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Adapting Cities - Implementing research in practice


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Presentation given to the ARCC assembly on 11th June by Kit England, Nick Grayson and Kate Cochrane, on behalf of Core Cities, Newcastle City Council, Birmingham City Council and Bristol City Council

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Adapting Cities - Implementing research in practice

  1. 1. Adapting cities: Applying research in adaptation policy and practice Kit England Chair, Core Cities working group on adaptation
  2. 2. Where is action most effective? Right thing Right reasonRight time
  3. 3. The challenges for cities • The magnitude of impacts and their consequences in cities. Cities are hubs of economic growth, with more than half the world's population and most of its built assets and economic activities; • The potential for greater cascade and convergence risks, due to the increased interaction of complex economic, social and environmental systems • Many emerging risks concentrated in urban areas, posing unique challenges and opportunities – including urban heat island, increasing night-time temperatures, heating and cooling requirements; the lack of permeability increasing surface water flood risk, whilst river and coastal are at increased fluvial and tidal risk
  4. 4. How Europe is addressing this • European Commission embedding adaptation. Recognises a number of factors needed to mainstream, including political commitment, coherent policy, new research, pilots of new approaches and implementation • Political commitment - ‘Mayors Adapt’ a political commitment scheme for Local Authorities. • Coherent policy - Adaptation and Green Infrastructure strategies • New research – Climate Action and Secure Socities themes in Horizon 2020 • Pilots of approaches and implementation – LIFE+ adaptation programme focused on supporting delivery of local adaptation strategies, Cohesion funding and North Sea operational programme funding green and blue infrastructure • To move work to the mainstream we need cities and academics to coalesce around European and local priorities around ALL these topics
  5. 5. UK Government approach • National Adaptation Programme – statutorily required by the Climate Change Act 2008 – informed by the National Climate Change Risk Assessment • Supported by ClimateUK regional partnerships and Environment Agency ‘Climate Ready’ support service • A voluntary approach– delivered in the context of Localism. • Core Cities committed to accelerate work on adaptation in their local areas Covered a range of areas, including Built Environment, Infrastructure, Health and Wellbeing and Businesses and Services. • Effectiveness of this approach to be evaluated by Committee on Climate Change • Core Cities now leading from the front – looking at Government barriers to more effective adaptation, and trying to push forward adaptation in their area
  6. 6. The challenge for UK cities • Local Authorities identified by Adaptation Sub- Committee as key deliverers/enablers • However, Local Government undergoing massive austerity, and an aging population which are distracting us from the challenge • A number of ‘best practice’ schemes delivered, but needs to scale. • However the building blocks are there to support action
  7. 7. The big idea(s) • If Cities are to adapt, the finance required dwarfs what Local Authorities and Government hold or can borrow. • Globally cities need to build the business case to unlock private capital alongside existing finance. • Cities moving towards this, particularly green bonds, but also crowd sourcing. • Also need to change the language – adaptation not working, instead need to quantify the benefits much more robustly (GVA, Jobs, public health)
  8. 8. Implications for academia • Need an ongoing partnership with academia to effectively build the business case FOR cities, and IN cities • Develop evidence, assess hazards and vulnerability, understand city issues and priorities, and potential solutions • Each of these will be different in different cities, but there are some common threads • There are research priorities for cities, but also some primary research gaps
  9. 9. Research priorities • How do we change the language? What is the most effective way to ‘sell’ adaptation? Is it more about the economic case – jobs created, resilience of supply chains, GVA from adaptation measures – if so we have to get there. • Finance – Building the legal, financial and policy capacity of Cities to access private finance • Creating local evidence bases - Development and application of existing tools and techniques around exposure, vulnerability and adaptive capacity which can create resilient individuals, institutions and systems in cities
  10. 10. Other research gaps • Behaviours/Communities – What is the contribution of individuals – how can their actions address hazards, how do we communicate the impacts with them? • The role of Government - What is the role of Government in facilitating adaptation given the scale? What are the barriers in UK and international policy holding local adaptation back? • Weatherising climate projections – Developing standard ways to adapt existing evaluation/appraisal techniques for projects to account for weather under climate change • International impacts on cities – e.g. migration • Food - Risks to food security and strategies to address this • The urban-rural network - cities don't exist in isolation, what are effects on the surrounding areas, how do they impact
  11. 11. Types of city/academic collaboration Setting shared city priorities/challenges Developing/supporting funding bids/consortia Major research projects – “Co creating evidence” Masters/Undergraduate placements Strategic Operational
  12. 12. Key questions • What are your first thoughts on the Core Cities agenda? • Have we got the right areas of research? What else do we need to know more about? • What are the levers in our control to address this?
  13. 13. Kit England E: T: 0191 211 5098 Twitter: @kitengland
  14. 14. Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 Nick Grayson Climate Change & Sustainability Manager, “Metanoia” Birmingham City Council Leader- leading global green city; Planning- 150,000 population; 80,000 new homes; Green Commission -Green Vision; - Carbon Roadmap -60% carbon reductions; - Natural Capital
  15. 15. Sustainability Forum – June 11th 2012 ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities "We the mayors and governors of the world's leading cities. ask you to recognise that the future of our globe will be won or lost in the cities of the world." Copenhagen Climate Change communiqué, December 2009 UK Statistics 2012 % UK classified as urban? % of UK population living as urban ? % urban areas not built form? % total of England built on? % GHG & natural resources – global cities? MEA & NATURAL CAPITAL 2005 STERN 1% GDP GLOBAL 2006
  16. 16. Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 Non-communicable diseases represent a new frontier in the fight to improve global health. Worldwide, the increase in such diseases means that they are now responsible for more deaths than all other causes combined. Secretary General United Nations 2011
  17. 17. ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 BUCCANEER – Birmingham Urban Climate Change Adaptation Neighborhood Estimates of Environmental Risk
  18. 18. ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities BUCCANEER PROJECT
  19. 19. Key Partners Climate Risk Water Green Infrastructure Health & Well Being Biodiversity The LEP & Business Community + Resilience Planning Transport & Infrastructure The 9 piece jigsaw POLICY EVIDENCE DELIVERY Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 Green Infrastructure & Adaptation Delivery Group
  20. 20. Principle Outcome An Adapted City Retain City’s top ranking for adaptation Ensure all future growth is adapted Trees for cooling and thermal insulation Green roofs, walls and street canyon research The City’s Blue Network Adopt water sensitive urban design Integrated SuDS, flood and water management solutions Blueprint for enhance walking and cycling offer Blue Corridor/ network policy with Canal Rivers Trust A Healthy City Adopt Natural Health Improvement Zones (NHIZ) Integrate the delivery of health and green living spaces Continue to extend the ‘Be Active’ offer Public Health as key partners in Planning The City’s Productive Landscapes Embrace urban forestry and urban food growing Continue to promote allotments Facilitate community food growing and orchards Promote the multiple benefits of urban forestry The City’s Greenways Change gear- to a walking and cycling City Create walkable/ cyclable neighbourhoods Citywide signed routes linked to public transport Link healthcare activities and prevention programmes The City’s Ecosystem Birmingham as a Biophilic City • City to adopt an ecosystem services approach Partners to lead on District Nature Improvement Area plans Birmingham to join global Biophilic Cities Network The City’s Green Living Spaces Birmingham an international City of Green Living Spaces Adopt the 7 principles across Planning Framework Green Infrastructure and Adaptation Delivery Group
  21. 21. Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 •Biodiversity * Local Climate * Recreation •Education * Aesthetics & mobility * Flood risk
  22. 22. Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities Excess Years Life Lost at LSOA Birmingham – a global first ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014
  23. 23. Birmingham: The UK’s First Biophilic City ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014 - Cities that achieve a deep affinity with nature Milwaukee San Francisco Birmingham Wellington Vittoria- Gastiez Milwaukee Rio de Janeiro Montreal Oslo Perth Birmingham San Fransisco
  24. 24. Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014
  25. 25. Birmingham – UK Urban Demonstrator ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014
  26. 26. Birmingham – Smart Adapting Cities ARCC Network Assembly- Birmingham 2014< global-green-biophilic-cities-club ontribute/PublicHealthandLandscape_Crea tingHealthyPlaces_FINAL.pdf
  27. 27. Bristol – climate adaptation & resilience • Bristol is European Green Capital 2015 & a member of Rockefeller Foundation’s pioneering 100 Resilient Cities Network. • Climate resilience work – early days NI 188, then enshrined as a corporate risk, now integrated into wider resilience work through 100RC programme. • Resilience – ability to withstand and recover from acute shocks & chronic stresses such as civil emergencies, climate change, food security and resource scarcity but also about transformational change. • City resilience is central to Mayor George Ferguson’s vision for Bristol • Climate resilience – reflected in strategic plans e.g. Local Plan, Health & Wellbeing Strategy, operationally e.g. EMAS team – key Cabinet Decisions need Eco Impact Assessment, Civil Protection Unit’s work, risk management – 15 headline risks in CC Risk Register, & fostering strong links across authority & with city partners. • Rockefeller Foundation’s 100RC programme funding Strategic Resilience Officer post who will lead development of Bristol’s Resilience Plan, bringing together multiple-stakeholders within Bristol and the city region.
  28. 28. Building the evidence - ARCC SNACC – Suburban Neighbourhood Adaptation for a Changing Climate: • 3 case study cities - Bristol, Stockport, Oxford • Researchers – Uni of West of Eng, Oxford Brookes Uni, Heriot-Watt Uni • 2 case study suburbs – 1900s terraces & new build homes • Overheating risk in homes – old & new – 100% by 2050 (High Em, 90%) • Insight into home characteristics contributing to overheating • Identified packages of measures for low carbon & resilient homes inc. relatively simple measures – lagging pipes, solar shading & solar films • Important feedback on acceptability of measures from homeowners
  29. 29. New Homes – Overheating Risk Upper Horfield built 2006-2010
  30. 30. Upper Horfield built 2006-2010 Retrofit Measures for Cool Homes
  31. 31. Building the evidence - ARCC Using findings from SNACC: • Communities – highlighted perspective that homeowners generally welcomed rather than feared overheating due to British climate – assuming simple measures e.g. window opening would cool home • Building capacity – sharing learning within the authority – housing team, EMAS officers, councillors, retrofit programme managers (Green Deal), service managers etc. • Evidence – raising profile of overheating risk & taken more seriously • Planning – research used in training session, advisory note drafted on developers using future weather files to ensure occupant comfort, and through development management process evidence sought on measures for tackling overheating risk • Critical services – shared SNACC findings with EMAS officer for health & social care plus signposted other ARCC projects BIOPICC etc
  32. 32. [Newcastle City Council] Case Study: Newcastle City Council
  33. 33. About the City • Population of 282,000 • Reducing revenue spend from £270m to £170m by 2016 – this will continue to fall • Incredibly unequal city – need to make sure those who are worst off aren’t affected the most • Climate change and severe weather presenting increasing risks – mainly from more extreme rainfall • Economic impacts of Climate Change for NE identified 7:1 cost benefit ratio for acting • Work programme on adaptation set out – mainly our own activities/operations, but a city element too
  34. 34. • SLIDES FOR PRESENTATION 28th June 2012 Greater than a 1 in a 100 year rainfall event
  35. 35. Flooding impacts • Domestic Properties - 1,200 flooded, including 500 flooded internally; • Businesses - Damage to premises, and loss of profits from inability to fulfil orders; • Highways - £9.2m damage, disruption across the network, and knock-on effects on the availability and frequency of bus services; • Metro - Widespread disruption, including a landslide onto the tracks, closed stations, and services cancelled or delayed; • Railways - Closure of East Coast Mainline due to a landslip; delays on local rail networks; • Electricity - lost to 23,000 homes across the North due to lightning; • Tourism - Closure of the Hoppings funfair, compounding three days’ closure because of torrential downpours • Council Operations – Closed and damaged buildings, including nurseries, schools, colleges, warehouses and Customer Service Centres;
  36. 36. BlueGreenCities • Improving understanding of value of Blue and green infrastructure in flood and non-flood states. A number of work packages: – Improving of flood model for the City – Understanding how people use water butts and their impacts – Economic valuation of multiple benefits of Blue/Green states – e.g. air quality, flood risk • Combined work packages will test policy options for addressing flood risk using green/blue infrastructure in Newcastle • Buy in from a number of key stakeholders – e.g. CIRIA, Environment Agency
  37. 37. Long term urban research facility • Deploying environmental/movement sensors to lampposts across the City – temperature, air quality, water flow • Linked to weather stations in schools and other weather feeds (e.g. Twitter) • Creating a local dataset to inform better modelling on exposure and sensitivity – looking to link to decision support tools that feed policy options • Also serve to correlate impacts and local data/thresholds • £900k initially allocated, another £500k committed to facilitate roll out
  38. 38. Other research • BIOPICCC • R-Futures • Horizon 2020 bids
  39. 39. ‘Adapting Newcastle’ • PhD looking at potential to adapt to climate change whilst reducing inequalities. • Key findings: – evidence based policy insufficiently accounts for constraints on adaptive capacity – Effective adaptation requires broader involvement in decision making – cannot occur in isolation from socio-economic and political drivers, yet resource implications of dealing with increasing social vulnerability and climate extremes are poorly understood and not currently factored into decision making.
  40. 40. Heat vulnerability assessment • Downscaled UK Climate Change projections for temperature to 5km • Assessed heatwave risks to different sections of the population at LSOA to highlight priority sections of the city at risk – using housing stock data, health data, incomes and more • Also feeding future research – dataset for future modelling/research use
  41. 41. CAFCAS (Climate Adaptation Financing for Coastal Areas) • Project looking to de-risk private investment in resilient infrastructure - A mix of European Local Authorities (Newcastle, Copenhagen, Rotterdam), consultancies and insurance sector • Generating 8 investment summaries and testing viability with private finance (sovereign wealth, private equity) to identify and remove barriers • Investment summaries focused on ‘intervention opportunities’ from existing activity – creating efficiencies and hitting multiple LA spending priorities which justify an ROI to investors. E.g. giving highways infrastructure better surfacing, reprioritising cycle lanes, making utilities more accessible and deploying SuDS.
  42. 42. Civic Centre Retrofit • Building adaptation into £17m low-carbon office accommodation retrofit for 2040-2060. • Employing data from PROMETHEUS, and route first trodden by ‘Design for Future Climate’ • Using future Design Summer Years to evaluate options for addressing overheating using low- carbon solutions, quantify costs • A listed building so going to be exploring the tensions between conservation and future- proofing
  43. 43. Kate Cochrane E: T: 0191 277 7176 Kit England E: T: 0191 211 5098 Twitter: @kitengland