Anth 4400


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Anth 4400

  1. 1. The Life and Culture of Ecotopia E.N. Anderson
  2. 2. <ul><li>Everyone is an advocate or student of man’s relationship with nature, however the state of the environment does not reflect this. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase of population and resources put more pressure on the food base every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Few have paid attention to the food crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists are unique and shuttle between two different worlds. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists are also noted for bridging the gap between biological and social sciences. Anthropologists must take responsibility for their actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Research needs to be oriented toward genuine solutions of the problem </li></ul>1
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ecological crisis is due to exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological costs will show up in economic costs and someone will pay. </li></ul><ul><li>Real costs are always passed onto general public </li></ul><ul><li>Peru overfishing their anchovy stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction is cheaper than recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Single use is more economical than multiple use </li></ul><ul><li>Population explosion occurs. </li></ul>2
  4. 4. 3 <ul><li>Ecological crisis is the result of the political and economic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Disagrees with Lynn White </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between demand and effective demand </li></ul><ul><li>- Example: Americans demand wilderness conservation, but do not pay for it in the marketplace </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4 <ul><li>Constructing and ecotopia is a final goal for anthropologists </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwork in the form of research is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is necessary as well </li></ul><ul><li>Population and consumption will stop because they must- energy consumption must level itself </li></ul>
  6. 6. 5 <ul><li>Anthropologists should allocate their efforts in seven ways: </li></ul><ul><li>When research is conducted, make it relevant to some aspect of planning </li></ul><ul><li>In studies, the relationship between community and world market should be determined </li></ul><ul><li>How to maximize the local relationship should also be determined </li></ul><ul><li>Look at designing a new culture on a worldwide scale </li></ul><ul><li>New priorities must be established </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational changes must be made </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologists must learn and cooperate from other disciplines. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Question: <ul><li>In your opinion, what is the most effective way anthropologists can allocate their efforts? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ecotopian Possibilities and the Sustainable Future James Veteto and Joshua Lockyer
  9. 9. Earthaven Ecovillage
  10. 10. Earthaven Ecovillage <ul><li>Located in western North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in 1994 on 320 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Currently has 60 members </li></ul>
  11. 11. ‘‘ Ecovillages are human-scale, fullfeatured settlements in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world in a way that is supportive of healthy human development, and which can be successfully continued into the indefinite future’’ (Dawson 2006:13).
  12. 12. <ul><li>To achieve sustainability, actions grounded in knowledge of “local ecological, political–economic, and socio-cultural systems combined with a global awareness and scientific acumen” </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture is an ethical philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Earthaven followed this philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture is a combination of permanent, culture, and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Views humans and their activities and creations as part of the natural world </li></ul>
  13. 13. History of Permaculture <ul><li>Created by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren </li></ul><ul><li>Negative response among academics </li></ul><ul><li>Positive response among the public </li></ul>
  14. 14. Three Ethical Principles of Permaculture <ul><li>Care for the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Care for people </li></ul><ul><li>Set limits to consumption and reproduction and redistribute surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you live by any of the principles above? How? </li></ul>
  15. 15. 12 Design Principles of Permaculture <ul><li>Observe and interact </li></ul><ul><li>Catch and store energy </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain a yield </li></ul><ul><li>Apply self regulation and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Use and value renewable resources and services </li></ul><ul><li>Produce no waste </li></ul><ul><li>7) Design from patterns to details </li></ul><ul><li>8) Integrate rather than segregate </li></ul><ul><li>9) Small and slow solutions </li></ul><ul><li>10) Use and value diversity </li></ul><ul><li>11) Use edges and value the marginal </li></ul><ul><li>12) Creatively use and respond to change </li></ul>
  16. 16. Engaging Permaculture: Areas of Theoretical and Applied Compatibility <ul><li>Cultural Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnoecology </li></ul><ul><li>Political Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Given the two scenarios, which one best fits you? </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ Permaculture: A Designers Manual ” Bill Mollison
  18. 18. Permaculture Design Philosophy <ul><li>Action is pertinent and necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Life is a cooperative force </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of aboriginal belief systems will be of great benefit to us </li></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>Do you use a spiritual belief system in your interactions with the environment? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ethics <ul><li>Ethical basis of permaculture as described by Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of working with, not against the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Questions can be asked in two ways </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of use: </li></ul><ul><li>Necessitous use </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative use </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Multiple ways to achieve permanence and stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasant approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communal approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The move from permanent productive systems to annual, commercial systems has created a shift from low to high energy </li></ul><ul><li>No such thing as “free energy ” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Permaculture in Landscape and Society <ul><li>Basis of permaculture is beneficial design </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between cultivated ecosystem and natural one </li></ul><ul><li>Home and garden is important </li></ul><ul><li>Two Responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Get your home and garden to support you </li></ul><ul><li>Limit population growth </li></ul>