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The Practice of Everyday Life<br />Making Do”: Uses and Tactics<br />Michel de Certeau,(1988)<br />ID 501 – Kıvılcım Çınar...
contents<br />Use or consumption<br />The act of speaking<br />Strategies and tactics<br />The rhetorics of practice, anci...
keywords<br />ways of operating, <br />tactics versus strategies, <br />strategic rationalization-a way to delimit one's o...
How an entire society can manipulate the mechanisms of discipline and conform to them only in order to evade them?<br />
De Certeau is interested with thedevices, actions, and procedures people use every day on the micro level in order to subv...
Different ways of operating: <br />(ways of walking, reading, producing, speaking...)<br /><ul><li>depending on the situation
one can establish a degree of plurality and creativity, use/re-use/manipulate/ignore/...
circumstantial factors in a way that is beneficial for a person. </li></ul>Example: North African living in Paris.<br />(c...
Use, or consumption<br />Media – commercial production. (image broadcast, newspapers, magazines )<br />   What do people m...
Tactics and consumption<br />The consumer cannot be identified or qualified by the newspapers or commercial products he as...
The act of speaking (practice of language)<br />Enunciation (~ use) is a collection of circumstances adherent to the conte...
Strategies and tactics<br />Strategies are able to produce, tabulate and impose spaces, whereas tactics can only use, mani...
The effects of strategies<br />A triumph over place and time based on autonomy.<br />Mastery of places through sight: obse...
Tactics: calculated actions determined by the absence of a proper locus (geometrical space).<br />De Certeau defines “tact...
 The weaker the forces at the disposition of the strategist, the more the strategist will be able to use deception. <br />...
Strategies pin their hopes on the resistance that the establishment of a place offers to the erosion of time,<br />Tactics...
The rhetorics of practice, ancient ruses<br />Rhetorics are manipulations of language relative to the occasions. They are ...
Generalization of strategy and tactics<br />The strategic model is defeated by its own success: the proper distinction fro...
Strateji: Güç ilişkilerine öncelik verir; zamana bağlı olan, geçici olan ilişkileri, ilişkilerdeki her bir unsura belli bi...
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The practice of everyday life

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The practice of everyday life

  1. 1. The Practice of Everyday Life<br />Making Do”: Uses and Tactics<br />Michel de Certeau,(1988)<br />ID 501 – Kıvılcım Çınar<br />
  2. 2. contents<br />Use or consumption<br />The act of speaking<br />Strategies and tactics<br />The rhetorics of practice, ancient ruse<br />
  3. 3. keywords<br />ways of operating, <br />tactics versus strategies, <br />strategic rationalization-a way to delimit one's own place in a world by the invisible powers of the other.<br />the gap between the consumer and the products.<br />rhetorics of practice<br />
  4. 4. How an entire society can manipulate the mechanisms of discipline and conform to them only in order to evade them?<br />
  5. 5. De Certeau is interested with thedevices, actions, and procedures people use every day on the micro level in order to subvertthe disciplining powers.<br />He claims that everdaylife is made up of tactics.<br />To illustrate the definition of "the tactic", de Certeau introduces "laperruque"<br />La perruque<br />The ways in which workers trick their employers into thinking they are working when they are actually doing personal things using their company's time and materials.<br />
  6. 6. Different ways of operating: <br />(ways of walking, reading, producing, speaking...)<br /><ul><li>depending on the situation
  7. 7. one can establish a degree of plurality and creativity, use/re-use/manipulate/ignore/...
  8. 8. circumstantial factors in a way that is beneficial for a person. </li></ul>Example: North African living in Paris.<br />(creates for himself a space in which he can find ways of using the constraining order of the place or of the language)<br />
  9. 9. Use, or consumption<br />Media – commercial production. (image broadcast, newspapers, magazines )<br /> What do people make of what they absorb, receive and pay for?? <br />Passive way of consumption. Dislodgmentfrom the product =>no active role from the user (pure receiver)<br />Consumption shows itself not in its own products but in an art of using those imposed on it.<br />
  10. 10. Tactics and consumption<br />The consumer cannot be identified or qualified by the newspapers or commercial products he assimilates: there is a gap between the consumer and theproduct opened by the use that hemakes of them.<br />An aspect of the revenge that utilizing tactics take on the power that dominates production, which results in "popularization" or "degradation" of a culture.<br />
  11. 11. The act of speaking (practice of language)<br />Enunciation (~ use) is a collection of circumstances adherent to the context from which it can be distinguished only by abstraction.<br />Problematics of enunciation<br />a realization of linguistic system (the act of speaking)<br />an appropriation of language by the speaker who uses it.<br />a certain relational contract with a receiver.<br />the establishment of a present ~ being situated in time.<br />
  12. 12. Strategies and tactics<br />Strategies are able to produce, tabulate and impose spaces, whereas tactics can only use, manipulate and divert them.<br />Strategies: a calculation of power relationships that becomes possible as soon as a subject with will and power (institution) can be isolated. <br />Distinguish a place of 'independent' power and will from an environment. <br />
  13. 13. The effects of strategies<br />A triumph over place and time based on autonomy.<br />Mastery of places through sight: observation of foreign forces makes it possible to predict, run ahead of time by reading a space.<br />A specific type of knowledge, sustained and determined by the power to provide oneself with one's own place. <br />
  14. 14. Tactics: calculated actions determined by the absence of a proper locus (geometrical space).<br />De Certeau defines “tactics” as ways to artfully “use, manipulate, and divert” the cultural products and spaces imposed by an external power. <br />The effects of tactics<br />No options of planning as certain opportunities present themselves.<br />No centralized base for expansion or planning. <br />Make use of cracks in the surveillance of the proprietary powers, take it on by surprise.<br />The art of the weak<br />
  15. 15.  The weaker the forces at the disposition of the strategist, the more the strategist will be able to use deception. <br />The more the strategy is transformed into tactics.<br />A tactic is determined by the absence of power just as strategy is organized by the postulation of power.<br />
  16. 16. Strategies pin their hopes on the resistance that the establishment of a place offers to the erosion of time,<br />Tacticspin their hopes on a clever utilization of time, of the opportunities it presents and of the play that it introduces into the foundations of power. <br />Both ways of acting can be distinguished according to whether they bet on place or on time.<br />
  17. 17. The rhetorics of practice, ancient ruses<br />Rhetorics are manipulations of language relative to the occasions. They are intended to seduce, captivate or invert the linguistic position of the addressee.<br />Rhetorics~ Tactics<br />Clever 'tricks' of the 'weak' within the order established by the 'strong' > applicable to the practice of everyday life (speaking, reading, dwelling, moving about, shopping, cooking,...)<br />
  18. 18. Generalization of strategy and tactics<br />The strategic model is defeated by its own success: the proper distinction from 'everything else' has diminished since the proper has become the whole. <br />Tactics are going off their tracks, they are wandering in a space that is becoming more homogeneous. <br />Consumers are transformed into immigrants. <br />The system is too vast to be fixed in one place, but is too constraining to escape from it. <br />Generalization of strategy and generalization of tactics exclude a clear distinction between both.<br />
  19. 19. Strateji: Güç ilişkilerine öncelik verir; zamana bağlı olan, geçici olan ilişkileri, ilişkilerdeki her bir unsura belli bir analitik ve sahiplenilecek bir “yer” vererek, sabitleyerek, tanımlayarak ve “birimlere” ya da birimlerden oluşan bütünlere indirmeye gayret ederler.<br />Stratejiler önceden kabul edilen iktidar yeri, dağınık güç ve yerler ve de totalleştirici söylemler arasında ilişki kurar; her birinin üzerinde diğeri sayesinde hakimiyet kurar. <br />
  20. 20. Taktik sadece ötekinin olan ve kendine dayatılan, yabancı bir gücün kanunu tarafından organize edilen bir sahada ve o sahayla oynamak zorundadır; kendini, kendi yerinde, o sahanın dışında tutamaz. <br />Bu “yersizlik” ona kuşkusuz hareket kazandırır ama zamanın rastlantılarına bağımlı bir uysallık içinde, açılan imkânları yakalamaya çalışır; sahip olan iktidarın gözetiminde ortaya çıkan çatlaklardan faydalanması gerekir. <br />
  21. 21. Stratejilerin tersine taktiklerin adı yoktur. Stratejiler basitleştirir ve ad koyar; taktikler ise bütün karmaşıklığıyla, ancak bütün birikimiyle ve yılların, yüzyılların hafızasıyla gündelik hayatın kendisidir; yürümek, yemek, içmek, konuşmak gibi pratikler ya da performanslardır. <br />

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