Hazardous Waste Management<br />Kitipan Kitbamroong Ph.D.<br />7 January, 2011<br />
Description<br />Chemical fate and transport in the environment. Frequency and magnitude of accidents involving hazardous ...
Textbooks<br />Hemond, H.F. and E.J. Fechner-Levy. Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment. 2nd edition. Academic P...
Instructor and Goals<br />Instructor: Kitipan Kitbamroong Ph.D., email kitipan@gmail.com<br />Course Goals: Integrate chem...
Topics and Agenda<br />1.1 Introduction<br />1.2 Chemical Concentration<br />1.3 Mass Balance and Units<br />1.4 Physical ...
1.1 Introduction<br />“By sensible definition any by-product of a chemical operation for which there is no profitable use ...
Processes<br />1.) wick effect:when water evaporates  from soil surface, the suction gradient produced results in an appre...
Processes<br />6.) washout: wet deposition,  occurs *beneath a cloud as precipitation fall through the air toward the eart...
Processes<br />11.)  ingestion: uptake from soil and water to organism  <br />12.) infiltration: (water-soil), movement of...
1.2 Chemical Concentrations<br />Mass per unit volume [M/L3], such as mg/L, is the most common expression for water.<br />...
1.3 Mass Balances and Units<br />Three possible outcomes exist for a chemical present at a specific location in the enviro...
1.3 Mass Balances and Units<br />Mass Balance Equation<br />Change in storage of mass = mass transported in – mass transpo...
1.4 Physical Transport of Chemicals<br />Advection Transport<br />Fickian Transport<br />
1.5 Advection-Dispersion-Reaction Equation<br />
1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.6.1 Chemical Kinetics <br />1.6.2 Gibbs Free Energy<br />
1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.6.3 Chemical Equilibrium<br />1.6.4 Electroneutrality<br />1.6.5 Activity<br />
1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.6.6 Chemical Kinetics<br />First Order Kinetics – leads to exponential  decay or ...
1.7 Error in Measurements of Environmental Quantities <br />The error of observation is the difference between the measure...
1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.1 Solubility and Vapor Pressure<br />Aqueous solubility is the con...
1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.3 Chemical Partitioning to Solids<br />Sorption is the term used t...
1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.3 Fugacity<br />Fugacity literally means the “tendency to flee” an...
1.8.3 Fugacity<br />Level I<br />Level II<br />Level III and IV<br />
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chemical fate and transport in the environment.

1,902 views

Published on

Chemical fate and transport in the environment.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,902
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
44
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This template can be used as a starter file to give updates for project milestones.SectionsRight-click on a slide to add sections. Sections can help to organize your slides or facilitate collaboration between multiple authors.NotesUse the Notes section for delivery notes or to provide additional details for the audience. View these notes in Presentation View during your presentation. Keep in mind the font size (important for accessibility, visibility, videotaping, and online production)Coordinated colors Pay particular attention to the graphs, charts, and text boxes.Consider that attendees will print in black and white or grayscale. Run a test print to make sure your colors work when printed in pure black and white and grayscale.Graphics, tables, and graphsKeep it simple: If possible, use consistent, non-distracting styles and colors.Label all graphs and tables.
  • What is the project about?Define the goal of this projectIs it similar to projects in the past or is it a new effort?Define the scope of this projectIs it an independent project or is it related to other projects?* Note that this slide is not necessary for weekly status meetings
  • * If any of these issues caused a schedule delay or need to be discussed further, include details in next slide.
  • Duplicate this slide as necessary if there is more than one issue.This and related slides can be moved to the appendix or hidden if necessary.
  • Chemical fate and transport in the environment.

    1. 1. Hazardous Waste Management<br />Kitipan Kitbamroong Ph.D.<br />7 January, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Description<br />Chemical fate and transport in the environment. Frequency and magnitude of accidents involving hazardous materials. Effects of these releases on the community<br />
    3. 3. Textbooks<br />Hemond, H.F. and E.J. Fechner-Levy. Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment. 2nd edition. Academic Press. ISBN: 0123402751. 448 pages. October 1999. <br />
    4. 4. Instructor and Goals<br />Instructor: Kitipan Kitbamroong Ph.D., email kitipan@gmail.com<br />Course Goals: Integrate chemical property information to better understand the transport and fate of hazardous chemicals released to the environment. Examine case studies to understand the long-term social and environmental effects of these releases.<br />
    5. 5. Topics and Agenda<br />1.1 Introduction<br />1.2 Chemical Concentration<br />1.3 Mass Balance and Units<br />1.4 Physical Transport of Chemicals<br />1.5 Mass Balance in an Infinitely Small Control Volume<br />1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.7 Error in Measurements of Environmental Quantities<br />1.8 Chemical Distribution among phases<br />
    6. 6. 1.1 Introduction<br />“By sensible definition any by-product of a chemical operation for which there is no profitable use is a waste. The most convenient, least expensive way of disposing of said waste – up the chimney or down the river – is the best.”<br />Haynes, W. American Chemical Industry, A History. Van Nostrand, NY. 1954.<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Processes<br />1.) wick effect:when water evaporates from soil surface, the suction gradient produced results in an appreciable upward movement of water to replace that evaporated<br />2.) infiltration: (atmosphere soil) precipitation that doesn’t simply runoff the land surface into a surface water body or storm drains enters the unsaturated zone (soil) <br />3.) evapotranspiration:evaporation from leaves (water from plant root uptake through the lip of leave) <br />4.) dry deposition: any physical removal process that doesn’t involve precipitation, there are three main mechanisms : gravitational settling (particle in the streamline settle down), impaction (happen when hit building or something), absorption (particle absorpto surface of object)<br />5.) rainout:mechanism in wet deposition (removal process that involve precipitation), involve s incorporation of chemical into water droplet that occur *within a cloud<br />
    10. 10. Processes<br />6.) washout: wet deposition, occurs *beneath a cloud as precipitation fall through the air toward the earth surface <br />7.) evaporation: process in which liquid transform to vapor, moving to atmosphere <br />8.) bubble bursting (sea spray): occur in few mm above ocean surface, there is a lot of small water bubble (1-100 m dia) generate from dynamic action and come up from ocean surface & broken in that top layer<br />9.) codistillation:evaporation & volatilization at the same time (simultaneous) <br />10.) excretion : the release of compound from organism to soil and water<br />
    11. 11. Processes<br />11.) ingestion: uptake from soil and water to organism <br />12.) infiltration: (water-soil), movement of water from surface water body to unsaturated zone, soil act as filter <br />13.) percolation: movement of water from unsaturated zone to sat (groundwater) <br />14.) runoff: precipitation that runoff the land surface into a surface water body <br />15.) leaching: dissolution of soluble compound from soil to water<br />
    12. 12. 1.2 Chemical Concentrations<br />Mass per unit volume [M/L3], such as mg/L, is the most common expression for water.<br />ppm and ppb are often used.<br />Mg/kg is often used for soils because the mass of soil does not vary.<br />
    13. 13. 1.3 Mass Balances and Units<br />Three possible outcomes exist for a chemical present at a specific location in the environment at a particular time:<br />The chemical can remain in that location<br />Can be carried elsewhere by a transport process<br />Eliminated through transformation into another chemical.<br />The RULES of mass balance or mass conservation<br />
    14. 14. 1.3 Mass Balances and Units<br />Mass Balance Equation<br />Change in storage of mass = mass transported in – mass transported out + mass produced by sources – mass eliminated by sinks<br />Mass Balance Rate Equation (mass per time)<br />Rate of change in storage of mass = mass transported rate in – mass transport rate <br />out + mass production rate by sources –<br />mass elimination rate by sinks<br />
    15. 15. 1.4 Physical Transport of Chemicals<br />Advection Transport<br />Fickian Transport<br />
    16. 16. 1.5 Advection-Dispersion-Reaction Equation<br />
    17. 17. 1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.6.1 Chemical Kinetics <br />1.6.2 Gibbs Free Energy<br />
    18. 18. 1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.6.3 Chemical Equilibrium<br />1.6.4 Electroneutrality<br />1.6.5 Activity<br />
    19. 19. 1.6 Basic Environmental Chemistry<br />1.6.6 Chemical Kinetics<br />First Order Kinetics – leads to exponential decay or first-order decay<br />Half Life - the amount of time it takes for the parent compound to decay to half its initial concentration<br />
    20. 20. 1.7 Error in Measurements of Environmental Quantities <br />The error of observation is the difference between the measured value of a quantity and the accurate value.<br />
    21. 21. 1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.1 Solubility and Vapor Pressure<br />Aqueous solubility is the concentration of a chemical dissolved in water when that water is both in contact and at equilibrium with the pure chemical.<br />1.8.2 Henry’s Law Constants<br />A partition coefficient describes how a chemical distributes itself between two different phases.<br />The Henry’s Law constant, H (or KH), is a partition coefficient defined as the ratio of a chemical’s concentration in air to its concentration in water at equilibrium<br />1.8.3 Chemical Partitioning to Solids<br />
    22. 22. 1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.3 Chemical Partitioning to Solids<br />Sorption is the term used to describe the chemical partitioning between air and solid phases.<br />Adsorption is when the chemical sticks to the two-dimensional surface of a solid.<br />Absorption is when the chemical diffuses into a three-dimensional solid.<br />
    23. 23. 1.8 Multiple phases present in the environment<br />1.8.3 Fugacity<br />Fugacity literally means the “tendency to flee” and is used to determine to the relative concentrations of a chemical in air, water, and soil phases at equilibrium (can also be used to include other environmental phases, such as fish, bottom sediments, dissolved gases, suspended sediment)<br />Fugacity has units of pressure and is related to concentrations through a fugacity capacity constant (in units of mol/atm-m3)<br />
    24. 24. 1.8.3 Fugacity<br />Level I<br />Level II<br />Level III and IV<br />

    ×