered a spy • Numerous bands participated in retaliatory raids against the English, who had incurred native wrath by attacks and seizing Indian lands • Metacom (King Philip to the settlers) not the evil mastermind imagined by the colonists as the bands were decentralized • Flintlock muskets, gradually acquired by the warriors via the fur trade, equalized the fighting
    5. 5. • Religion a major factor as both sides saw the hand of God in each victory or defeat • Indians employed total war strategy via ambush and seize ( 12 colonial New England towns destroyed) • Settlers gradually abandon European style mode of war and embrace Indian tactics • Tribesmen, eventually out of ammunition and unable to obtain fresh supplies, gradually weaken • Vital role played by Iroquois in
    6. 6. • Praying Indians, despite being attacked by the Puritans as an easy target, fought in the war on the side of the colonists • Metacom, eventually shot in battle by a praying Indian, was decapitated: this trophy was displayed on the town wall of Plymouth for generations • His wife and 9 year old son, in what the colonists considered an act of mercy, were sold into slavery instead of executed
    7. 7. 1680 PUEBLO REVOLT
    8. 8. • Pope’ a charismatic Pueblo shaman who led a revolt against a divided Spanish elite in what is today New Mexico • Divisions among a series of colonial governors and the Franciscan missionaries, both of whom exploited the Indians for labor, emboldened Pope’ and other Pueblo leaders to rise up and reclaim their lands • Royal governors tried to win the favor of the conquered Pueblo by smearing the priests, while the missionaries
    9. 9. • THE GREATEST SETBACK EVER INFLICTED BY NATIVES ON EUROPEAN EXPANSION IN NORTH AMERICA • United in their hatred of the divided Spanish conquerors, the Pueblo killed about 20% of their overlords and drove them completely out of the region • Pope’ further sought a rejection of Spanish culture and religion, and a return to ancient and traditional tribal rituals and customs • Victorious Pueblo, without the unifying force of hatred for their Spanish oppressors, soon fell out among themselves, paving the way within 20 years, for a return of the Spaniards
    10. 10. DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND
    11. 11. • Triggered by the attempts in England of the controversial Catholic king, James II, to consolidate/increase his power and freeze out Parliamentary “power of the purse” • Re-organize New England and New York colonies into one obedient “dominion” ruled by a royal toady tasked to collect much more in taxes, dissolve the colonial legislatures, and curb the power of Puritans in the region
    12. 12. • Colonial assemblies stripped of power • Traditional town meetings weakened • Anglican judges and officials replace Puritans • Salary of Andros = entire administrative and government costs of the whole region • New taxes to pad England’s royal treasury • Royal military forces garrisoned in the region
    13. 13. • 1688 Glorious Revolution changes everything • New rulers, William and Mary, dissolve the entire Dominion experiment after thousands of New England protesters jail Andros • Similar protesters, led in New York by Calvinist Jacob Leisler, oust the Dominion officials there • Leisler hoping to restore Dutch and Calvinist culture to the former New Amsterdam: opposed, ironically, by the old Dutch elite in Albany
    14. 14. RESULTS • Compromise gradually worked out between England and the colonies in which a royal governor shares power with the colonial assembly • Governors can veto any bill passed by the assembly but must rely on persuasion and patronage with the leaders of the assembly (frontier land) • Assembly has power of the purse, right of appointment to the council, and setting of the governor’s salary = leverage in future struggles • Colonists accept their place in the transatlantic British Empire but insist they have all the rights of Englishmen with a
    15. 15. SALEM WITCHCRAFT CRISIS
    16. 16. • Occurred in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1692 • Witchcraft accusations against 144 residents (38 of whom were male) • 54 confessed to witchcraft (allied with the Devil) • 14 women and 5 men hanged (one other man was pressed to death) • Several others died while in custody • Women as the major instigators and victims • Probable that at least a few of the accused were practicing “magic outside the Christian tradition”
    17. 17. • Tensions between residents of Salem Village and Salem Town: many of the accusers lived in the Village while many of the accused resided in the Town • Salem Crisis in the broader context of King William’s War: Indian raids to the north drove many war refugees, suffering from “post-traumatic shock” syndrome into Essex County • Many of these refugees are among the accusers and the accused • Did they deal with the traumas and
    18. 18. YAMASEE WAR
    19. 19. • Similarities to Metacom’s War two generations earlier in New England • Here, however, the added dimension of the complex relationship of English slave traders bribing Indians to capture rivals for plantation labor played a major role • As did the presence of Spain’s Florida colony to the south of the Carolinas and French Louisiana to the west • Carolinas changing demographics: in 1700 about 15,000 natives/16,000 whites and Africans…….1730: 37,000
    20. 20. • As in the New England wars, English adept at deepening Indian rivalries via the allure of the fur trade…and then ruthlessly exploiting the intertribal divisions thus created • Key factor in the eventual peace was the colonial fear of empty lands, vacated by vanquished tribes, becoming an invitation to escaped slave enclaves • As was the colonial fear of driving defeated tribes southward to the
    21. 21. • Brutality and ruthlessness on both sides, but, morally, which bears the greater burden? • Thomas Nairne • as in the Indian wars elsewhere in colonial America, Yamasee and their allies worn down by a lack of ammunition as their former Virginia trading partners united for once with fellow settlers in the Carolinas and refused to re-arm the “rebellious savages”
    22. 22. BOSTON SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC
    23. 23. • 1721: 5,889 Bostonians struck/844 died • Single largest epidemic disease ravaging and weakening Native American populations • Inoculations were already done in China, India, and parts of Africa • Bostonians bitterly divided over whether to inoculate (infect with small dose: immunity) • Cotton Mather, whose wife and three children had already died in a measles
    24. 24. • Other Boston leaders passionately disagreed, suggesting that plagues were a sign of God’s displeasure • Or a heathen practice, spurred on by Satan’s wiles • Health-wise, inoculations not without peril because the procedure involved transmission of bodily matter from one person to another through an open wound
    25. 25. EARLY GEORGIA
    26. 26. • Created in 1732 by the Georgia Trustees, headed by landed gentleman and ex- military officer, James Oglethorpe • Dreamy do-gooders, who wanted to rid London of annoying paupers, vagabonds, and petty criminals as well as create a frontier buffer against Spanish encroachments on English North America • Modeled on the old indentured servitude system, except here each would be granted a 50 acre tract of land • Slavery banned, in part because the plantation system dispersed whites, reducing the ability militia units to serve as a buffer against Spanish Florida
    27. 27. • Slavery also threatened to harm the labor discipline that Oglethorpe believed so necessary to rehabilitating the able poor • Contact with slave-owning white Carolinians, who saw manual labor as only for Africans, appealed to frustrated white Georgians who • Linked liberty with the right to own property, non so important as African slaves (paradox) • Within two generations frustrated white
    28. 28. • By 1775, 18,000 whites/15,000 slaves • A planter elite dominated society, handsomely profiting from rice and indigo • With a white population united by supremacy and solidarity against the African, whose legal standing and humanity had been stripped by a series of black codes • Oglethorpe’s utopian dream of small family farms, dedicated to hard work and frontier defense against Catholic Spain, had collapsed • Relatively small group of immensely rich, leisured, and politically powerful whites now controlled the economic/political life
    29. 29. ZENGER TRIAL
    30. 30. • Most famous legal trial in colonial American history: freedom of the press • Haughty, greedy New York royal governor William Colby attempted to extort salary money from his predecessor • Colby won at trial 2:1, thanks to hand- picked toadies as judges in the case • Colby, not content with the legal victory, wrote a private letter to the one dissenting judge that was published in pamphlet by printer John Peter Zenger • Zenger was then arrested and imprisoned on a charge of libelous sedition
    31. 31. • Zenger’s eloquent Virginia attorney, hired only because his two New York lawyers were disbarred by the governor’s judicial council for trying to defend him, used a strategy of jury nullification • Zenger was technically guilty under British libel law, but his attorney argued to the jury that “just complaints of a number of men who suffer under a bad administration” should nevertheless exonerate his client • Fhe further claimed that “a quarrel in New York cannot possibly be attended with
    32. 32. • “what is good law at one time and in one place is not so at another time and in another place” • He thus persuaded the jury that truth is a valid defense against charges of libel, claiming • “the loss of liberty to a generous mind, is worth than death….this is what every man who values freedom ought to consider”
    33. 33. STONO REBELLION
    34. 34. • Southern plantation owners paid a heavy psychological price for adopting the West Indian slave system: malaria and yellow fever, abetted by mosquitoes and a hot, humid climate • And, more importantly, a deep-seated dread of slave revolt • Rumors of rebellion brought torture of slaves to extract information, which led to brutal executions • Planters’ gut-wrenching fears became realized in 1739 when 20 slaves rose up, killed whites, and attempted to flee
    35. 35. • Their leisurely pace southward allowed a white militia to form and ambush them, but only after they had burned 7 plantations and killed 20 • Most surrendered, were then decapitated, and their heads placed on poles along the road back to Charles Town, the capital • Indians were then used to hunt down those who escaped into nearby forests • Victory only exacerbated planter fears • Slave codes were strengthened to bar: 1) travelling without a pass,
    36. 36. • Masters, incredible to us today, pitied themselves that they were burdened with such a dangerous form of property • They saw their slave property as vital to their own liberty and themselves as the innocent victims of vicious blacks • Their deep-seated fears plagued them for centuries to follow, long after the Civil War
    37. 37. NEW YORK CITY
    38. 38. • 20% of New Yorkers are slaves: highest concentration in a non-southern colony • Tensions heightened by a severe winter, anti-Catholic feelings heightened by war with Spain (during which Spain offered freedom to escaped slaves), dread from reports of recent slave insurrections elsewhere, a severe winter, economic depression, and dwindling food and fuel stores • Slave artisans, trained by their skilled white masters, seen as a threat by many non elite whites • A series of fires, common under ordinary circumstances, dramatically increased fears among whites of a black conspiracy:
    39. 39. • Interpretations of this “event” further muddied because many were executed on the coerced and bribed testimony of a servant girl, Mary Burton • 70+ others deported • Tensions calmed when the state’s chief witness, Mary Burton, began to accuse members of the elite and family members of the judges’ tribunal • Given the available evidence, we cannot know the actual truth of the “conspiracy”
    40. 40. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN • Class discussion based on Walter Isaacson’s essay in “Portrait of America”
    41. 41. THE FIRST GREAT
    42. 42. • “establishment” churches in the colonies, mainly Congregationalist in New England (450 churches) and Anglican (300 churches) primarily in the southern colonies, with Quaker (250 meeting houses) and Presbyterians, all perceived as dull, staid, predictable, and formulaic by many in the 1730s • Further supported by Enlightenment rationalism: deistic worldview, less caught up in magic and explanations based on divine intervention • New Light preachers surfaced, attempting to “awaken” sinful colonists to the very real fires of hell for those who did not embrace Christ as their personal savior • Accept human helplessness/worthlessness and seek out God as the best hope for
    43. 43. • Emotion over Reason • Jonathon Edwards: “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • Ben Franklin encounters George Whitefield during the latter’s famous 1739-41 tour of the American colonies (mutually satisfactory) • Short, slight, cross-eyed-but an extraordinary public speaker (God- inspired, many concluded) • Fiery itinerant preachers anger many Old Lights • Did this religious revival help lay the
    44. 44. ALBANY CONGRESS
    45. 45. FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

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