Research+In+ Social+ Science


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Research+In+ Social+ Science

  1. 1. Research in Social Science
  2. 2. Research in Social Science Two types of research Empirical Laws Philosophy of Science (3 views) Research Wheel Stages in Research Ethics in research
  3. 3. Research in Social Science Two Types of Research 1. Quantitative Research 2. Qualitative Research
  4. 4. Research in Social Science <ul><li>Qualities of Empirical (Scientific) Laws: </li></ul><ul><li>Universal </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Causal Explanations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research in Social Science However there is a difference: Social Science cannot state causes with certainty, only with probability.
  6. 6. Logical Positivism Founded by the Vienna Circle
  7. 7. Logical Positivism Positivism: Positive (not speculative) knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties verified by empirical science Logical Positivism: a 20 th Century philosophical movement that holds that meaningful statements about the natural world are true only if verified by observation and experiment
  8. 8. Operationalism Founded by Percy Bridgeman 1882-1961
  9. 9. Pragmatism Founded by William James 1842-1910
  10. 10. Research Wheel Deduction Induction Theory Experiment Data Hypothesis
  11. 11. Steps in Research <ul><li>Choose a Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Define Important Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Research Background of Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the Data </li></ul><ul><li>Report Results and Conclusion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research Methods Descriptive Relational/Correlational Experimental
  13. 13. Research Methods Survey Observational Study Case Study Experiment Secondary data analysis
  14. 14. Research Methods Ethics in Research Institutional Review Board Major Ethical Rules
  15. 15. Ethical Rules Origins
  16. 16. Ethical Rules Voluntary Participation
  17. 17. Ethical Rules Informed Consent
  18. 18. Ethical Rules Anonymity
  19. 19. Ethical Rules No Harm
  20. 20. Ethical Rules Debriefing
  21. 21. Classic Study: Solomon Asch Conformity Experiment
  22. 22. Another Conformity Experiment
  23. 23. Classic Study 1962 – Yale Univ Stanley Milgram Obedience to Authority Study Origination of idea Goal Ethical Problems
  24. 24. Stanley Milgram 1933-1984
  25. 25. Experiment Layout
  26. 26. Classic Study 1970 – Southern Illinois Univ Laud Humphreys Tearoom Trade Origination of idea Goal Ethical Problems
  27. 27. Classic Study Laud Humphreys 1930-1988
  28. 28. Classic Study 1971 – Stanford Univ Philip Zimbardo Prison Study Origination of idea Goal Ethical Problems
  29. 29. Classic Study Stanford Prison Experiment Philip Zimbardo b 1933
  30. 30. Classic Study Stanford Prison Experiment
  31. 31. Classic Studies Film
  32. 32. 1995 UCI Fertility Scandal <ul><li>egg & embryo misuse </li></ul><ul><li>harvested eggs from women and transferred </li></ul><ul><li>embryos without consent </li></ul><ul><li>illegally billed insurance companies </li></ul><ul><li>cheated UCI out of money owed the university </li></ul><ul><li>at least 65 women were unknowingly involved </li></ul><ul><li>in illicit egg or embryo transfers </li></ul><ul><li>The doctors forged consent forms, stole human eggs from patients and gave them to other clinic patients without consent, then deliberately lied about the number of eggs they had harvested from each woman. </li></ul>