Persian gardens


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Persian gardens

  1. 1. Persian Gardens
  2. 2. <ul><li>The tradition and style in the garden design of Persian gardens has influenced the design of gardens from Spain to India and beyond. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian garden styles follow the gardening styles of Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>The local climate, high walled structures, shady trees, water streams and fountains are the factors which makes the Persian garden a paradise on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The different styles of Persian garden are Hayat, Meidan, Chahar Bagh, Park and Bagh. </li></ul>WATER STREAMS SHADY TREES SUCH AS CYPRUS
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Persian gardens are planted with different types of fruit, flower trees, shrubs, shady plants, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The irrigation canals are also planted in the gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>The canals were planted straight to provide water to the plants which were also planted straight along the canals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian garden style spread eastwards to India and westwards via Spain with the spread of Islam and by the Romans. </li></ul>AMALGAMATION OF THE GARDENS AND CANALS
  4. 4. Origin : <ul><li>Persian gardens originated in 4000 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>The decorated pottery of that time shows the typical cross plan of the Persian gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>This style is best seen in Cyrus the Great's garden which was built-in around 500 BCE. </li></ul>
  5. 5. During the reign of Sassanids and under the influence of Zoroastrianism, water was considered an important factor in the art of garden. The greater emphasis was given on ponds and fountains in the garden. During the Arab occupation, gardens were built by taking into consideration aesthetic rules. The best example of this is 'Chahar bagh', with four rivers and four quadrants representing the world. After 18th century, European Garden design began to influence Persia, especially those of France, Russia and United Kingdom. 2 3 1 4 RIVERS
  6. 6. History: <ul><li>These gardens are enclosed. </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose behind building such gardens was to provide </li></ul><ul><li>relaxation in different manners such as spiritual, </li></ul><ul><li>leisurely (e.g. meetings with friends). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pairi daeza” means enclosed space in Persian language. </li></ul><ul><li>This Christian mythology adopted this term to describe </li></ul><ul><li>the Garden of Eden or paradise on earth. </li></ul>Garden of Eden
  7. 7. <ul><li>The construction of garden may have an emphasis either on nature or on structure, however the main thing this garden should allow is maximization of function. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian gardens were built as a retreat from the harsh landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>These gardens are followed by modern-day garden, from the sanctuaries and hunting parks of 5th century B.C., </li></ul><ul><li>19th century magical nightingale gardens of Tehran, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cyrus's garden had a geometrical plan and stone watercourses. </li></ul>Cyrus's garden Geometrical plan Water courses
  8. 8. <ul><li>This style was widely used with the spread of Islam, from Moorish gardens (Spain) to Mughul gardens (India). </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast with the European gardens of the time the Persian gardens were very lavish. These gardens consisted of herb plants around monasteries. </li></ul><ul><li>The gardens also had red and yellow beautiful, colourful fruit plants in it. </li></ul><ul><li>Bagh-e-Shahzadeh is one of the remaining few persian garden. It has series of split level fountains and it is full of tender beauty of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian gardens have influenced the gardeners of Andalusia to India and other countries also. </li></ul>Bagh-e-Shahzadeh
  9. 9. Basic styles of Persian garden : <ul><li>Hayat: </li></ul><ul><li>This is the old classical Persian garden layout which highly emphasizes on aesthetics. </li></ul><ul><li>The grounds are covered with gravels flagged with stones. </li></ul><ul><li>Planting is very simple. The trees are planted in a line with a shade. </li></ul><ul><li>The pools are the source of humidity in the surrounding atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>These gardens are mainly pool centred and structure centred. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Meidan: </li></ul><ul><li>This is a public, formal garden which emphasizes more on biotic elements than structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Here we see bedding plants, trees, shrubs, grasses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In this garden also the elements like gravel pathways, pools divide the lawns. </li></ul><ul><li>The shade providing structures pavilions are also built. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Chahar Bagh: </li></ul><ul><li>These gardens are formal and private. </li></ul><ul><li>The garden structure mainly consists of four quadrants divided by pathways and waterways. </li></ul><ul><li>This garden has a balanced structure with proper pathways and greenery or plants around the periphery of the pool. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Park: </li></ul><ul><li>These are casual parks used for public functions. </li></ul><ul><li>These are full of various plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Here we see pathways and seating but these gardens are limited in terms of structural elements. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of such gardens is relaxation and socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Bagh: </li></ul><ul><li>Like other casual gardens, it focuses on natural and green aspects of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>These gardens are often attached to houses consisting of trees, lawns and ground plants. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives less emphasis on waterways and pathways. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary aim is familial relaxation. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Elements of Persian Gardens <ul><li>The important Persian garden elements are sunlight, shade, water, buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>These elements provide relaxation in different manners such as spiritual, leisurely (e.g. meetings with friends) etc. which is the primary aim of Persian garden which is considered as a paradise on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian gardens often connect internal yard gardens with the surrounding outward gardens. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Sunlight : </li></ul><ul><li>The important factor to be considered while designing the Persian garden is sunlight and its effects in the garden. </li></ul><ul><li>Architects arranged the samples and forms from the rays of light to restrain the sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>The specific textures and shapes were chosen by the experienced architects to harness the light. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Shade: The shade is also very important due to the dry heat of Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian gardens includes trees, shrubs and trellises which work as biotic shades to provide protection from strong sunrays. </li></ul><ul><li>In these gardens we can see large number of big shade trees, fruit and flower trees as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Walls and pavilions are also important in blocking the harsh sunrays. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly cypress trees are found . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Water: In desert regions, there are many dry areas beside the many forests, therefore water comes as the next important element in the Persian garden. </li></ul><ul><li>The underground water canals are built on slopes to facilitate either natural or the artificial flow of water (waterfalls). </li></ul><ul><li>It is assumed that this style of irrigation is thousand years old. </li></ul><ul><li>This style works in the best way and widely used even in modern gardening styles. </li></ul><ul><li>For this purpose of moving water around the surface water systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees are planted in a ditch called a jub, to prevent water evaporation and allow quick access of water to the tree roots. </li></ul>JUB (DITCH)
  17. 17. <ul><li>Buildings: In many of the Persian gardens, buildings of splendour, brick works and pavilions are seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Here we also get to see the different structural designs like royal palaces, mansions, temples, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Iranian architects used to build domes on square buildings very skilfully. </li></ul><ul><li>These enhance the beauty of these gardens. </li></ul><ul><li>In Persian gardens, beautiful arches were constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>In front of many mansions and palaces of these gardens, the water fountains were placed as the source of cool, peaceful atmosphere and pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>The beautiful types of glasses (e.g. stain glasses) were used for windows and other glass works. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Characteristic features of Persian gardens : <ul><li>The most important factor of Persian gardens is to build shade type structures wherever necessary in the garden. This helps to cope with hot climates and keep the atmosphere cool. </li></ul><ul><li>These gardens are closed and walled and have very little association with the area outside these walls. </li></ul><ul><li>The Persian gardens necessarily have a central water feature or ponds as water is the soul of these gardens. Fountains tend to be more of modern Persian garden design. It is a best way save water and maintain with the original design consisting of a water structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The gardens have crisp colours and clean alignments. Intricate mosaic tiles are occasionally used in these gardens. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The garden can be conservative, refined, formal or relaxed and casual. The different garden designs serve different purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Arches play an important role in Persian garden designs. It shows typical Persian architectural theme. These arches are made from stonework or sometimes wooden support which can be made appear as original. </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetry is very important in these designs. The matching or mirroring elements can give enjoyment and pleasure. </li></ul>
  20. 20. CASE STUDY Fin Garden,Kashan
  21. 21. <ul><li>It is also called as Bagh-e-Fin located in Kashan, Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a historical Persian garden. The garden might have its origin in Safavid period. </li></ul><ul><li>It was built near the village of Fin under the reign of Abbas I of Persia (1571-1629). </li></ul><ul><li>The area of garden is 2.3 hectares consisting of a main yard surrounded with four circular towers. </li></ul><ul><li>The fin garden is full of water features. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a spring behind the garden on the hillside which was the main source of water for this garden. </li></ul><ul><li>In this place the water pressure was such that fountains and pools could easily be constructed without the use of mechanical pumps. </li></ul><ul><li>The garden contains many cypress trees </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The plan is a sophisticated charhar bagh with grids of canals and paths. </li></ul><ul><li>The canals are lined with blue-green tiles, a colour which contrasts wonderfully with the desert outside the garden walls. </li></ul><ul><li>At Fin, all the channels are lined, sides and bottom, with blue faience tiles so that the very water seems bright and gay until it flows into one of the larger pools, lined with great trees. </li></ul>