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Traking And positioning of mobile in telecomunication network


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Traking And positioning of mobile in telecomunication network

  1. 1. Seminar Report titled TRACKING AND POSITIONING OF MOBILE SYSTEM IN TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS Submitted BY Ms. Krishna Ghanva Guide Prof. Bhumika Bhatt SCET, Surat September, 2013-14 Department of Computer Engineering
  3. 3. T ABL E I: D etai l s of th e P r og r ess T ec h ni c al Sr No 1. Month July Topics Covered, broadly  Defining problem  Analyse problem  Need of mobile tracking 2. August  Mobile positioning Techniques 3. September  Location tracking curve method  Advantages & Disadvantages of mobile tracking  Blocking of mobile tracking i
  4. 4. D ecl ar ati on I hereby declare that the work being presented in this Seminar Report entitled “Tracking And Positioning Of Mobile System In Telecomunication Network ” by GHANVA KRISHNA DINESHKUMAR, submitted to bearing the Enrollment Computer No:110420107023 Engineering Department and at Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology, Surat; is an authentic record of my own work carried out during the period of 5th semester 2013-2014 under the supervision of Bhumika Bhatt. Neither the source code there in, nor the content of the seminar report have been copied or downloaded from any other source. I understand that my result grades would be revoked if later it is found to be so. I also declare that I have read all the instructions given below. ____________________ Krishna Ghanva Instructions: 1. The Table-I above, must show the details of all of your work through out the semester. 2. Please take out two hard copies of this report: One - Department, Two - Your own, unless otherwise stated by the Guide. 3. Please ensure that the signatures of the members of the entire evaluation committee are taken without fail, after your seminar presentation. 4. IT IS ABSOLUTELY MANDATORY THAT THE HARD COPY OF THIS REPORT IS HANDED OVER TO THE CONCERNED PERSONS IN THE DEPARTMENT AT LEAST BEFORE 4 DAYS OF THE SCHEDULED DATE. 5. Do not delete these instructions – let them be as it is in the final seminar report, too. iii
  5. 5. D e p a r t m e n t o f C om p u t e r E n g i n e e r i n g SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND T E C HN O L O G Y , S U R A T (2013-14) Approval Sheet T h i s i s t o s t a t e t h a t t h e S e m i n a r R e p o r t e n t i t l e d Tracking And Positioning Of Mobile System In Telecomunication Network submitted by Ms. Ghanva Krishna Dineshkumar (Enrollment No: 110420107023) is approved. Prof. Bhumika Bhatt Examiners H e a d , D e p a r t m e n t o f C om p u t e r E n g i n e e r i n g Prof. Keyur Rana Date:16 th September,2013 Place:SCET,Surat iv
  6. 6. Acknowledgements Here I would like to extend my heartfull thanks to the following persons to their sincere help and co-operation during the seminar presentation without whose help this report would never been compoleted. Much credit and heart full thanks are owned to Prof. Bhumika Bhatt and HOD of computer engineering department for encouraging and allowing me to present the topic “TRACKING AND POSITIONING OF MOBILE SYSTEMS IN TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS” at the seminar held at our department premises for the partial fulfillment of the requirement leading to the award of bachelor degree in engineering. Also would like to express my deep sense of gratitude and thanks to all the faculty members of Computer engineering, Department of SCET for their kind cooperation and assistance throughout the seminar representation Last but not least I would like to extend a special word to thanks to all well wishes for giving me a helping hand whenever needed and for making the seminar a grand success. v
  7. 7. Abstract Tracking and positioning of mobile in telecomunication has become an important area of research, for emergency as well as for commercial services. Mobile positioning in cellular networks will provide several services such as, locating stolen mobiles, emergency calls, different billing tariffs depending on where the call is originated, and methods to predict the user movement inside a region. The evolution to location-dependent services and applications in wireless systems continues to require the development of more accurate and reliable mobile positioning technologies. The major challenge to accurate location estimation is in creating techniques that yield acceptable performance when the direct path from the transmitter to the receiver is intermittently blocked. This is the Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) problem, and it is known to be a major source of error since it systematically causes mobile to appear farther away from the base station (BS) than it actually is, thereby increasing the positioning error. In this paper, we present a simple method for mobile telephone tracking and positioning with high accuracy. Through this we will discuss some technology used for mobile positioning and tracking. vi
  8. 8. Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction……………………………................ ..................................1 1.1 Mobile Tracking 1.2 Mobile Postioning 1.3 Introduction To Mobile Technology 2.0 Need For Mobile Tracking………………….. ………………………... 3 3.0 Postioning techniques………………………... ……………………….. 4 3.1 Mobile (Hadset)Based Postioning 3.1.1 Global Postioning System(GPS) 3.1.2 Cell Identity 3.2 Direction Based Postioning 3.2.1 Angel Of Arrival Method (AOA) 3.3 Distance Based Positioning vii
  9. 9. 3.3.1 Time Of Arrival Method (TOA) 3.3.2 Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) 4.0 Location Tracking Curve Method………………………………….. 11 4.1 Proposal 4.2 Description 4.3 Determination of location tracking curve 4.4 Refrence circle selection 5.0 Blocking Of Cell Phone Tracking…………………………………... 17 5.1 How to block cell phone tracking 6.0 Advantages & Disadvantages of Mobile tracking…………………. 18 7.0 Future Work And Conclusion……………………………………… 20 Ennumerative Bibliography………………………………………… …...21 List of Figures viii
  10. 10. Figure No. Figure Caption ix Page No.
  11. 11. Fig. 1.1 Fig. 3.1 Fig. 3.2 Fig 3.3 Fig. 3.4 Fig. 3.5 Fig. 3.6 Fig 4.1 Fig. 4.2 Fig 4.3 Fig 4.4 Configuration of a typical mobile telecommunication network. Trilateration Global Postioning System (GPS) Cell Identity Angle Of Arrival (AOA) Illustrates a typical TOA method for locating a MT Illustrates the TDOA method of locating a mobile telephone. Illustrates a proposed method for mobile telephone location. Illustrates the determination of location tracking curve. Illustrates the positioning of mobile by the proposed method. x 1 5 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 16
  12. 12. 1.Introduction 1.1 Tracking Mobile phone trcking refers to the attaining of the current position of a mobile phone, stationary or moving. Localization may ocuur either via multilateration of radio signals between (several) radio towers of the network and the phone, or simply via GPS. To locate the phone using multilateration of radio signals,ti must emit at least the roaming signal to contact the next nearby antenna tower, but the process does not require an active call. 1.2 Positioning Mobile positioning refers to technology used by telecommunication companies to approximate the location of a mobile phone. 1.3 Introduction To Mobile Technology xi
  13. 13. Fig 1.1 Configuration of a typical mobile telecommunication network. As shown in Fig 1.1, the mobile telecommunication network includes a several base stations (BSs) T 1 to T N for providing mobile telecommunication service to a mobile subscriber through a mobile telephone M1, a base station controller (BSC) for controlling the BSs T 1 to T N, and a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) for connecting the BSC to another BTS or a PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). In a cellular mobile telecommunication network, the whole service area is divided into a several coverage areas having respective base stations (BS). Each BS coverage area is called a "cell." Each BS is provided with a frequency of a range between 450 to900 MHz. More than one cells can use same frequency. Only condition is that two adjacent cells must have different frequencies. An MTSO controls these BSs so that a subscriber can continue his call without interruption while moving between different cells. The MTSO can reduce the time required for calling a subscriber by locating the cell of the subscriber. In case of an emergency like a fire, or a patient needing first aid treatment, the mobile subscriber should be accurately located. “Tracking the location of a mobile subscriber within the boundary of a cell in a mobile telecommunication network is known as "location based services.” Mobile technology includes mainly two functions. They are call fixing and hands-off process. All the BSs are sending a signal of power 25 to 30w to the mobile unit. When a user switches ON his mobile, it will search for the strongest signal and got connected to that BS. Then the mobile unit sends an identification signal to the BS. When he fixes a call, the BS xii
  14. 14. accepts the request and sends the request to the BSC and MTSO. Then the MTSO will searches where the subscriber is and connects the call. When a user moves to another cell the MTSO will change the frequency allotted to it and allots the frequency of the new BS.For both these processes GEOLOCATION (Postioning) of the mobile unit is essential. 2. Need For Mobile Tracking Recent demands from new applications require positioning capabilities of mobile telephones or other devices. The ability to obtain the geo-location of the Mobile Telephone (MT) in the cellular system allows the network operators to facilitate new services to the mobile users. The most immediate motivation for the cellular system to provide Mobile Telephone position is enhanced in accident emergency services. The positioning of the mobile user could provide services like • Emergency service for subscriber safety. • Tracking criminal and stolen mobile • Location based services • Location sensitive billing. • Cellular Fraud detection. • Traffic information • Intelligent transport system services. • Efficient and effective network performance and management. xiii
  15. 15. 3. Postioning Techniques Postioning technique Classified based on where the data is prossed. • Mobile (Handset) based postioning • Direction based postioning • Distance based postioning 3.1 Mobile based postioning : There is two types of mobile based postioning : 1. Global postioning system (GPS) 2. Cell identity 3.1.1 Global Postioning System (GPS) A mobile telephone can be located by a mobile telephone itself or through a mobile telecommunication network. To locate the mobile telephone by itself, the mobile telephone is provided with a GPS receiver to calculate its location in latitude and longitude coordinates based on the xiv
  16. 16. location information received from a satellite through the GPS receiver. A method called Trilateration is used to find the exact location of a mobile. Trilateration takes the known distances from three different object and finds out where you are w.r.t objects. Intersection of three circles gives the exact position of the mobile as show in the subsequent fig Fig 3.1 Trilateration xv
  17. 17. Fig.3.2 Global positioning system Disadvantage of GPS based postioning: • Increases the price and the size of the mobile telephone. • The load on the mobile telephone is increased. • Power consumption is high. 3.1.2 Cell identity Most simplistic and cost-effective way to provide position information. Simply determines which cell of wireless network the device is using.Since BS for each cell is fixed, ell identity can easily translated into the location of a mobile user. Gives the general location of where the user is but not the exact location. The ways to improve the accuracy of cell identity is by dividing the cell into sectors (either 120 degree or 60 degree), there by reducing the total area of a possible location. xvi
  18. 18. Fig. 3.3 Cell Identity 3.2 Direction Based Positioning 3.2.1 Angle Of Arrival (AOA) This method calculates the angle of arrival of signal receiving at the BS. When a mobile user switches the system ON it receives the signal from different base stations, may be 3 or 4 or more. The angle of arrival method two or more base station for the determination. It measures the direction of signal falling on the base station and measures the angle of incidence with respect to a normal and determines the position of the system. xvii
  19. 19. Fig 3.4 Angle Of Arrival Angle of arrival method is not an accurate method used for the mobile positioning because of its some disadvantages such as: • The determination of the system will be in error if the angle of incidence is changed due to any obstacle like atmospheric particles or due to scattering etc. • The accurate location cannot be determined if the mobile user is in between the BSs, that is in a straight line. • It cannot be used for the indoor environments. The accuracy of the method can be increased by increasing the number of the base stations used for determination. The direction based mobile positioning is not used commonly now a day. It is replaced by the distance based mobile positioning technologies. xviii
  20. 20. 3.3. Distance Based Mobile Positioning In the case that the mobile telephone network locates the mobile telephone, at least three base stations (BSs) receive a signal from the mobile telephone; calculate the distances between the Base Stations and the mobile telephone, using the arrival time of the signals at the BSs, then determine the location of the mobile telephone using the trigonometry. This location service is provided generally by a location data processor included in a base station controller (BSC). Upon a request for service about the location of a specific mobile subscriber, the BSC selects the three adjacent BSs surrounding the mobile telephone for use in the location service, and these selected BSs are ready for communication with the mobile telephone. 3.3.1. Time Of Arrival (TOA) The TOA method calculates the distance of a mobile telephone and a BS based on the Time Of Arrival of a signal transmitted from the mobile telephone at the BS. It is assumed that the mobile telephone is located at the intersection point of three circles having the radius of the distances between the BSs and the mobile telephone. The distance is calculated by the following equation : Ri = C τi = sqrt ( (xi – X ) 2 + (yi – Y) 2 ) Where,C – Propagation speed of electromagnetic wave, τi – propagation of time from the MT to ith BS, Xi, yi -- location of ith base station, X, Y – mobile position. xix
  21. 21. Fig. 3.5 illustrates a typical TOA method for locating a MT As shown in Fig 3.5, three circles C1, C2, and C3, whose radii are the distance between the mobile telephone M1 and at least three BSs T1, T2, and T3, are overlapped across an area. The mobile telephone M1 is located in the overlap area. One approach to locating the mobile telephone M1 in the overlap area 1 is to use a common chord, as shown in Fig 3.5 When at least three circles C1, C2, and C3 are overlapped over an area without meeting at one point, the mobile telephone M1 is considered to exist at the intersection point of three common chords L1, L2, and L3. The TOA method using the common chord is not very accurate in locating the mobile telephone except in the case where the mobile telephone is at an approximate equal distance from the selected BSs and in a similar propagation environment to each respective BS. 3.2.2. Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) xx
  22. 22. The TDOA method assumes that the TDOAs of a signal transmitted from the mobile telephone at the three BSs define a set of points on a hyperbola, and the mobile telephone is located at the intersection point of at least three hyperbolas. • The implementation requires accurate synchronization of each BS. • The signal of the mobile telephone often travels a longer path to a BS due to the multi-path fading characteristic and the Non- Line Of Sight (NLOS) effects. • In this method, three circles or hyperbolas do not meet at one point but overlap each other over an area. Fig 3.6, illustrates the TDOA method of locating a mobile telephone. In the case that a first mobile telephone M1 is nearer to the first BS T1, as shown in Fig 3.6, the procedure will be described by a way of example. xxi
  23. 23. In Fig 3.6, two circles C11 and C21 are drawn based on the TOAs of a signal transmitted from the first mobile telephone M1 at the first and the second BSs T1 and T2. A first common chord L1 is defined by the intersection between the circles C11 and C21. But if the path between the first mobile telephone M1 and the second BS T2 is in an NLOS condition and the path between the first mobile telephone M1 and the first BS T1 is in a line-of-sight (LOS) condition, the common chord L1 is positioned far left from the actual location of the mobile telephone M1. The effect is the same in the opposite case.If the path between the first mobile telephone M1 and the second BS T2 is in the LOS condition and the path between the first mobile telephone M1 and the first BS T1 is in the NLOS condition, the common chord L1 is also far right from the actual location of the mobile telephone M1. In this method using a common chord involves a huge location error unless the paths between the mobile telephone and each BS have the same propagation environment. xxii
  24. 24. 4. Location Tracking Curve Method 4.1 Proposal The method proposed by us for tracking the location of a mobile telephone using curves connecting the points where circles intersect one another, the circles radii being the distances between BSs and the mobile telephone. The steps involved are: Fig 4.1 Flowchart showing the steps involved in locating a mobile telephone a. Each base station nearer to a mobile telephone receives a predetermined signal from the mobile telephone and calculates the distance between the mobile telephone and the base station and the variances of time arrival of the signal at the base station; xxiii
  25. 25. b. A circle is drawn to have a radius being the distance and the coordinates of the base station being the center of the circle; c. A pair of the first and the second base stations is selected among the base stations. A several location tracking curves connecting two intersection points between the selected circles corresponding to the first and the second base stations are drawn. One of the location tracking curves is selected using the variances of the first and the second base stations; d. The steps c. and d. are repeated for the other pairs of the base stations; e. The intersection points are obtained among the location tracking curves selected in step d. and e. and, f. The location of the mobile telephone is determined using the coordinates of the intersection points obtained in step e. 4.2 Description When a location service is requested about a specific mobile telephone by a user or a network, the location data processor draws two circles C1 and C2 with their respective centers set at BSs T1 and T2 based on the TOAs of a signal transmitted from the corresponding mobile telephone M1 or M2 to the two BSs T1 and T2 located near the mobile telephone M1 or M2. The two circles C1 and C2 define a common chord L1. xxiv
  26. 26. Fig 4.2 illustrates a proposed method for mobile telephone location. However, if each mobile telephone M1 or M2 is placed in a different propagation environment with respect to the BSs T1 and T2, the location of the mobile telephone M1 or M2 can not be determined by the common chord L1. Therefore, we use location tracking curves TR1 and TR2 connecting the same two intersection points P1 and P2 of the two circles C1 and C2, instead of the common chord L1. The two curves TR1 and TR2 have their middle points intersecting the line ST, which connects the positions of the two BSs T1 and T2 and the parts of two circles C1 and C2 drawn to connect the two intersection points P1 and P2. Instead of the common chord L1, the location data processor uses the curve TR1 for the mobile telephone M1 and the curve TR2 for the mobile telephone M2. It prevents the location error caused by the multi-path fading or the NLOS path characteristics. 4.3 Determination of the location tracking curve The BS with smaller variances should be selected to draw reference circles based on the variances. xxv
  27. 27. Fig 4.3 illustrates the determination of location tracking curve. From Fig 4.3, assuming that the first and the second BSs T1 and T2 selected for use in the location tracking are present at positions (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), respectively, in the second-dimensional coordinates, the location data processor draws the two circles C1 and C2 with the coordinates (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) of the two BSs T1 and T2 at their centers The curve connects the two points P1 and P2 at which the two circles C1 and C2 intersect each other. The coordinates of the intersection points P1 and P2 are (xA, yA) and (xB, yB), respectively. Since the mobile telephone is near the first BS T1 with respect to the common chord L1, the variances of the TOAs of a signal transmitted from the mobile telephone at the first BS T1 will be larger than those of the signal at the second BS. Therefore, reference circles TR1 to TR4 are drawn with respect to the second BS T2 with smaller variances, as shown in Figure 4.3. The coordinates of the reference circle can be obtained (using minimum variance) which has its center on the line ST passing through (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) and passes through (xA, yA) and (xB, yB). Selecting the center of the reference circle is xxvi
  28. 28. significant as the mobile telephone is located on the reference circle. The location data processor selects the desired curves (reference circles) with respect to the several BSs selected for location tracking. In Figure 6, as the real location of the mobile telephone deviates farther from the circle C2 with the second BS T2 at its center, the center of a reference circle is farther from the location of the second BS T2. That is, the center of a desired reference circle is farther from the second BS T2 in the case of a third mobile telephone M3 (curve C3) than in the case of a fourth mobile telephone M4. 4.4 Reference circle selection The variances of the TOAs of a signal which arrives at the two BSs T1 and T2 from different paths are used to find the curve on which the actual location of the mobile telephone is determined. If the TOAs of the signal at the first BS T1 from N propagation paths are t1, t2, . . . , tN, the first BS T1 calculates the variances σ of t1, t2, . . . , tN. The location data processor compares the variances calculated by the first BS T1 with the variances calculated by the second BS T2 and considers that the mobile telephone is near to that BS with the larger variances (the first BS T2 in Fig 4.3). Hence, the reference circle has its center near to the BS with the smaller variances (the second BS T2 in Fig 4.3) on the line ST.With the larger variances, the center of a reference circle gets farther to the right from the center of the second BS T2. In order to select the desired curve, the location data processor initializes the reference circles with predetermined radii and the variances of TOAs of a signal transmitted from the mobile telephone located on the reference circles, and compare the preset variances with real variance measurements. The location data processor sets a several reference circles based on the distances between the mobile telephone and xxvii
  29. 29. the BS with the smaller variances(the second BS T2) In Fig 4.3, as an example, the first to the fourth reference circles TR1 to TR4 have radii twice, three times, four times, and five times, respectively, of that of BS T2, where all these points of reference circles TR1 and TR4 are located along the line ST The variances of the second BS T2 smaller than those of the first BS T1 are used as a criterion for selecting an optimal reference circle. Therefore, the location data processor predetermines the reference variances for the first to the fourth reference circles TR1 to TR4 to be compared with respect to the second BS T1. It is assumed in the following description that σ 1, σ 2, and σ 3 are reference variances and σ 1< σ 2< σ 3 The location data processor compares the variances calculated by the two BSs T1 and T2 and selects the base station with smaller variances as a reference point to draw the reference circle. If the selected variances (those of the second BS T2) are σ, the location data processor compares the selected variances σ, with the preset reference variances σ 1, σ 2, and σ 3. • If σ <= σ 1, the curve of the first reference circles TR1 is selected. • If σ 1 < σ <= σ 2, the curve of the TR2 is selected. • If σ 2 < σ <= σ 3, the curve of the TR3 is selected. • If σ 3 < σ, the curve of the fourth reference circles TR4 is selected. xxviii
  30. 30. As we have seen, the location data processor selects the optimal curve (reference circle) for the two BSs among the several BSs, and selects another optimal circle for another BS pair, and so on. When curves are selected for all selected BS pairs, the location data processor obtains the intersection points among the selected curves as shown in Figure 4.4. However, as the selected curves do not intersect at one point due to the multipath fading or the NLOS effects, the midpoint of these intersection points is determined as the location of the mobile telephone. Fig 4.4 illustrates the positioning of mobile by the proposed method. As the three intersection points M1 (xA, yA), M2 (xB, yB), and M3 (xC, yC) are defined by the three curves TR1 to TR3, the location data processor considers the mobile telephone to be located at (x, y). While the three BSs are selected for the location service using the TOAs of a signal arrived at each BS from a mobile telephone has been described in the embodiment of the present invention, more BSs can be used to increase the xxix
  31. 31. accuracy in locating the exact position of the mobile station. If Nth intersection points are defined by location tracking curves obtained according to the present invention and an i th intersection point is at (xi, yi), coordinates (x, y) indicate the location of the mobile telephone. After the location of the mobile telephone, that is, the intersection points among the curves are obtained, the location data processor represents the intersection points in the latitude and the longitude coordinates and transmits the position coordinates to the network (BS/BSC/MSC) and the mobile telephone. 5.Blocking Of Cell Phone Tracking 5.1 How To Block Cell Phone Tracking Many cell phone users don’t know that their phones are inherently traceable due to advances in GPS and cellular technology.To many this is a welcome safety feature for emergencies, but there is also a growing concern among those who value privacy in everyday life. Your best bet is to be educated about how you can be traced and to be very familiar with the capabilities and features of your phone. Instructions: • Choose “E911″ in the “location” menu on your phone. On some phones you may need to enable privacy mode instead. These settings will allow GPS tracking only in response to a 911 call, which is required by law. Menus xxx
  32. 32. are different on all phones so you may need to consult the owner’s manual if you cannot find location settings. • Check for physical GPS tracking devices that may be attached to your phone. Look under the battery, in the battery compartment, and on the outside of the phone. Remove anything that did not come in the original sealed box or that you did not attach yourself. • Remove any tracking software that is installed on your handset. If anyone has ever had your phone for even a few minutes, he may have installed a third-party application that allows your phone to be tracked. Research any programs that you cannot identify. • Contact your cellular phone company and inquire about any tracking or monitoring features that have been enabled on your account. Remove those features if there are any and set a new password to prevent unauthorized access. • Remove the battery from your phone. This is the only way to guarantee the phone is untraceable. Cell phone towers can still triangulate your position to some degree when the phone is on, and “roving bug” software can make your phone a surveillance device even when the power is off. 6. advantages and disadvantages of mobile tracking systems With modern technology it’s now possible to do many things on mobile phones and smart phones. Apart from the obvious convenience of being able to call colleagues and friends whilst on the move, smartphones can also be vital tools for use xxxi
  33. 33. in business and commerce. But did you know that your smartphone’s built-in GPS receiver can also help you stay safe, avoid getting lost and find your way to that crucial meeting on time? By using a combination of GPS data and mobile mast triangulation, your current location can be established wherever your phone is capable of receiving a signal. Mobile-tracking technology increases the chances of finding someone quickly. Most cell phones contain GPS technology, which can establish a person's whereabouts by calculating the location, speed and time of his cell-phone signal. Children with cell phones that include GPS technology and location services can thus be located quickly. Concealed GPS devices can assist with locating runaway teens. They also provide a more reliable service due to their concealed nature. While a teenager aware of his cell phone's GPS device can turn the service off, with a concealed location device, the teen is unaware the device is present. Advantages: • Business management: when a business issues mobile phones to its employees, it can use the tracking information from the phones to see where its workers spend time while out on the job. Phone-tracking services for businesses can also offer additional features, like the ability to display a warning when an employee drives faster than the legal speed limit; a feature that has proved of value to transportation and delivery companies. • Emergency services: By using information gathered from a phone’s GPS receiver and by working with the phone provider xxxii
  34. 34. to determine the device’s position relative to nearby mobile mast, it is possible for the police force and fire and ambulance services to be able to find lost and missing persons even when you don’t know where you are or have been injured. • Colleague and friend tracking: some mobile phones have tracking features that may enhance both your business and social life. “Find My Friends” – a downloadable application for the iPhone, is an example of such a service that displays on a map dots that represent your friend’s or colleague’s location, allowing you to find each other even in crowded places. • Child safety: mobile phone-tracking makes it possible for parents to know where their children are at all times. Some vendors sell phones with embedded software that periodically sends data on the phone’s current location to a central server via the mobile network. By logging in to the service online parents can view their child’s current location and track where they have been previously. This might be especially important if you can track that they have been to potentially dangerous locations. Disadvantages • Privacy concerns: This is the principle drawback or disadvantage of mobile phone-tracking. It has been argued that using geo-location information is an invasion of privacy. Mobile phone companies have the ability to xxxiii
  35. 35. exploit the information and get an extraordinary insight into the private lives of their mobile customers. But is phone-tracking really an invasion of personal privacy? Well, every mobile user has the ability to disable casual location-tracking applications like ‘Find my Friends’ so that is not an issue: however, this tracking information remains available to phone providers and emergency services. 7. Future Work And Conclusion In the future its thought that as technology progresses so will the ability to track cell phones, trace people and spy on people even more. The saying 'big brother is watching you' has never been so true. March 13, 2013 - Biometrics Research Group, Inc. expects that technologies that track eye and gesture movements will play a large role in future mobile applications and devices. According to a recent New York Times report, the newest smartphone from Samsung will have an eye-tracking feature that will allow its users to scroll down a page without having to touch the screen. The Future: New Formats, New Features the search engines and device manufacturers are testing a variety of new approaches to mobile search, each of which has advantages and drawbacks for marketers when compared to traditional search marketing strengths. xxxiv
  36. 36. • Voice search: While this solution keeps the strength of real-time intent, the results the user receives after her search are problematic. Many voice search tools simply deliver the user to a mobile search results page • Proactive analysis: Google Now uses your account data, location history, and past searches to predict what you'd like to know - weather, traffic on your route home, good restaurants when you're traveling - and then proactively provides this information. While these results are well-targeted, their usefulness as marketing tools is more limited than traditional search, as they remove the key expressed need (via a search query) and "moment of truth" intent that makes search marketing so effective. • New secondary signals: The new Moto X phone's "Moto Assist" feature is a great example of this approach, which uses constantly tracked secondary signals to infer what the user is doing and respond accordingly. The classic format of typing a query and reviewing a SERP(Society For Elimination Of Rural Poverty) is going to seem very quaint within the next few years. Smart advertisers won't just build a mobile search strategy for today's formats they'll pay close attention to how their customers are searching and interacting with their mobile devices to ensure they're present for every opportunity to respond to their customer's needs. Conclusion: xxxv
  37. 37. Our proposal is advantageous in that the location of a mobile telephone can be accurately tracked even in the multipath fading and the NLOS environment, by using more accurate tracking curves connecting the intersection points among circles with the radii being the distances between corresponding BSs and the mobile telephone in a cellular mobile communication system. We have described about accurate positioning of mobile telephones, which can be used for several applications. The important considerations to be undertaken while selecting a location based technology are location accuracy, implementation cost, reliability, increasing functionality Bibliography • J. Caffery, and G. Stuber Jr, “Vehicle location and tracking for IVHS in CDMA micro-cells”, Proc. IEEE PIMRC, 1994. • G. Morley, and W. Grover, “Improved location estimation with pulse-ranging in presence of shadowing and multi-path excess-delay effects”, Electronics Letters, vol.31, No.18, 1995. xxxvi
  38. 38. • • /Angulation/ANGULATION.pdf • • • xxxvii