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Description<br />Chemical fate and transport in the environment. Frequency and magnitude of accidents involving hazardous materials. Effects of these releases on the community<br />
Textbooks<br />Hemond, H.F. and E.J. Fechner-Levy. Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment. 2nd edition. Academic Press. ISBN: 0123402751. 448 pages. October 1999. <br />
Instructor and Goals<br />Instructor: Kitipan Kitbamroong Ph.D., email firstname.lastname@example.org<br />Course Goals: Integrate chemical property information to better understand the transport and fate of hazardous chemicals released to the environment. Examine case studies to understand the long-term social and environmental effects of these releases.<br />
Topics and Agenda<br />1.1 Introduction<br />1.2 Chemical Concentration<br />1.3 Mass Balance and Units<br />1.4 Physical Transport of Chemicals<br />1.5 Mass Balance in an Infinitely Small Control Volume<br />1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.7 Error in Measurements of Environmental Quantities<br />1.8 Chemical Distribution among phases<br />
1.1 Introduction<br />“By sensible definition any by-product of a chemical operation for which there is no profitable use is a waste. The most convenient, least expensive way of disposing of said waste – up the chimney or down the river – is the best.”<br />Haynes, W. American Chemical Industry, A History. Van Nostrand, NY. 1954.<br />
Processes<br />1.) wick effect:when water evaporates from soil surface, the suction gradient produced results in an appreciable upward movement of water to replace that evaporated<br />2.) infiltration: (atmosphere soil) precipitation that doesn’t simply runoff the land surface into a surface water body or storm drains enters the unsaturated zone (soil) <br />3.) evapotranspiration:evaporation from leaves (water from plant root uptake through the lip of leave) <br />4.) dry deposition: any physical removal process that doesn’t involve precipitation, there are three main mechanisms : gravitational settling (particle in the streamline settle down), impaction (happen when hit building or something), absorption (particle absorpto surface of object)<br />5.) rainout:mechanism in wet deposition (removal process that involve precipitation), involve s incorporation of chemical into water droplet that occur *within a cloud<br />
Processes<br />6.) washout: wet deposition, occurs *beneath a cloud as precipitation fall through the air toward the earth surface <br />7.) evaporation: process in which liquid transform to vapor, moving to atmosphere <br />8.) bubble bursting (sea spray): occur in few mm above ocean surface, there is a lot of small water bubble (1-100 m dia) generate from dynamic action and come up from ocean surface & broken in that top layer<br />9.) codistillation:evaporation & volatilization at the same time (simultaneous) <br />10.) excretion : the release of compound from organism to soil and water<br />
Processes<br />11.) ingestion: uptake from soil and water to organism <br />12.) infiltration: (water-soil), movement of water from surface water body to unsaturated zone, soil act as filter <br />13.) percolation: movement of water from unsaturated zone to sat (groundwater) <br />14.) runoff: precipitation that runoff the land surface into a surface water body <br />15.) leaching: dissolution of soluble compound from soil to water<br />
1.2 Chemical Concentrations<br />Mass per unit volume [M/L3], such as mg/L, is the most common expression for water.<br />ppm and ppb are often used.<br />Mg/kg is often used for soils because the mass of soil does not vary.<br />
1.3 Mass Balances and Units<br />Three possible outcomes exist for a chemical present at a specific location in the environment at a particular time:<br />The chemical can remain in that location<br />Can be carried elsewhere by a transport process<br />Eliminated through transformation into another chemical.<br />The RULES of mass balance or mass conservation<br />
1.3 Mass Balances and Units<br />Mass Balance Equation<br />Change in storage of mass = mass transported in – mass transported out + mass produced by sources – mass eliminated by sinks<br />Mass Balance Rate Equation (mass per time)<br />Rate of change in storage of mass = mass transported rate in – mass transport rate <br />out + mass production rate by sources –<br />mass elimination rate by sinks<br />
1.4 Physical Transport of Chemicals<br />Advection Transport<br />Fickian Transport<br />
1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.6.6 Chemical Kinetics<br />First Order Kinetics – leads to exponential decay or first-order decay<br />Half Life - the amount of time it takes for the parent compound to decay to half its initial concentration<br />
1.7 Error in Measurements of Environmental Quantities <br />The error of observation is the difference between the measured value of a quantity and the accurate value.<br />
1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.1 Solubility and Vapor Pressure<br />Aqueous solubility is the concentration of a chemical dissolved in water when that water is both in contact and at equilibrium with the pure chemical.<br />1.8.2 Henry’s Law Constants<br />A partition coefficient describes how a chemical distributes itself between two different phases.<br />The Henry’s Law constant, H (or KH), is a partition coefficient defined as the ratio of a chemical’s concentration in air to its concentration in water at equilibrium<br />1.8.3 Chemical Partitioning to Solids<br />
1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.3 Chemical Partitioning to Solids<br />Sorption is the term used to describe the chemical partitioning between air and solid phases.<br />Adsorption is when the chemical sticks to the two-dimensional surface of a solid.<br />Absorption is when the chemical diffuses into a three-dimensional solid.<br />
1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.3 Fugacity<br />Fugacity literally means the “tendency to flee” and is used to determine to the relative concentrations of a chemical in air, water, and soil phases at equilibrium (can also be used to include other environmental phases, such as fish, bottom sediments, dissolved gases, suspended sediment)<br />Fugacity has units of pressure and is related to concentrations through a fugacity capacity constant (in units of mol/atm-m3)<br />
1.8.3 Fugacity<br />Level I<br />Level II<br />Level III and IV<br />