LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
HOW LINKED DATA AND SEMANTIC WEB
TECHNOLOGIES FOSTER THE
PUBLICATION, RETRIE...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
WHAT IS LINKED DATA?
LINKING DATA AS NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE
Data Sil...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
FROM DOCUMENTS TO DATA
FROM LINKED DOCUMENTS TO LINKED DATA
Use Uniform Reso...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
FROM DOCUMENTS TO DATA
BERNERS-LEE’S LINKED DATA PRINCIPLES AND STARS
Four R...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
EXPLORING LINKED DATA
EXPLORING LINKED DATA RELATED TO SANTA BARBARA
Follow-...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
EXPLORING LINKED DATA
FINDING RELATIONS BETWEEN PLACES
Finding Relations bet...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
EXPLORING LINKED DATA
REASONATOR:
BROWSE WIKIDATA
’Wikidata is a
free knowle...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
EXPLORING LINKED DATA
SEARCHING THE WEB OF DOCUMENTS
This is still how most ...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
EXPLORING LINKED DATA
SEARCHING THE WEB OF (LINKED) DATA
Populated places ha...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
EXPLORING LINKED DATA
GOOGLE’S KNOWLEDGE GRAPH
AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTIO...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
EXPLORING LINKED DATA
GOOGLE’S KNOWLEDGE GRAPH
Google’s Web search is changi...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA
THE GLOBAL GRAPH OF LINKED DATA
The ...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA
THE GLOBAL GRAPH OF LINKED DATA
AN E...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA
INTEGRATION AND QUERY FEDERATION
Int...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
ONTOLOGIES IN COMPUTER/INFORMATION SCIENCE
ONTOLOGIES IN COMPUTER/INFORMATIO...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES
ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES
An entit...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES
ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES
A concep...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES
ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES
A catego...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
SUBSUMPTION AND SIMILARITY
SUBSUMPTION
Concepts can be organized within hier...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
SUBSUMPTION AND SIMILARITY
SIMILARITY
Some concepts (and entities) are more ...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
ONTOLOGY LANGUAGES
UNDER THE HOOD OF A MAP LEGEND ONTOLOGY
NC = {LegendItem,...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
WHY NOT JUST STANDARDIZE MEANING? (CITY OR TOWN?)
...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
WHY NOT JUST STANDARDIZE MEANING? (CITY OR TOWN?)
...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY – MEANINGFUL LINKS
Unfor...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY – MEANINGFUL LINKS
Unfor...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND VOCABULARIES
ONTOLOGIES TO MAKE YOUR DATA MORE USABLE
Five S...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND MAPS
A TINY ONTOLOGY FOR ESRI’S ARCGIS ONLINE
This fragment ...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND MAPS
WHICH BASEMAP IS MOST POPULAR (BASED ON VIEWS)?
SELECT ...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND MAPS
WHICH BASEMAP IS MOST POPULAR (BASED ON USAGE)?
SELECT ...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND MAPS
LINKED DATA PORTAL FOR ARCGIS ONLINE (DEMO)
Semantics-e...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND GAZETTEERS
USCB’S ALEXANDRIA DIGITAL LIBRARY GAZETTEER (2006...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND GAZETTEERS
ONTOLOGY-POWERED, LINKED DATA-DRIVEN ADL GAZETTEE...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND GAZETTEERS
WHY NOT JUST USE GEONAMES?
A SPARQL query for peo...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND SCIENTOMETRICS
DEKDIV: EXPLORING BIBLIOGRAPHIC LINKED DATA (...
LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO)
LINKED DATA AND SCIENTOMETRICS
SEMANTIC WEB JOURNAL: LINKED SCIENTOMETRICS
S...
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A Non-Technical, Example-Driven Introduction to Linked Data

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How Linked Data and Semantic Web Technologies Foster the Publication, Retrieval, Reuse, and Integration of Data. A Non-Technical, Example-Driven Introduction to Linked Data for the UCSB Library.

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A Non-Technical, Example-Driven Introduction to Linked Data

  1. 1. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) HOW LINKED DATA AND SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES FOSTER THE PUBLICATION, RETRIEVAL, REUSE, AND INTEGRATION OF DATA A NON-TECHNICAL, EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION Krzysztof Janowicz, Grant McKenzie, and Yingjie Hu STKO Lab University of California, Santa Barbara, USA UCSB Library, April 2014 AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  2. 2. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) WHAT IS LINKED DATA? LINKING DATA AS NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE Data Silos Web services Databases Web pages hinder ad-hoc combination enforce data models limit re-usability AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  3. 3. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) FROM DOCUMENTS TO DATA FROM LINKED DOCUMENTS TO LINKED DATA Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) to identify entities, link them to other entities, encode information about these entities using the machine-understandable RDF, and make them available on the Web. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  4. 4. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) FROM DOCUMENTS TO DATA BERNERS-LEE’S LINKED DATA PRINCIPLES AND STARS Four Rules for Linked Data Use URIs as names for things Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things. Is your Linked Open Data 5 Star? Available on the web (whatever format) but with an open licence, to be Open Data Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. excel instead of image scan of a table) as (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of excel) All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context See http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  5. 5. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA EXPLORING LINKED DATA RELATED TO SANTA BARBARA Follow-your-nose: Explore information related to Santa Barbara using Linked Data (DBpedia). AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  6. 6. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA FINDING RELATIONS BETWEEN PLACES Finding Relations between places (via people, events, objects,...). AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  7. 7. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA REASONATOR: BROWSE WIKIDATA ’Wikidata is a free knowledge base that can be read and edited by humans and machines alike.’ AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  8. 8. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA SEARCHING THE WEB OF DOCUMENTS This is still how most (Web) search works today. 20 million results, no hit. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  9. 9. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA SEARCHING THE WEB OF (LINKED) DATA Populated places have a population, are located, occupy a certain area,... AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  10. 10. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA GOOGLE’S KNOWLEDGE GRAPH AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  11. 11. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) EXPLORING LINKED DATA GOOGLE’S KNOWLEDGE GRAPH Google’s Web search is changing towards query answering. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  12. 12. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA THE GLOBAL GRAPH OF LINKED DATA The examples before involved only one data set, but there is much more... AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  13. 13. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA THE GLOBAL GRAPH OF LINKED DATA AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  14. 14. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) QUERYING AND INTEGRATION OF LINKED DATA INTEGRATION AND QUERY FEDERATION Integration by searching equivalent classes or/and same features in data sets. This requires ontology matching and alignment. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  15. 15. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ONTOLOGIES IN COMPUTER/INFORMATION SCIENCE ONTOLOGIES IN COMPUTER/INFORMATION SCIENCE An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization used to achieve a shared understanding of a particular domain of interest. (adopted from Gruber (1993)) AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  16. 16. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES An entity is an individual (real world) object. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  17. 17. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES A concept/class is a (mental) template used for grouping entities. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  18. 18. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES ENTITIES, CONCEPTS AND CATEGORIES A category is the set of entities grouped using a particular concept. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  19. 19. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SUBSUMPTION AND SIMILARITY SUBSUMPTION Concepts can be organized within hierarchical structures. [this subClassOf relation is transitive] AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  20. 20. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SUBSUMPTION AND SIMILARITY SIMILARITY Some concepts (and entities) are more similar than others. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  21. 21. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) ONTOLOGY LANGUAGES UNDER THE HOOD OF A MAP LEGEND ONTOLOGY NC = {LegendItem, Symbol, Label, FeatureType} (1) NR = {consistsOf, isLabelFor, isLabelOf, SymbolizedBy} (2) ¬∃N. (3) LegendItem ∃consistsOf.Symbol ∃consistsOf.LegendItem (4) Label ∃SymbolizedBy.Symbol ∀SymbolizedBy.Symbol (5) ≤ 1isLabelFor. (6) ≤ 1isLabelOf. (7) ≤ 1SymbolizedBy. (8) Label ∃isLabelFor.FeatureType (9) Label Symbol ⊥ (also for Symbol, Label, FeatureType, LegendItem) (10) SymbolizedBy− ◦ isLabelFor depictedBy− (11) ¬∃consistsOf− Legend (12) . . . (13) AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  22. 22. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY WHY NOT JUST STANDARDIZE MEANING? (CITY OR TOWN?) AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  23. 23. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY WHY NOT JUST STANDARDIZE MEANING? (CITY OR TOWN?) California: City ≡ Town Utah: Town ≡ < (population, 1000) Pennsylvania: Town ≡ {Bloomsburg} AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  24. 24. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY – MEANINGFUL LINKS Unfortunately, our data sources use exactly the same terminology (e.g., connection) to talk about totally different and contradicting facts (e.g., separation) While we can still syntactically integrate and reuse information, the results may be misleading or even meaningless We need heterogeneity preserving semantic interoperability methods AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  25. 25. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY – MEANINGFUL LINKS Unfortunately, our data sources use exactly the same terminology (e.g., connection) to talk about totally different and contradicting facts (e.g., separation) While we can still syntactically integrate and reuse information, the results may be misleading or even meaningless We need heterogeneity preserving semantic interoperability methods AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  26. 26. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND VOCABULARIES ONTOLOGIES TO MAKE YOUR DATA MORE USABLE Five Stars of Linked Data Vocabulary Use Linked Data without any vocabulary. There is dereferencable human-readable information about the used vocabulary. The information is available as machine-readable explicit axiomatization of the vocabulary. The vocabulary is linked to other vocabularies Metadata about the vocabulary is available (in a dereferencable and machine-readable form). The vocabulary is linked to by other vocabularies. See http://semantic-web-journal.net/content/ five-stars-linked-data-vocabulary-use AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  27. 27. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND MAPS A TINY ONTOLOGY FOR ESRI’S ARCGIS ONLINE This fragment of the ontology developed for ArcGIS Online defines the relations (e.g., isOwnerOf) between items (e.g., map services), users, and user groups. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  28. 28. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND MAPS WHICH BASEMAP IS MOST POPULAR (BASED ON VIEWS)? SELECT DISTINCT ?baseMap ?numViews WHERE { ?baseMap arcgis:isBaseMapOf ?item . ?baseMap arcgis:numViews ?numViews } ORDER BY DESC(?numViews) LIMIT 10 Listing 1: SPARQL query for most popular maps based on views. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  29. 29. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND MAPS WHICH BASEMAP IS MOST POPULAR (BASED ON USAGE)? SELECT ?baseMap (count(distinct ?item) as ?usedTimes) WHERE { ?baseMap arcgis:isBaseMapOf ?item } GROUP BY ?baseMap ORDER BY DESC(?usedTimes) LIMIT 10 Listing 2: SPARQL query for most popular maps based on usage. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  30. 30. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND MAPS LINKED DATA PORTAL FOR ARCGIS ONLINE (DEMO) Semantics-enabled and Linked Data-driven similarity search interface for ArcGIS Online. http://stko-exp.geog.ucsb.edu/linkedarcgis/ AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  31. 31. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND GAZETTEERS USCB’S ALEXANDRIA DIGITAL LIBRARY GAZETTEER (2006) Interface of the original Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  32. 32. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND GAZETTEERS ONTOLOGY-POWERED, LINKED DATA-DRIVEN ADL GAZETTEER (DEMO) 5 Million places merged from multiple authoritative data sources. Contains multiple alternative (e.g., historic) names, provenance information, 1200 geographic feature classes, polygon data, GeoSPARQL endpoint, etc. [Still a lot of work to be done]. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  33. 33. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND GAZETTEERS WHY NOT JUST USE GEONAMES? A SPARQL query for people living near the Gulf of Guinea will return about 7 billion! See http://stko.geog.ucsb.edu/location_linked_data for more examples. AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  34. 34. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND SCIENTOMETRICS DEKDIV: EXPLORING BIBLIOGRAPHIC LINKED DATA (DEMO) System: http://stko-exp.geog.ucsb.edu/lak/; paper: http://bit.ly/1dW2NER AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU
  35. 35. LINKED DATA ONTOLOGIES APPLICATIONS (AT STKO) LINKED DATA AND SCIENTOMETRICS SEMANTIC WEB JOURNAL: LINKED SCIENTOMETRICS System: http://semantic-web-journal.com/SWJPortal/; paper: http://bit.ly/1ilwbRU AN EXAMPLE-DRIVEN INTRODUCTION TO LINKED DATA JANOWICZ, MCKENZIE, AND HU

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