JOB ANALYSIS - Industrial and Occupational Psychology

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Full job analysis / description includes: Job name, job analysis methods, Job analysis, Selection system recommendation, References, Appendix 1: Job analysis methods 1 - Employee interview, Job analysis methods 2 - SME questionnaire evaluation, , Appendix 2: Telephone reference check template.
Appendix 3: ADHI’s KSA testing syllabus for medical transcriptionists

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JOB ANALYSIS - Industrial and Occupational Psychology

  1. 1. WESTERBERG, V. 1 175.737.- OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY JOB ANALYSIS Course coordinator: Anne Rundle Student name: Virginia Westerberg Student ID: 10143519 21 MAY 2012
  2. 2. WESTERBERG, V. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Job name 3 Job analysis methods 3 Job analysis 4 Selection system recommendation 9 References 15 Appendix 1: Job analysis methods 1 - Employee interview 16 Job analysis methods 2 - SME questionnaire evaluation 21 Appendix 2: Telephone reference check template 22 Appendix 3: ADHI’s KSA testing syllabus for medical transcriptionists 23 175.737.- OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY - ASSIGNMENT 2
  3. 3. WESTERBERG, V. 3 JOB NAME: Medical transcriptionist (MT). JOB ANALYSIS METHODS Two methods were selected for collecting job analysis data: A questionnaire in the form of a structured interview with the incumbent and a review of the interview with the SME (supervisor), both done via Skype video conference and available in Appendix 1 of this report. Peterson & Jeanneret (1997) argue that there are two main methods of job analysis: deductive and inductive. The deductive method uses standardised questionnaires that classify certain positions into occupational taxonomies. The interviewee completes the questions and the psychologist evaluates the responses. Deductive methods are useful for classifying and comparing jobs. Inductive methods describe position functions through the use of interviews, focus groups, questionnaires and observations to do the analysis. One of the main advantages is that they provide specific information of the positions analyzed. The inductive method is the gold standard in job analysis, and for this reason it was chosen for the current MT job analysis. As for data collection the main techniques of evaluation are: direct observation, interviews, and questionnaire. For logistical reasons, direct observation of a MT was not possible, and the chosen method was a structured interview which included a questionnaire to the MT and her supervisor. Whereas the structured interview is the cornerstone of recruitment, questionnaires provide an invaluable amount of quantifiable data (Landy & Conte, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012). During the interview, the MT was asked what she does, how she does it, for what purpose, when and where she does it. This was followed by an interview with her SME, her supervisor, with the aim to corroborate or refute the information about the job given by the employee. The data collected from the interview-questionnaire in Appendix 1 were used to do the job analysis on page 2. JOB ANALYSIS (TMC, 2010; ADHI, 2012; US Department of Labor, 2010a, 2010b)
  4. 4. WESTERBERG, V. 4 TMC Company Name: Telemedicine Clinic, Pty. Ltd. Company Profile: Leading European provider of urgent and on-call teleradiology services during office hours in Australia. Job Title: MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTIONIST Department: OPERATIONS Job Description Summary: Home-based medical language specialist who transcribes and interprets reports dictated in English by a multinational team of radiologists as per the American Association for Healthcare Documentation Integrity [AHDI], using British English spelling. A medical transcriptionist (MT) at TMC types recorded radiologists dictations over secure virtual internet servers; edits clinical reports, discharge summaries, history and physical examination reports, amendment reports, consultation reports, forensic reports, and referral letters; edits written company materials for grammar and clarity; looks for inconsistencies and errors in reports and checks with the radiologist in order to correct them; uses voice recognition software which translates dictation into written text and creates reports which must be edited for mistakes in spelling, translation and grammar; returns transcribed documents to the radiologist for review and signature. Senior MTs train new and current MTs so that they meet the company’s quality standards (ISO9001) and those of the company’s customers. RESPONSIBILITIES  Transcription, proof reading, editing and interpretation of dictated radiology audio files.  Competent use of medical transcription and voice recognition hardware and software.  Communicating with internal (radiologists, managers, supervisors, peers, and subordinates) and external customers (hospitals, clinics, private practices).  Training of new and current medical transcription staff. Job Location – Work environment: Home-based Company Industry: Healthcare services Job Role: Administration Joining Date: 1 January 2013 Employment Status: Full time Employment Type: Employee Reports to: Language Quality Control Leader Number of subordinates (circle): 1 2 3 4 Monthly Salary: NZ$4,500 Job interest code: CR (Conventional, Realistic) COMPETENCIES 1. English language 5. Medicolegal issues awareness
  5. 5. WESTERBERG, V. 5 2. Medical language 6. Medical transcription 3. Medical knowledge 7. Professional development 4. Technology KNOWLEDGE  Expert knowledge of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, disease processes, signs and symptoms, medications, and laboratory values related to a specialty or specialties.  Knowledge of medical transcription guidelines and best practices a per ADHI  Expert knowledge of British English spelling SKILLS  Must be a native English speaker  Excellent listening skills  Excellent written and oral communication skills  Competent use of medical transcription hardware and software.  Competent use of medical voice recognition systems  Excellent visual, auditory, and motor coordination skills.  Project leading skills  Business skills (scheduling work, purchasing, customer relations)  Computer and office instruments (photocopier, switchboard, fax machine) skills  Strong independent, critical and analytical thinking skills  Time management skills  Be able to work under pressure ABILITIES  Ability to operate word processing equipment, dictation and transcription equipment, and other equipment as specified, and to troubleshoot as necessary.  Ability to use a vast array of professional reference materials, often in innovative ways.  Ability to educate others online.  Finger dexterity: Ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects  Speech recognition: The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.  Ability to concentrate  Ability to remain seated for several hours. OTHER REQUIREMENTS  Must be a citizen or permanent resident of Australia or New Zealand
  6. 6. WESTERBERG, V. 6  Have a dedicated area at home for the installation of additional workstation equipment and transcription instruments.  Have fast broadband connection.  Commitment to travel for continuing professional development and annual company meeting purposes. TOOLS & TECHNOLOGY Tools:  2-screen workstation (the company provides the second one if needed).  Transcription equipment (dictation machines) property of the candidate. Technology:  Secure internet based environment  RIS/PACS  MS Outlook  Medical software: Electronic medical record (EMR) systems; MedQuist DocQment Enterprise Platform; Misys Healthcare Systems software; SpectraMedi EasyFlow  Voice recognition software: Dragon Naturally Speaking Medical, Crescendo Systems DigiScribe-XL; g-net solutions MTP; Nuance.  Word processing software: Microsoft Word; SpeedUp Trans, Sylvan Software ShortCut. REQUIRED CANDIDATE QUALITITIES  Attention to detail — Job requires being careful detail-focus and tasks completion thoroughness.  Dependability — Job requires being reliable, responsible, dependable, and fulfilling obligations.  Integrity — Job requires being honest and ethical.  Independence — Job requires little or no supervision, depending on oneself to get things done.  Cooperation — Job requires pro-active nature with co-workers  Achievement/Effort — Job requires personally challenging goals and exerting effort toward tasks completion.  Initiative — Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.  Persistence — Job requires persistence in the face of contingencies.  Adaptability/Flexibility — Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.  Stress Tolerance — Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations. RISK DISCLOSURE Job requires:  Use of electronic equipment
  7. 7. WESTERBERG, V. 7  Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls.  Repetitive motions tasks  Long hours seated  Long hours in front of a computer screen  Frequent time pressure to meet strict deadlines  Awareness of medicolegal aspects of transcription errors on co-workers and company  Long hours indoors KEY INFORMATION Career Level: Staff Minimum years of experience: 3 Residence Location: Worldwide Education:  College Education  Relevant on-the- job training Equipment: Candidates must have their own MT equipment. Specific qualification:  Registered Medical Transcriptionist (RMT)  CMT (preferred) POSITION IN ORGANISATIONAL CHART CONTACT DETAILS Name: Darby McDonald Email: HR@telemedicineclinic.com Address: 225 George St., Suite 1101 Country: Australia CEO - CFO HR CMO Medical Director Head of Radiology Radiologists COO Language QC Leader Medical Transcriptionist Trainee Medical Transcriptionist/s Operations Manager Administration staff IT staff
  8. 8. WESTERBERG, V. 8 Level 11 Grosvenor Place City: Sydney Postal code: 2000 Phone: +61.294.282.670 Fax: +61.294.282.671 External URL: http://www.telemedicineclinic.com/ SELECTION SYSTEM RECOMMENDATION
  9. 9. WESTERBERG, V. 9 A medical transcriptionist (MT) is a highly specialised stenographer and typist who transcribes recorded medical dictation and edits medical reports for correctness (ADHI, 2012). Medical transcription is a skill acquired through training and education. The job description classifies the position as Holland’s conventional and realistic personality types. Conventional occupations involve following set authority lines, procedures and routines, and include working with concrete data and details more than with abstract ones. Realistic occupations involve work regarding practical, hands- on problems and solutions. They often deal with tools and machinery and do not involve working closely with others. This is a consideration for the selection process of MTs as individuals employed in an environment similar to their personality type are more likely to have better professional and personal outcomes (Landy & Conte, 2010; Kozlowski, 2012; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012). Based on personnel selection theories and on recent research, a MT would be most productive and satisfied with a skills-based, Taylorist, job design, which means that job selection should be based on skills testing. Elton Mayo and Group Theorists’ (Likert, Lewin, Lippit) job enrichment theories only apply to a home-based MT in terms of provision of quality equipment, as a home environment cannot be controlled by the company. Carl Roger’s clinical model of personnel selection involving questionnaires and projective tests to detect desirable and undesirable candidates will also be used, as honesty and integrity are job requirements for confidentiality purposes. The integrated psychosocial model of personnel selection which involves role theory, interaction, and negotiation for maintenance and motivation of candidates and employees should be considered for exceptionally valuable candidates with the aim of ensuring bilateral satisfaction, and employee fidelity and permanence (Certo & Certo, 2006; Landi, 2010; Yang et al., 2011; Tsoukas & Knudsen, 2012). The selection process of a MT will proceed in the following order: Company needs analysis, job analysis, recruitment process, application form and CV evaluation, preliminary interview, reference and police record check, formal interview, selection tests, consultation with supervisor and management, hiring process, feedback and follow-up (Goldman & Shapiro, 2012). A company “needs analysis” should be done even when the management have decided they intend to hire a MT. A prospective evaluation of company growth, together with an evaluation of the balance sheet, would indicate whether they will need to hire an ever increasing number of MTs and, if so, is this what they want or is there a more cost-effective solution for their needs, like acquiring a state-of-the-art voice recognition system commonly used in most hospitals in the USA, Australia and New Zealand, like NuanceTM or DragonTM , and training the Language QC leader and existing transcriptionists to update the databases so that dictation accuracy improves on a daily basis until it
  10. 10. WESTERBERG, V. 10 reaches the company’s set safe accuracy level. Again, depending on the current and prospective volume of cases, hiring one or more MTs may be needed. Another suggestion before proceeding with external recruitment would be considering internal recruitment in the form of promotion of personnel with similar skills, like administration personnel from a less busy or vital department for the company. Internal recruitment involves a transfer of staff and personnel development programs. It is beneficial for the company as it avoids advertising costs in terms of money, time and resources involved, cost of evaluation of candidates, and employee integration costs (Certo & Certo, 2006; Kozlowski, 2012). It has the added strength of being perceived by less qualified staff members as a career advancement, and it is, requiring a one- off payment of the MT course and examination fees, which as for May 2012 is of US$180 (online proctored [OLP] exam for non-members)(ADHI, 2012). Once a recruitment method has been agreed upon, a job analysis will be carried out. This is advisable even if the company already has a MT job description in their database, because position requirements evolve over time and an updated analysis would increase the chances of finding the most suitable candidate for the position. The objective of the job analysis is to collect information about the tasks and functions performed in the position, in the context of the company. An online MT will have skills and abilities different from an on-site one, like time management skills and better concentration ability as the candidate may be interrupted at any moment. Additionally, a clear description of the job is crucial to make the worker aware of the position level of responsibility, the authority line, the employee's professional development, and it provides a reference point for an evaluation system and a fair wages policy (Landy & Conte, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012; Certo & Certo, 2006). Among the wide array of job analysis methods, those considered most appropriate, practical and less intrusive for the position at hand are interviews with integrated questionnaires with incumbents and their supervisor. In the case of candidates being located abroad, telephone or video-conference interviews, like via SkypeTM - which are free-, are strongly recommended for the selection process of MTs, as this will be the way communication will take place with them. Popular and effective position vacant advertising involves placing an ad in websites like Seek™ or Trademe™ (this will attract local professionals), craigslist™ (to attract international candidates) and/or specific healthcare jobs websites (allhealthcarejobs™, healthcareers™, healthcarejobsite™, etc.).
  11. 11. WESTERBERG, V. 11 Once the advertisement has been placed, the assessment of CVs will be made in parallel to the reception of applications and will consist of the analysis of the documentation submitted by the applicants, this being the first filter to determine if an applicant will continue to participate in the selection process. A preliminary interview will be done with those candidates whose CVs match the job requirements. Freelance MTs used to working online are particularly desirable as prospective employees as they will be used to working independently and will already have the necessary equipment. The interviewer should be prepared prior to commencing the preliminary inquiry. This preparation requires the development of specific questions based on the MT job analysis. The answers to these questions will indicate the suitability of the candidate. During the preliminary interview, the interviewer will detect the most obvious characteristics of candidates and their relationship to the MT job requirements, like evident physical impairments (hearing aids, tremor, stuttering), verbal expression, emotional control, cultural level, reasoning capacity, poise, personality, etc. The interest of the candidate for the position, which is related to intended commitment, will be evaluated by asking if s/he has done any research about the company. A general and brief inquiry about the candidate’s employment history (length of stay, reason to leave, salary changes, promotions, conflicts, etc.) will be done at this stage. The preliminary interview attempts to draw conclusions about the candidate’s overall experience, education, physical and psychological characteristics, and professional stability. That said, ethical, non-discriminatory, culturally-aware practices will be applied at all times. During this step, clearly unsuitable candidates will be identified and not considered for further evaluation. Non-suitable candidates will be sent a letter thanking their interest in the position and politely communicate them that their application has not been successful on this occasion. Additionally, the application and preliminary interview data can be used to predict which candidates succeeded in the job and which not, and to predict dishonesty or abuse at work. This preliminary process, together with the formal interview, has the potential of generating data with predictive validity (Marcotte & Grant, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012; Kozlowski, 2012). The next step in the selection process of a MT will be checking references. This procedure is one of the most effective means to verify the adequacy, diligence and ability of the employee. When checking references, the employer may obtain important information about the personality and character of an applicant. Most companies use email and phone to check references. It is usually preferable to telephone checks because they are more effective, save time and promote fairness . The most reliable information comes usually from supervisors, which are most likely to report on the
  12. 12. WESTERBERG, V. 12 habits and performance of the applicant. A template for telephone reference checking is provided in Appendix 2. Checking police and legal records may reveal some inconveniences for hiring a candidate (Landy & Conte, 2010; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012; Kozlowski, 2012). The outcome of the preliminary interview will be a reduced number of candidates that will be asked, via Email or by phone, to attend a formal interview, either on-site or remotely via video-conference. It should be noted that all candidates must have access to this kind of facility as it is a requirement for the job. In the course of the formal interview, the interviewer will try to create an atmosphere of trust, i.e.: rapport. The candidate will be greeted and the interviewee will introduce him- or herself, s/he will invite the interviewee to take a seat, and if possible a coffee or some refreshment will be offered. Some comment about topics like was it easy to find the place, or about the weather, will serve as ice-breakers. The interview will start with simple questions and it is recommended that the interviewer has the application documents submitted by the candidate. Initial questions will allow the interviewee to talk for some time uninterruptedly. Questions will be asked one by one in order of relevance and complexity to ensure that all of them are answered. Formal interviews are valid and reliable selection instruments when they are structured and well organised (Landy & Conte, 2010; Kozlowski, 2012; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012; Certo & Certo, 2006). In every case, the interviewer will bear in mind that candidates must meet four basic requirements: Productivity (must produce results, contribute ideas, and be able to adapt), rotation (must be able to occupy the same hierarchical level positions), potential for learning must be able to occupy positions higher in the hierarchy, teamwork (understand themselves and the position as part of a larger entity and interact accordingly) (Certo & Certo, 2006). Candidates will be asked to perform a battery of assessment tests. KSA-based tests will be used because the position requirements focus on visual, listening and motor skills, knowledge of medical terminology and abilities. They include cognitive, job knowledge, personality, biographical data and integrity tests (ADHI, 2012; Kozlowski, 2012). The ADHI-approved Meditec™ Medical Transcription Skills Test is a free online resource that covers the specific typing, listening and spelling skills and the medical knowledge a successful MT is required to have. They are designed so that they realistically simulate the context in which these skills are used. A medical transcription workstation is required to take this test. Freelance candidates, those sought by the employer, will provide their own, but those who do not have one will have to take the test in the company premises. This free test is divided into 4 sections — the first three are “type, listen, and spell”, with 14 single words on each level. Levels are graded according to difficulty with level 4 being the most difficult and consisting of an actual
  13. 13. WESTERBERG, V. 13 doctor’s dictation played back at normal (as dictated) speed (ADHI, 2012). This free test is available on ADHI webpage and the contents summary is provided in Appendix 3 of this document. Psychometric testing to allow evaluation of sensorimotor and psychological aspects relevant for the position should be considered. Neuropsychological evaluation (NPE) is relevant in the current selection process, because data about the candidate’s cognitive, motor, behavioral, linguistic, and executive functioning are relevant for optimal performance as MT. Additionally scores in these tests have predictive validity of perfomance at work and research has consistently shown the usefulness of neuropsychological testing in adults’ vocational performance (Heaton & Pendleton, 1981). For the purpose of MT personnel selection, complicated, time and resource-consuming tests like he Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological battery, the Kaplan Baycrest Neurocognitive Assessment, and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological battery are not advised. However, screening tests like MicroCog (a computerized assessment measures with nine functional cognitive areas sensitive to brain injury), the Quick Neurological Screening Test (a short test that identifies possible neurological abnormalities in motor, sensory, and perceptual areas) or the Stroop Test (a brief procedure that evaluates attention, mental speed and control) may be considered for the selection process of a MT if there is concern about the neuropsychological state of the candidate (Marcotte & Grant, 2010; Groth-Marnat, 2009) The next step will be a medical examination. The main purpose of wanting to check the health of the prospective employee, is that certain medical conditions could influence elements such as quality and quantity of production, absenteeism and punctuality among others. It will show if the candidate has a communicable disease, uses alcohol or drugs, and whether the candidate has any condition which may be a contraindication for the everyday activities required for the position of MT. For example a symptomatic disc hernia will hamper the candidate’s ability to sit for long hours. Functional assessment of sensory organs whose integrity is critical for the job includes visual acuity, hearing tests and cerebellar tests (to detect tremor and instability). The medical exam will also provide information about how prone the individual is to suffering accidents which may translate into repeated sick leaves (Certo & Certo, 2006; Golman & Shapiro, 2012; Marcotte & Grant, 2010). The following step is an interview with the immediate supervisor (the Language QC leader) and/or the department manager (the COO). Often, the supervisor is the best person to evaluate some aspects, like particular skills and expertise. The personnel selection company cooperates with the organization so that the latter gets the best available candidate, knowing that a company is defined by the quality of their human capital, but, in the end, it is the customer’s responsibility to make the final decision (Kozlowski, 2012; Certo & Certo, 2006; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012).
  14. 14. WESTERBERG, V. 14 Once the decision to hire a given candidate has been made, the decision will be communicated to the chosen candidate by phone or mail. The not successful candidates will be sent a formal letter politely communicating the company’s decision and asking them if they wish that the company keep their application in case there is another vacancy. The chosen candidate will be asked to attend a recruitment interview to sign the contract, to fill out new employee forms with personal data, provide verified copies of drivers license, academic and professional records, and to inform the candidate about his/her starting date. The new employee file usually also contains all the documents used in the recruitment and selection processes (Kozlowski, 2012; Certo & Certo, 2006; Goldman & Shapiro, 2012). The end result of the selection process translates into the candidate being hired. A good employee is the best proof that the selection process was carried out properly, and this is why post-selection feedback is important to inform further selection processes. This is particularly relevant in the context of medical transcription because of technological advancements and increasing restrictions on non-health professionals to access medical records. Finally, the selection process is part of a company's image, and the methodology used reflects how much the company focuses on quality, and this alone may be perceived by candidates as a motivator to want to work for the company (Certo & Certo, 2006; Kozlowski, 2012). [Word count excluding cover page, table of contents, citations and references: 3391] REFERENCES Association for Healthcare Documentation Integrity (AHDI) (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ahdionline.org
  15. 15. WESTERBERG, V. 15 Certo, S. C. & Certo, S. T. (2006). Modern management. New Jersey, NY: Pearson Prentice-Hall. Goldman, B. M., & Shapiro, D. L. (2012) (Eds.). The psychology of negotiations in the 21st century workplace: New challenges and new solutions. London: Psychology Press. Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment (10th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley & Sons. Heaton, R. K., & Pendleton, M. G. (1981). Use of neuropsychological tests to predict adult patients' everyday functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49(6), 807- 821. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.49.6.807 Kozlowski, W.J. (2012) (Ed.). The Oxford handbook of organizational psychology. London: Oxford Library of Psychology. Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2010). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing. Marcotte, T.D., & Grant, I. (2010)(Eds.). Neuropsychology of everyday functioning. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Peterson, N. G., & Jeanneret, P. (1997). Job analysis: Overview and description of deductive methods. In D. L. Whetzel, G. R. Wheaton (Eds.), Applied measurement methods in industrial psychology (pp. 13-50). Palo Alto, CA US: Davies-Black Publishing. Telemedicine Clinic (2010). Retrieved from www.telemedicineclinic.com Tsoukas, H., & Knudsen, C. (2003). Handbook of organization theory. London: Oxford University Press. U.S. Department of Labor (2010a). 2010-11 Edition occupational outlook handbook for medical transcriptionist. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos271.htm U.S. Department of Labor (2010b). Employment and training administration: O*NET Online: Medical transcriptionists. Retrieved from http://online.onetcenter.org/link/details/31- 9094.00 Yan, M., Peng, K. Z., & Francesco, A. (2011). The differential effects of job design on knowledge workers and manual workers: A quasi-experimental field study in China. Human Resource Management, 50(3), 407-424. doi:10.1002/hrm.20428 APPENDIX 1: JOB ANALYSIS METHODS 1 - EMPLOYEE INTERVIEW (This 1 hour structured interview was done via Skype video conference after a previous chat to decide the day and time for it, and notes were taken in the same manner as if it had been a face-to- face interview).
  16. 16. WESTERBERG, V. 16 1. EMPLOYEE DATA: What’s your name?: Joanna McInnes Department/Division/Area: Operations What’s your job title?: Medical transcriptionist How long have you been in your current position? 3 years Work contact details (address and phone number): Australian Telemedicine Clinic, 225 George St., Suite 1101, Level 11 Grosvenor Place, Sydney, NSW 2000 (AUS), Tel: +61.294.282.670 What’s your supervisor's name?: Janet Grayson What’s your supervisor's title?: Language QC Leader 2. GENERAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE POSITION Very briefly, can you tell me why this job is necessary for your company and the general purpose / responsibilities of the position? Telemedicine Clinic offers 24/7 urgent and on-call radiology services for hospitals in the UK, Scandinavia and Spain during working hours in Australia. TMC needs medical transcriptionists to type and interpret reports dictated in English by a multinational team of physicians and radiologists as per ADHI guidelines. Scandinavian and Spanish hospitals do not require transcriptionists as they accept computerized assisted transcriptions revised by the radiologists themselves. 3. SUMMARY OF RESPONSIBILITIES Can you describe your main job responsibilities in order of importance and give a best estimate of average percentage of time each responsibility takes? 1. Perform typing duties including structured transcribed reports, edit clinical information, formatting documents. % of time 70 2. Update and maintain medical dictation files and software; ensure that all records are updated and amended. 10 3. Answer emails from internal customers (like urgent request and report amendments review). 5 4. Help select and train new transcriptionists (like specific customer requirements, software use, relevant database search, confidentiality and error management protocols) 15 TOTAL 100 4. EDUCATION: What are the minimum training/education requirements of this job? (Not your education, but the requirements for the job). Minimum Requirement:
  17. 17. WESTERBERG, V. 17 Up to 8 years of education Some College/Associate's Degree 9 to 11 years of education Bachelor's Degree High School Diploma or GED Master's Degree Vocational/Technical/Business School Doctorate Degree 5. EXPERIENCE What type of experience is needed for your job?: For example, "training experience in a medical context" vs. "training experience". Make sure that the experience is what is actually required by the job, not what is preferred. TMC required successful experience as an onsite and online medical transcriptionist, editor or writer, with experience in personnel training and selection in a computer-based international environment. They also mentioned the possibility of doing occasional multitasking abilities and to work under time and staff shortage pressure. What was the minimum amount of experience required to succeed in your position? (This is not about your years of experience, but the requirements for the job.) less than 6 months between 3 and 5 years between 6 months and 1 year between 5 and 7 years between 1 and 3 years more than 7 years 6. KSAOs REQUIRED: Can you tell me the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities required (not preferred) by your employer to do this job? I don’t remember all of them by heart, but in the job ad on their webpage, TMC stated that the candidate should meet the AAMT, now ADHI, key requirements, independently of whether or not the candidate actually has a certificate of medical transcription. Basically, the requirements are knowledge of medical terminology like, anatomy, physiology and X X
  18. 18. WESTERBERG, V. 18 pharmacology, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and diagnostic tests, etc . Also important are knowledge of medical transcription guidelines and best confidentiality practices. Excellent British English written and oral communication skills with the ability to understand different accents and dialects, varying dictation styles and hadwrittings. Ability to do online search for reference material and to use the necessary software. I can’t remember any more requirements but that’s basically it, I think. 7. SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIES What is the nature of the direct supervisory responsibility your job has? (I will read you the possibilities and when you hear the one that matches your job, I will check the corresponding box). No supervisory responsibility. Work leadership of 1 to 4 employees. Supervisor of >5 employees or over a section of the department. Assistant Manager over supervisors or a small department. How many positions report directly to you? None 1 2-3 4-6 7 or more List the title(s) of employee(s) whom you directly supervise: Title Trainee Medical Transcriptionist Grade/Level Entry Number of Positions 1 Does your job require functional supervision of positions that do not report directly to you? Yes No Specify: The Chief Medical Officer also informs transcriptionists work. Do you think you can you draw your organization chart highlighting your position in it? (Hint: It looks like a family tree) X X X
  19. 19. WESTERBERG, V. 19 8. PHYSICAL DEMANDS AND WORKING CONDITIONS Can you tell me how often the following physical demands that I am going to read to you are required to perform your essential job responsibilities? Options are constantly, frequently, occasionally or rarely (I read her what each means): C=Constantly F=Frequently O=Occasionally R=Rarely (5-8 hrs/shift) (2-5 hrs/shift) (Up to 2 hrs/shift) (Not part of job) Physical Demands Environmental Conditions Standing R Extreme Cold R Walking R Extreme Heat R Sitting C Temperature Changes R Lifting R Wet R Carrying R Humid R Pushing R Noise O Pulling R Vibration O Climbing R Hazards R Balancing R Atmospheric Conditions R Stooping R Other? (define): Kneeling R Crouching R Crawling R Reaching R Physical Strength Handling R Little Physical Effort O Grasping R Light Work O Feeling C Medium Work R Talking O Heavy Work R CEO / CFO CMO Medical Director Head of Radiology COO Language QC Leader Medical Transcriptionist (ME) Trainee Medical Transcriptionist/s Operations Manager
  20. 20. WESTERBERG, V. 20 Hearing C Very Heavy Work R Repetitive Motions C Eye/Hand/Foot Coordination C 9. ADDITIONAL EMPLOYEE COMMENTS ABOUT THE JOB Can you think of any other information that would be important in understanding your job? Well, perhaps that this job is not just what the job description said but much more. In this environment the unexpected is the norm and workflow varies so much from day to day that it can be quite disconcerting at times. Because there is only 3 of us catering for a staff of 62 radiologists, if one of us calls in sick it can be very stressful around here. You see, the customers just want their reports back in time, and if they are not delivered within the time frame agreed in the contract, the company losses money. On the other hand, I like the possibility to work remotely, that is, from home, allows me to be at home with my daughter when I or she’s sick. And the pay could be better, I mean, think of the consequences of a transcription error. I also like the fact that the dressing code is pretty relaxed, casual and that they are flexible, like they’re never looking at the watch if you’re delayed a few minutes or at what time you decide to take your tea and lunch breaks. All in all, I think this is a fairly good job. 10. Employee's signature: (sent as PDF file via Email) Date: 6 May 2012 JOB ANALYSIS METHODS 2: SME (SUPERVISOR) QUESTIONNAIRE EVALUATION (The above questionnaire was sent to the supervisor via Skype file together with the note below. Notes were taken during the 30 minutes available for the interview).
  21. 21. WESTERBERG, V. 21 Dear Janet, The attached questionnaire is intended to analyze the job as it is currently being done and not how it might be done in the future. The employee's level of performance in the job is not part of this review and is not to be considered. Based on your expertise and understanding of the job as it currently exists, please review Jo's responses so that we can discuss your own comments about each section during our interview on 11 May at 8pm your time. Section Remarks 1 to 5, 8, 10 No remarks. 6 The job description additionally specified required ability to cope with fluctuating workloads, demanding time constraints, and understaffing contingencies. 7 The maximum number of subordinates for this position is 4. Promotion to assistant Language QC Leader is considered in the context of non- temporary staffing requirements if >5 subordinates. 9 Wages are specified during the hiring process. Transcription error protocol procedures are part of the initial training requirements. Yearly rises apply as per Australian law. Additional comments: A productivity-based bonus system is being considered for year 2013 Supervisor's Name: Janet E. Grayson Title: Language QC Leader Supervisor's Signature: Date: 11 May 2012 APPENDIX 2: TELEPHONE REFERENCE CHECK TEMPLATE TELEPHONE REFERENCE CHECK
  22. 22. WESTERBERG, V. 22 □ Personal reference □ Previous employer Company Address Phone: Name of person contacted: Position: 1.- (Polite introduction) I am calling to verify work details given by Mr/s X who has applied for employment in our company. During what period of time was Mr/s X employed in your company? From to What position did s/he occupy? Initially: and posteriorly: Did s/he do any supervising? What was his/her gross annual income? When did s/he leave your company? How did s/he relate with co-workers? Was s/he punctual? Did s/he get involved in any conflict? Why did s/he leave your company? What were his/her strengths? What were his/her weaknesses? Would you hire him/her again? Comments: This reference check was done by (full name): on (date): Signature: APPENDIX 3 – ADHI’s KSA TESTING SYLLABUS FOR MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTIONISTS The AHDI Model Curriculum was pending revision at the time of this publication. The curriculum will be revised to reflect the need for increased programmatic focus on computers
  23. 23. WESTERBERG, V. 23 and industry-related technology terms and concepts. Anticipated release – Spring 2011 (ADHI, 2011) RMT Exam Blue Print All items written by the AHDI Credentialing Development item-writers are written to fulfill the following objectives outlined on the RMT Exam Blue Print. These objectives were determined by Job Task Analysis (industry and employer survey) to be the most critical to job readiness for the MT program graduate or specialty MT seeking entry-level credentialing. Clinical medicine questions will be limited to the following clinical specialties: Alternative Medicine, Cardiovascular, Chiropractic, Dermatology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, General Surgery, Hematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Neurology, OB/Gyn, Orthopedics, Otorhinolaryngology, Pediatrics, Physical/Rehab Medicine, Psychiatry/Psychology, Pulmonary Medicine, Urology, Ophthalmology. © 2010 Association for Healthcare Documentation Integrity | Credentialing Candidate Guide The RMT Blue Print Section 1 MEDICAL, LEGAL, & ENGLISH KNOWLEDGE TESTS 1.1 Given sample report content or a subheading, identify the report type (autopsy, consultation, correspondence, discharge summary, history and physical examination, operative report, pathology report, or SOAP note) that the information would be transcribed under. 1.2 Given sample report content, identify the correctly expressed report headings or subheadings. 1.3 Identify the role/purpose of time and date stamping in transcription. 1.4 Given dictated sentences, identify the one that would require editing on the part of the transcriptionist. 1.5 Given dictated sentences, identify the one that contains an incorrectly used term, transposed terms or values, slang term or back formation. 1.6 Given an audio excerpt containing a slang term, back formation, incorrectly used term, or transposed terms or values, fill in the blank(s) representing omitted information.
  24. 24. WESTERBERG, V. 24 1.7 Given a scenario of encountering a contextual inconsistency or irreconcilable word or phrase, identify the proper procedure for correction and/or notification. 1.8 Given abbreviations related to health record privacy, identify the correct expanded form. 1.9 Identify appropriate examples of PHI and/or disclosure of PHI under the HIPAA privacy rule. 1.10 Identify the individuals and/or organizations that are defined as accountable parties or business associates under the HIPAA rule. 1.11 Identify appropriate security measures for protecting PHI. 1.12 Identify the recommended encryption standard of healthcare records under the HIPAA security rule. 1.13 Identify documentation authentication practices considered dangerous by both the Joint Commission and DHHS. 1.14 Given sentences with usage errors (subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, who vs. whom, etc), identify the one containing correct usage. 1.15 Given sentences containing English words commonly confused for other words, identify the correct sentence. 1.16 Given an audio excerpt containing an incorrectly used English term, fill in the blank(s) representing omitted information. 1.17 Given sentences or phrases, select the one that represents correct use of punctuation.

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