Glimpses of hindu genius

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Glimpses of hindu genius,
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Hindu Culture,
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  • In a CBS 60 Minutes program telecast on her in January 2005, beauty queen and Miss World Aishwarya Rai, who has been called 'The Most Beautiful Women' by even Julia Roberts of Hollywood, surprised the interviewer by insisting that he accompany her to meet someone who is very important to her. She took him to a Ganapati Mandir in Mumbai, which she visits very often, to have a Darshana of Shri Ganesha. She told him that she starts every day with a prayer to Ganapati. Surrounded by the glitter and glamour of Bollywood, and now even Hollywood, Aishwarya Rai never lost sight of someone who is more glamorous, someone who is more beautiful than her. She never forgot her Lord Ganapati. She has never let the flame of Dharma get extinguished from her heart. What did her Dharmic heritage have to offer to her? What does Hindu Dharma offer to women in general? What is the status of women in Hindu Dharma? What is the relationship between God, or rather Goddess and women in Hindu sacred books? Are there ways in which we should reform our Dharma so that women can be happier? These are some of the issues which we will cover in this slide show.
  • In a CBS 60 Minutes program telecast on her in January 2005, beauty queen and Miss World Aishwarya Rai, who has been called 'The Most Beautiful Women' by even Julia Roberts of Hollywood, surprised the interviewer by insisting that he accompany her to meet someone who is very important to her. She took him to a Ganapati Mandir in Mumbai, which she visits very often, to have a Darshana of Shri Ganesha. She told him that she starts every day with a prayer to Ganapati. Surrounded by the glitter and glamour of Bollywood, and now even Hollywood, Aishwarya Rai never lost sight of someone who is more glamorous, someone who is more beautiful than her. She never forgot her Lord Ganapati. She has never let the flame of Dharma get extinguished from her heart. What did her Dharmic heritage have to offer to her? What does Hindu Dharma offer to women in general? What is the status of women in Hindu Dharma? What is the relationship between God, or rather Goddess and women in Hindu sacred books? Are there ways in which we should reform our Dharma so that women can be happier? These are some of the issues which we will cover in this slide show.
  • The ritual texts of the Vedas list women Sages to whom homage must be offered while studying the divine texts. See for instance Ashvalayana Grhyasutra 3.4.4; Shankhayana Grhyasutra 4.10 which enumerate women teachers such as Sulabha Maitreyi, Vadavaa Praathitheyi etc. While it is true that the word ‘man’ is used in a generic manner to denote ‘human beings’ in the Vedas, authoritative grammar and ritual texts (Purva Mimamsa Sutras 6.1.8 ) emphasize that this is merely a figure of speech, and that man and woman together constitute two halves of the same Persona while performing Vedic sacerdotal ceremonies. Vedic ritual texts emphasize that there is no difference between man and woman in so far as the right to perform Vedic rites is concerned (Katyayana Shrautasutra 1.1.7 etc). The language in which the revealed Hindu texts are composed, namely Sanskrit, has a neuter gender in addition to the masculine and feminine. In fact, the Ultimate Reality, the Supreme God of Hindus, is often described as gender neutral. The very word ‘Brahman’ used to denote Supreme Being in Hindu texts is in neuter gender. Likewise, many words used to denote Universal Virtues such as Truth (Satyam) are considered neuter gender in Sanskrit, the sacred language of Hindu Dharma. Interestingly, in a famous verse of Rigveda that says that all the various deities are but descriptions of One Truth (RV 1.164.64), the names of deities are all masculine but the phrase ‘One Truth’ (‘Ekam Sat’) is in neuter gender as if to emphasize that God is not male.
  • The Vedas hardly ever conceive of devatas without corresponding devis . Almost as a rule, the Sage, the worshipper and the ritualist invoke the devatas to manifest along with devis and partake of the sacred oblations poured into the sacred fire altar. The Sarasvati River has now dried out but along its banks are more than two thirds sites of the so called ‘Indus Valley Civilization’, the largest and one of the original 4-5 Bronze Age cultures in the world. Recent discoveries suggest that this great civilization may have been the same as Vedic civilization. Vasant Panchami has been observed as a festival for worship of Goddess Saraswati since the Vedic and Puranic age. On this day Brahma created Saraswati to dislodge the dumb insipidity of the creation. By bestowing a Veena in her hands, he allotted the function of speech through her to the world. She was thus named as “Veena Vadini” and “Vani Dayyani” (the Veena player and the awarder of speech). By the grace of Saraswati, the devotee is made conversant with good behavior, intelligence, influence, brilliance, music, speech, poetry, and differentiation between proper and improper. Therefore, there is the tradition of the worship of Goddess Saraswati on Vasant Panchami festival. The worship is with sweet smelling flowers and powdered sandalwood. Sri Krishna (an incarnation of Lord Vishnu in the 4rd millennium BC) also worshipped Saraswati on this day by virtue pf which he became an expert in sixteen arts and in all others. Many Hindus initiate their kids for education on this day so that they receive blessing from Goddess Saraswati after her worship. Students in particular pay homage to the goddess of knowledge, intelligence, wisdom and knowledge of all arts, science, music and dancing. In the past, many kings and rulers used to organize literary seminars and symposia: poets, dramatists and writers were felicitated and rewarded on this occasion. Great dramas of Kalidasa and other dramatists were played before the audience on this festival. Devi Aditi is thus the mother of all prominent devatas such as Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, Rudras, Indra, of kings and many other excellent sons. She is invoked as the mistress of the Cosmic Order, omnipotent, every youthful, protector, mother of the devout worshipper and a wise guide of all humans ( Atharvaveda 7.6.2; Madhyandina Yajurveda 21.5 )
  • Significantly, the Shaakta tradition specifically worships the Divine as the Mother of the Universe (Markandeya Purana 91.2), to whom all the male deities also bow in reverence. Shrines of this tradition have perhaps a greater geographical spread than those of other traditions in the Indian subcontinent. The 52 main shrines are termed as ‘shaktipeeths’. They are spread all over Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Even Afghanistan has several Devi shrines that have now almost been abandoned because the Hindu minority has been ethnically cleansed by Islamists.
  • A major Hindu festival, the Durga Puja during Navaratri, worships God as the Divine Mother in her various forms such as Durga. In this tradition, the Divine Mother is termed as ‘Shakti’ or ‘The (Supreme) Power’, as ‘Uma’ or the Sacred Wisdom, as ‘Mahesvari’ or ‘The Supreme Goddess’ and so on. The Shaakta tradition has hundreds of texts (often termed generically as ‘Tantras’) and traditions considered authoritative by Hindus even outside that specific tradition. Even texts not specifically belonging to the Shaakta tradition per se have sections that eulogize the Divine Mother. For instance, the famous ‘Devi Mahaatmya’ (the glory of Devi’) occurs in the Markandeya Purana which is not a Shaakta text. Popular Hinduism also exhibits the concept of ‘ grama-devata’ in which a local manifestation of the Divine is worshipped as the presiding deity of that place. Many Indian cities and towns, including several important pilgrim centers, have various forms of the Divine Mother as their ‘ grama-devi’ . As examples, we may cite Amba who is worshipped in Kolhapur and Ahmadabad (formerly called Ambavad); Meenakshi who is worshipped in the pilgrim town of Madurai; a form of Sati, the wife of Shiva, worshipped in Jalandhar; and Dhakeshvari Devi of Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh).
  • The Shaiva tradition is considered the ‘male’ counterpart of the Shaakta tradition and the two share numerous texts, liturgies and other sacred traditions. In numerous iconic representations, God is shown as ‘ardhanariishvara’ or ‘God who is half woman’, to emphasize that either God has no gender or he is both woman and man. Even male deities such as Lord Vishnu sometimes incarnate as women ('Mohini') to serve the cause of Dharma. The Devi herself is often said to combine the powers of all male deities including Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. ‘ tvam strii tvam pumaanasi’ -‘Thou art the woman and the man’ (Atharvaveda Saunaka Samhita 10.8.27); ‘ strii pumsau Brahmano jatau striyah brahma uta vavana’ – ‘Women and Men are both born from Supreme Being, Women are (manifestations) of the Supreme Being and so are these men’ (Atharvaveda Paippalada Samhita 8.9.11cd) In popular non-denominational Hindu prayers, whenever God is addressed as a parent, he is first termed as a Mother, and only then as a Father. The prayer commencing with the words ‘tvameva mata cha pita tvameva’ (You alone are Mother, and are also our Father) is recited by millions of Hindus all over the word. It is a Hindu tradition to address women before men in a group, out of reverence for the former. For instance, Hindu wedding invitations are normally addressed ‘To Mrs. and Mr. Smith’ and so on and not as ‘To Mr. And Mrs. Smith’ or as ‘ To Mr. and Mrs. John Smith’ or even as ‘To Mrs. and Mr. John Smith’.
  • In the Vaishnava tradition, which is the most prevalent Hindu tradition today, God is worshipped as ‘Vishnu’ together with ‘Shri’, who is also addressed variously as ‘Lakshmi’ . They incarnate together , and their incarnations, namely that of Rama and Sita respectively, and so on, are also worshipped as a couple. Perhaps a good idea of the simultaneous and equal reverence that Hindus have for the feminine and the masculine aspects of Divinity may be gauged from the above quotation. Lakshmi is also worshipped independently as the deity of wealth, splendor, prosperity and fertility. In numerous Hindu communities of Bangladesh, Nepal and India, the most prominent festival in the year is dedicated to the Divine Mother. During Diwali, the most important festival in northern India and amongst Hindu communities in the Caribbean, the main worship is offered to Devi Lakshmi. Diwali itself is often called ‘Lakshmi Pujan’.
  • In Hindu Dharma, there is also a concept of five ‘Satis’ or virtuous women namely – · Sita, who was born of Mother Earth and the Nepalese King Siradhvaja Janaka. She married Lord Rama, the prince of Ayodhya, and is considered an incarnation of Devi Lakshmi. · Savitri, who is described below · Sati, described below · Arundhati, the pious wife of Sage Vashishtha · Damayanti, the wife of King Nala These five (or rather the first four) are worshipped by Hindus as divine women of Dharma, noted for unwavering devotion to their husbands and for standing by them through all the ups and downs in their lives. There are no corresponding pentads of illustrious men.
  • For Hindus, God is not necessarily a fatherly figure. ‘He’ is Mother and Father combined. In Hindu Cosmology and Ecology, Nature and Earth are uniformly referred to as Mother Nature (Prakriti) and kindly Mother Earth (Prithvi Mata) E.g., Atharvaveda 10.18.10; Rigveda 1.159.2. In Hindu philosophies , God and Nature are sometimes depicted as Husband and Wife who create the inanimate and animate Universe together just as mother and father give birth to children (Vishnu Purana 1.2; Matsya Purana 1.284.11-18). In a long hymn extolling the earth, the Sage concludes with the beautiful words - "O Earth, my Mother! Establish me securely in spiritual and material happiness, and in full accord with Heaven. O Wise One! Uphold me in grace and splendor!" Atharvaveda 12.1.63 While today we normally assume that the ‘husband is the breadwinner of the household’, traditional Hindus say that it is Devi Annapuurnaa who is the presiding deity of Foodgrains. It is Mother Ganga, Mother Yamuna, Mother Kaveri and so on who have manifested as rivers to feed mankind. Likewise, forests that provide us with so many resources are said to be presided over by Devis who are known as Vanadevis (vana = forest). Rivers, their confluences, their mouths and their origins form prominent Hindu pilgrim centers. The evening worship of Ganga Ma (‘Mother Ganges’) in the pilgrim center of Hardwar with hundreds of lamps which are set afloat on the river in the night is a breath-taking spectacle. The trend of considering rivers as manifestations of the feminine aspect of the Divine Being has been carried by Hindu immigrants to other parts of the world as well. Sanskrit mantras have already been composed for worshipping rivers such as Mississippi in the United States, underlying the fact that in Hindu belief, the Supreme Being is all-pervading. Such recent developments parallel a similar transplantation of Hindu sacred geography to South East Asia several centuries back.
  • The source of this verse however has not been traced and it is presumed that an anonymous poet coined it in the 19 th century. Nevertheless, the verse has sunk deep into the contemporary Hindu psyche.
  • Women warriors are mentioned in the Vedic texts. Vispala, the wife of chief Khela was an aggressive warrior who lost her leg in a battle [Rigveda 1.116.15]. The Ashvins, celestial physicians, gave her a metal prosthesis as a replacement for her lost leg. Mudgalani drove the chariot of her husband in a battle [Rigveda 10.102.2]. In the Mahabharata, Chitraangada, the wife of Arjuna, was an accomplished warrior in her own right. Mahabharata II.14.51 also mentions women warriors in a general way. Carvings and statues in several ancient Hindu temples depict women warriors. As examples, one may cite the Khajuraho temples in Chattisgarh, or the remnants of the Vishvanath Temple embedded in Aurangzeb’s mosque in Varanasi. When Lord Rama was asked to proceed on fourteen years of banishment from his kingdom, it was proposed that his wife, Devi Sita, could rule as the queen in his absence. [Ramayana 2.37.28] Queen Rudramba: She was the only daughter of the 6th King of the Kakatiya Dynasty of Andhra Pradesh (13th century CE) and succeeded her father to his throne. Her father got her educated fully in the affairs of the state craft. She made a mark of bravery while accompanying her father in the latter's victory tours. Thinking her to be a weak woman, the feudal lords and the area commanders revolted and neighboring rulers also found an occasion to grab her territory. But, Rudramamba defeated them all. She married the Chalukya king Virabhadra and they jointly ruled over the Kakatiya kingdom very effectively for many decades. The last Hindu ruler of Kashmir was a woman Kota Rani, who was the widow of Hindu king Uddyana Deo. She played a crucial role in warding off the Tartar invasion of Kashmir in the early 14th century CE but was finally deposed by Shahmir in 1341 CE. Shahmir started the long lasting Islamic rule in the region that, with traumatic consequences on the Hindu population of the region. Kalhana’s Rajatarangini mentions several other valiant Queens in pre-Muslim Kashmir.
  • Amongst some Hindu communities, notably the Rajputs, when the fall of their citadel or city to Islamic invaders became imminent, the Hindu women of the area committed suicide by mass immolation. This act of sacrifice was termed as Jauhar. As a result, shorn of all love ties to their families, the Hindu men-folk of area would rush out of their forts and attack the invaders with their full might and motivation without any fear of death. Such instances of Jauhar happened because the Muslim invaders would molest and rape captured Hindu women after victory and therefore Hindu women often preferred death to dishonor and indignity of concubinage. One such instance of Jauhar by Rani Padmini and 700 other maidens of the fort of Chittor before its imminent fall to the invading Muslim Emperor Allauddin Khilji is the subject of a Hindi epic named Padmaavat authored by a Muslim poet Malik Muhammad Jaayasi. In a particularly large-scale instance, some 24,000 women of the Hindu kingdom of Jaisalmer committed mass-suicide just before it was sacked by Muslims in 1295 CE, to avoid falling into their hands. See Enrica Garzilli, 'First Greek and Latin Documents on Sahagamana and Some Connected Problems (Part I)', in Indo-Iranian Journal, vol. 40: 205-243 (1997), endnote no. 2 In the Sikh tradition too, women warriors and military generals played a crucial role in their battles against Afghan and Pathan Muslim oppressors. Women also played the role of spies. Around 300 BC, Emperor Chandragupta Maurya used a woman spy to assassinate his rival King Parvataka. Several Hindu women avenged the dishonor to our Dharma and our country by employing clever strategy, if not arms. In the year 712, the Arab invader Muhammad bin Qasim invaded the outlying Indian province of Sindh (now in Pakistan), killed its last Hindu ruler Raja Dahir, and sent Dahir’s daughters to Baghdad as a gift to the Caliph. The daughters told the Caliph that Qasim had already ravished them before sending them as a gift to him. Infuriated by this apparent insult, the Caliph had Qasim put to death, only to learn that the Princesses of Sindh had lied to him to avenge their father’s death. The two Princesses were tortured to death. In the early 14th century, Ulugh Khan, a Muslim military general invaded the Vaishnava holy temple town of Shrirangam. He massacred several monks, desecrated the temple and looted its treasury. The Muslim army occupied the temple precincts and put and an end to Hindu worship. A temple courtesan, who fascinated the invading general, prevailed upon him not to destroy the temple altogether, and restrict his vandalism to the destruction of a few cornices. The Brahmins in the surrounding areas tried to perform the sacred rituals whenever they could, but were harassed by the occupying Muslim forces constantly. Unable to bear the harassment of the devotees by the Muslims, she enticed the Muslim chief, took him up a temple tower in the east, and in the pretext of showing him a famous icon from there, she pushed him down and killed him. Scared that she will be tortured by the Muslims as a result of her deed, she hurled herself also down and died. According to tradition, to honor her memory, the funeral pyres of temple courtesans were lit by fire brought from the temple kitchen. [V. N. Hari Rao. History of the Srirangam Temple. Sri Venkareswara University, Tirupati (1976)] To finance the defense of their motherland from the invasions of the Turk Muslim ruler Mahmud Ghaznavi, Hindu women in what is now Pakistan willingly donated all their jewellery. It is relevant here to recall some rules of Hindu warfare that are enjoined in texts such as Manusmriti and Mahabharata. Women in general were considered inviolable, and were generally exempt from capital punishment. They could not be captured for use as concubines, and could not be assaulted sexually by soldiers.
  • Hindu texts are unanimous in declaring that God does not differentiate between men and women. [1] From a Dharmic perspective, adherence to Dharma alone decides who is great and who is lowly. In the Hindu philosophy of Bhakti, or devotion to God, the cowherd women ( gopi-s ) who resided in the region of Braj in northern India are held as exemplars for all mankind. [2] In traditional enumerations of pious people who were saved by the salvific power of God, both men and women are listed without prejudice [3] . Both men and women are said to be God’s manifestations in several verses. In these verses, we often see that the Sanskrit word for women is given a graceful precedence over the word for men. [4] The Ramayana, a Hindu epic, narrates the story of Shabari, a tribal Hindu woman, who was ecstatic upon hearing that Lord Rama would pass her hut during his forest sojourn. She hastened to collect wild-berries to offer to him To ensure that they were all sweet, she chewed half of each berry, discarding the bad ones. When Shri Rama arrived, he was so touched by her pure devotion that he ate her half-chewed berries without hesitation. This story is often taken as an example to illustrate the power of loving devotion to God in the Hindu doctrine of Bhakti . [1] Gita 9.32 [2] Narada Bhaktisutra 1.21 [3] Shrimad Bhagvatam (Book X) mentions several women such as Kubjika, who were emancipated by God. [4] E.g., ‘ tvam strii tvam pumaanasi’ -‘Thou art the woman and the man’ (Atharvaveda Saunaka Samhita 10.8.27); ‘ strii pumsau Brahmano jatau striyah brahma uta vavana’ – ‘Women and Men are both born from Supreme Being, Women are (manifestations) of the Supreme Being and so are these men’ (Atharvaveda Paippalada Samhita 8.9.11cd)
  • For the story of Gargi, see Madhyandina Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 3.8 The Kena Upanishad was considered so profound that it was singled out for not one but two commentaries by Adi Shankaracharya (8th century CE), one of the greatest Hindu philosophers of all times.
  • Alvars were Vaishnava saints who lived in South India (especially in Tamil Nadu) between 400-800 CE. There were 12 prominent Alvars, the greatest of whom was a Shudra saint named Nammalvar. Their writings form 4000 verses and are collected in the work called ‘Divya Prabandham’. Portions of this work are considered equal in rank with the Vedas and are also termed as ‘Dravida Vedanta’. Andal composed two works in her short life. Both are in Tamil and are unique in their literary, philosophical, religious, and artistic content. Her contribution is even more remarkable considering that she was a teenage girl when she composed these poems, at a time when there is no other record of Tamil women composing poetry [2]. Far from being the prattlings of a youngster, Andal's verses display a literary and religious maturity far beyond her years. Her first work is the Tiruppavai, a poem of thirty verses in which Andal imagines herself to be a cowherd girl during the incarnation of Lord Krishna. She yearns to serve Him and achieve happiness not just in this birth, but for all eternity, and describes the religious vow (pavai) that she and her fellow cowgirls will take for this purpose. The second is the Nacciyar Tirumoli, a poem of 143 verses. Tirumoli, literally meaning "sacred sayings", is a Tamil poetic style in which the work is composed. "Nacciyar" means goddess, so the title means "sacred sayings of our Goddess." This poem fully reveals Andal's intense longing for Vishnu, the Divine Beloved. Utilizing classical Tamil poetic conventions and intermixing stories from the Sanskrit Vedas and Puranas, Andal creates imagery that is quite possibly unparalleled in the whole gamut of Indian religious literature. The impact of these works on the daily religious life of the South Indian has been tremendous. Just like the Ramayana, people are never tired of listening to the Tiruppavai. The poem itself is recited with great religious fervor by women, men, and children of all ages, particularly in Tamil Nadu. The daily services in most Vaishnava temples and households include its recitation. Both of these works, particularly the Tiruppavai, have been commented on extensively by innumerable scholars in a number of languages over the centuries. Today, we are fortunate to have many translations of the Tiruppavai in Western languages which make these poems available to an even wider audience. During the month of Margali (December-January), discourses on the Tiruppavai in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Hindi and English take place all over India. Refer: http://www.ramanuja.org/sv/alvars/andal/
  • Other examples from classical Hindu traditions: Lalleshvari (14th century CE) is considered the greatest saint poet of Kashmir. Her devotional verses highlight the divinity within our own selves, and exhort us to love the Shiva who dwells in our heart. Lalleshvari walked out of a traumatic marriage and roamed the Kashmir valley singing her mystical songs, demonstrating Yogic feats while lost in the bliss of Bhagavan Shiva. Her spellbinding songs are recited even today. Akka Mahadevi (12th century) lived and preached in Karnataka. Though married, she severed her worldly bonds and instead sought to merge in Shiva. She roamed the countryside of that region singing of Lord Shiva, and ultimately is said to have merged in him. Akka joined the Virashaiva community after her meeting with Saint Basavacharya and wrote 350 exquisite spiritual compositions. Akka and Lalleshvari defied the social norms by eschewing garments for they had surrendered their entire being to their deity and had no use for social norms. A late twentieth century woman ascetic named Mate Mahadevi drew her own inspiration from the ideal set by Akka Mahadevi. The Shaiva Siddhanta tradition has been blessed with several women saints such as Kaaraikkaal Ammaiyaar, Thilakavathiyaar, Mangaiyarkkarachiyaar, Paravaiyaar, Changiliyaar, Chembiyan Madheeviyaar, Auvaiyaar etc. Some of them led a saintly life dedicating their lives to spiritual pursuits. The others lead a family life while spreading of spiritual teachings of Shaivism in Tamil speaking areas. Likewise, the Sant tradition of Maharashtra has several feminine voices from Muktabai (13th century CE) the sister of Sant Jnaneshvara, to Bahina Bai. Janabai (1298-1350) also wrote of abandoning social norms and offering herself to the service of God. The hagiographies of many of these women Sants occur in Mahipati’s Bhaktavijaya. Most women saints of this tradition were in fact housewives. Similar examples may be given from many other Hindu spiritual traditions such as Gaudiya Vedanta of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
  • Many other Hindu women Gurus preach in the West in our times, including Ma Yoga Shakti, Shri Ma, Anandi Ma and so on. References: Johnsen, Linda. 1994. Daughters of the Goddess. St. Paul: Yes International Publishers Vasudha Narayanan, 1995. 'Women of Power in the Hindu Tradition', pp. 25-77 in Arvind Sharma and Katherine K Young (eds.), Feminism and World Religions, SUNY Press: Albany (New York)
  • Often, when male saints have died, their widowed wives or women disciples have assumed the spiritual leadership of his followers. As an example we may cite ‘The Mother’, who was the spiritual companion or the first disciple of Shri Aurobindo . In our own times, Bhagwati Devi Sharma (d. 1994) provided spiritual leadership to the Gayatri Parivar, after its founder Guru Shri Ram Sharma Acharya passed away.
  • Women have played an important role in other sacred traditions that have organic links to Hindu Dharma. For instance, one out of the twenty-four Tirthankaras (founding spiritual teachers) of the Jains was a woman. The heroine of a Tamil Jain didactic epic is a Jain nun named Neelakeshi. Guru Amar Das, the 3rd Sikh Guru, entrusted two of the 26 regions marked out for his missionary activity to women spiritual leaders. Princess Bhrikuti, the daughter of Nepalese Licchivi King Amshu Varma (7th century CE) married the Tibetan King Tsrong-tsong Gompo and influenced her husband to convert to Buddhism. She is also credited with the construction of several prominent places of Tibetan Buddhism such as Potala and Jokhang, as well as Buddhist shrines in Bhutan. Thus, she played a pivotal role in leading Tibetans to Buddhism and is therefore worshipped as a manifestation of the Tibetan deity Tara. It may be pointed out that Hinduism and Buddhism are fused in Nepal even today.
  • However, it is important to note that the status of Hindu women can be made equal to that of men without affecting the core fundamentals of Hindu Dharma. This is different from other religions, where the very core teachings of a male God creating man in His image and women from that man’s extra rib, of restricting clergy to men alone and so on do not make it possible to improve the theological status of their women. How is this so with Hinduism? The revealed texts of Hindus do not contain much that deals with socio-cultural codes in a concrete manner because social mores cannot be eternally and universally valid or applicable. They must change from place to place, and from time to time. The main intent of Hindu Revelatory texts is to serve as a guide in expounding the more eternal principles and practices dealing with cosmology, theology, ritualism (which too changes with time), spirituality and so on. Injunctions on morality, social codes, political maxims etc., are rather explained in non-revealed texts of Hinduism, called the Smritis. Because of the temporal nature of social, political and moral codes, Hindu Sages have authored their own Smritis from time to time, and from region to region to serve the respective populations of their area. A perusal of these Smritis often reveals some teachings that are demeaning to women in various ways. These Smritis have often been merely ‘normative’ texts and their views did not always reflect social reality. In many ways, the actual position of women in the Hindu society has been better than what is enjoined by these texts, and vice versa as well.
  • It is said that the behind every successful man, there is a powerful woman. This seems to be quite well-exemplified in the Hindu tradition. Numerous texts within the Hindu tradition have been named by male authors lovingly after their women family members. For instance, Vachaspati Mishra, a celebrated Hindu philosopher, named his magnum opus on Hindu spirituality (Vedanta) after his wife ‘Bhaamati’. An ancient mathematician named his work on arithmetic and algebra after his daughter Lilavati. In this way, grateful Hindu scholars have perpetuated the memories of their loving wives, mothers, daughters and so on down the ages. In the Mahabharata , Queen Kunti (she belongs to the pentad of ‘panchakanyaa’) narrates the soul-stirring ancient sermon of Queen Vidula to her son [Mahabharata, V.133-136], in order to boost the morale of her sons, the distraught Pandava brothers who had been deprived of their kingdom and livelihood by their cousins. The sermon contains memorable passages exhorting men to shun self-pity and a sense of defeat and instead rise to take charge of their own destiny. The narration obviously had its effect because the Pandava brothers soon prepare for the war. It is said that Goswami Tulsidas (16th-17th century CE), one of the most prominent saint poets of Hindi, was very infatuated with his newly wedded wife. One day, she reminded him that if he were infatuated with Lord Ram in the same way, he would have attained salvation. The words transformed Tulsidas into a great saint and a devotee and he went on to author 12 beautiful devotional works in Hindi. Jijaamata, the mother of Shivaji, inspired her son from his childhood with stories of great Hindu heroes, and motivated him to become a noble Hindu king who liberated parts of India from the tyrannical rule of the bigoted Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb in the late 17th century. Today, she is revered as an inspirational figure in large parts of India along with her illustrious son. A particularly touching instance in Hindu tradition is that of Haadi Rani. Newly married, her husband did not heed the call to arms against the enemies of his country. She had her head severed and sent to him on a platter, motivating him to forsake all fear of death and plunge headlong into battle. More than a thousand years ago, the Buddhist queen of a Hindu Pandyan Ruler of southern India was so disturbed by reports of massacres committed by the army of her husband in a neighboring enemy kingdom that she committed suicide as a way to protest and to impel her husband to shun the path of bloodshed. It is said that it was the mother of the famous monk Yadavaprakash who motivated him to shun his pride and become a disciple of Ramanuja (who had been his own disciple but had become a renowned spiritual teacher). Little wonder then that according to Hindu texts, the wife gets half the fruit of her husband’s good karma. WHO IS A PANCHAKANYA: In the Hindu tradition, a pentad of five women ‘panchakanyaas’ is especially revered. The first two are from the Hindu epic Mahabharata, and the other three from the Hindu epic Ramayana. It is believed that a remembrance of these five women destroys great sins. It is not exactly clear why these five women were chosen, but their diverse background shows the catholicity of Hindu Dharma in venerating virtuous women disregarding their social and ethnic background. These five women are – 1. Kunti, the wife of King Pandu, and mother of the five Pandava princes. She was an accomplished scholar of the Atharva Veda. 2. Draupadi, wife of the five Pandavas brothers, whose honor was preserved by none other than Lord Krishna 3. Tara, the wife of ‘vaanara’ (tribal) King Vali, and after his death, of his younger brother King Sugreeva who assisted Lord Rama 4. Sage Gotama’s wife Ahalya who was tricked into adultery by Indra, but had her honor redeemed by Lord Rama 5. Mandodari, the virtuous wife of evil incarnate Ravana, the King of Lanka. She prevailed upon him to spare Devi Sita of his lust.
  • Queen Kulaprabhavati of the Hindu Khmer Kingdom (in Kampuchea) was a pious Vaishnava queen who in the fifth century (c.475) made many donations to a Vaishnava ashrama. And there were several other Hindu queens--Kambujarajalakshmi, Jayadevi in that dynasty who excelled in charitable and social welfare works. In Indonesia, Gunapriya Dharmapatni (late 10th cent. CE), the great-granddaughter of the Hindu King of eastern Java, married the Balinese Hindu prince Udayana and was instrumental in introducing Javanese traditions such as Tantric Hinduism into Bali. She was so influential that her name appears before that of Udayana in Balinese inscriptions. Goa Gajah, the Elephant Cave, near Bedulu, not far from Ubud, was built around this time, as a rock hermitage for Shaivite priests. Dozens of inscriptions from various parts of the Indian subcontinent also attest to pious Hindu queens and lady officials making endowments to temples, colleges, monasteries etc. These examples are too numerous to list here and only a few illustrations should suffice. An inscription in Afasarh states that the mother Shrimati Devi of King Adityasen established a religious school, whereas his wife Kona Devi had a pond dug up for the welfare of masses. From the Bheraghat inscription, it is apparent that Queen Alhanadevi, wife of a Kalachuri ruler, got a Shiva temple constructed. She also got a school and a garden constructed in the vicinity. The mosque at Bayana in Rajasthan occupies the site of a demolished Vishnu temple, which had been constructed by the daughter Chitralekha of King Saurasena. Likewise, the wife of King Tejpal repaired the sacred icons that were demolished or desecrated by invading Turk Muslims and also induced a Chauhan feudatory of her husband to make a donation for religious causes. Reference: For an enumeration of many more such instances, see pp. 95-97 in Urmila Prakash Mishra, Prachina Bharata mein Nari (in Hindi), Madhyapradesh Hindi Granth Academy, Bhopal (1987)
  • By and large however, it appears that women were not initiated into rigorous Vedic or religious study as such. The noted social reformer Swami Dayanand Sarasvati cited Vedic testimony to argue that women are entitled to Vedic study. He founded the Arya Samaj in 1875, and its members soon established colleges for teaching Hindu scriptures to girls. Through the efforts of Lala Devraj several decades ago, women scholars were finally able to recite the Vedas and perform Vedic sacrifices publicly after several centuries. What was a rarity till recently is now becoming an increasingly common spectacle. For instance, in 1931, Upasani Baba founded the Kanya Kumari Sthan in Sakori (Ahmednagar district, India) where women are taught Vedas and the performance of seven sacred Vedic sacrifices every year. Influenced by this endeavor, another institution named Udyan Mangal Karyaalaya was started in the city of Pune wherein women of all castes and vocations are learning to chant the Vedas and become priests. There are now thousands of Hindu women priests both within India and outside India (including the United States) and are in great demand because they are often considered more sincere, learned and pious then male priests.
  • In the Mahabharata 12.320, one reads of a profoundly spiritual nun Sulabha who studied under several teachers and has a philosophical debate with the philosopher King Janaka. Numerous texts of Sanskrit grammar [e.g., Katyayana’s Varttika 125, 2477] indicate the existence of respected women teachers of grammar . Commenting on the authoritative grammar text Ashtadhyayi 3.3.21 of Panini (~400 BCE), Patanjali (~150 BCE) says that women commence their education after undergoing the sacred thread ceremony. He then derives the feminine forms of words denoting teachers, professors and so on. Likewise, commenting on Ashtadhyayi 4.1.14, Patanjali mentions that ladies studied the ancient grammar of Apisali and also the Mimamsa text of Kashkritsna. In the Uttararamacharita 2.3 of Bhavabhuti (~8th cent. CE), it is mentioned that Atreyi goes from the hermitage of Sage Valmiki to southern India India to learn Vedas and Vedanta philosophy etc. In Kaadambari, the exemplary text on poetics authored by Dandin (~8th centy. CE), a lady named Mahaashveta is described as adorned with a white sacred thread that shone like pure moonlight. Numerous ancient Hindu temples (such as the Lingaraja temple in Orissa or the Khajuraho temple in Madhya Pradesh) show women as teachers (with male as well as female students) and painters etc. Ubhaya Bharati, the wife of ritualism scholar Mandana Mishra, presided as a judge in a debate between her husband and the spiritual philosopher Adi Shankaracharya. After the latter won, she then challenged Adi Shankaracharya (8th century CE) to a debate. The hagiography Shankaradigvijaya of Madhava states that she knew the Vedas, the six Vedangas (perquisite sciences for studying Vedas), poetics and several other branches of learning. When she debated with Shankaracharya, the audience was dumbfounded with the erudition and skill with which she marshaled Vedic citations, logical arguments and profound thoughts. [Shankaradigvijaya 9.63] Recently [1] , a commentary on Tiruvaayamoli of Shudra saint Nammalvar authored by a woman named Tirukkoneri Dasyai (15 th century) has been discovered. The commentary is an exquisite work and shows familiarity with Vedic texts, particularly those of Taittiriya Yajurveda. It may be noted that the Tiruvaayamoli is accorded the status of Samaveda in the Shri Vaishnava community, and is called ‘Dravida Veda’ or the Tamil Veda. [1] Vasudha Narayanan, “Women of Power in the Hindu Tradition”, pp. 25-77 in Arvind Sharma and Katherine K Young (eds.), Feminism and World Religions , SUNY Press: Albany (New York), 1999 CONTENT OF MADHURAVIJAYA: The epic celebrates the Hindu re-conquest of an area in southern India from invading Muslims who had indulged in large-scale massacres, cow-slaughter, desecration of temples and molestation of women. Many of the poems attributed to the famous medieval Bengali poet Chandidas were also actually written by his wife.
  • Likewise, women such as Kishori Amonkar, Gangubai Hangal and so on are some of the greatest performers of other traditional vocal music styles such as classical Hindustani.
  • Glimpses of hindu genius

    1. 1. 2006 Centenary Year CelebrationsProf. Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar 1906 - 1973Shri Guruji Golwalkar was one ofmodern India’s greatest thinkers andreformers, a modern Rishi in true spirit.“In a world so full of misery of allkinds, there can be no nobler ideal thanto serve the weak and downtrodden.” “In all the Miss India beauty contests, the real beauty of India is missing.” “If Pakistan cannot be mended, it has to be ended.” Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 2
    2. 2. Prof. Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar 1906 - 1973 Make Hinduism Global for Peace and Prosperity of the WorldThe planet earth needs a sense of moral order,ecological order, energy savings, distribution of wealthand resources to all, human values, spirituality and anethical compass. Hinduism alone can fulfill this role. Sankrit, Yoga, Bhagwad Gita, Ayurved, Vegetarian food, Vedc Heritage, Indian music and Bhajans are gaining world-wide recognitions.Overseas Hindus are proving successful and are an asset to their adoptedcountries. India too has become a global player in trade and technology. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 3
    3. 3. Prof. Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar 1906 - 1973 Vedic Mantras for Peace and Prosperity of the Worldl Ekam Sat Vipraha, Bahuda Vadanti Truth is one, Sages call it variously. Avibhaktam Vibhakteshu Accept Unity in Diversity for world Peace3. Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah , Sarve Santu Niramaya Let every one be happy and free from disease1. Aano Bhadrha Krutavo Yantu Vishwatah Let Noble thoughts come to us from all directions.• Krunvanto Vishwam Aryam. Let us culturise the world. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 4
    4. 4. Prof. Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar 1906 - 1973 Vedic Mantras for Peace and Prosperity of the Worldl Needam Entire Universe is a Nest – (Rig Veda). Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, World is a Family – (Valmiki Ramayan). Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma, All is One – the Principle of Universal Oneness Nar Seva Narayan Seva Serving Humanity is true Service of God. Acceptance Beyond Tolerance All is One – the Principle of Universal Oneness World Peace and Harmony World Without War – Message of Raksha Bandhan Mitayuke Oasin – WeNoble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda Let are all Related 5
    5. 5. Prof. Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar 1906 - 1973 HSS Mantras for Peace and Prosperity of the Worldl Vishwa Dharma Prakashena Vishwa Shanti Pravartake Hindu Sangathana Karye Dhyeya Nishtha Sthirastu Nah || 6 ||l Our conviction is that lasting Peace can be established through Propagation of Dharma. Our Mission to organize the Hindu society to realize this vision.l The focus of Sangh is ‘Man-Making’ which is necessary to carry out this mission. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 6
    6. 6. Yogi Arvind Said “The country whose young men are inspired by the glory of the past, pain of the present and dreams of the future always moves on the path of progress.” Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 7
    7. 7. Yogi Aurobindo said, I want to be RICH, I want to be POPULAR, I want to be POWERFUL I want to be GREAT not for my sake but for the sake of my country. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 8
    8. 8. Yogi Aurobindo said, All the countries live in falsehood. If only one country stood courageously for truth, the world might be saved. Let us reiterate our commitment to Kshatriya Dharam, make our politicians learn to make Bharat stand up to the world, be economically strong with fully equipped armed forces. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 9
    9. 9. Swami Sivanand said,To be timid is the greatest sin.To be selfish is the greatest offence.To identify oneself with the body is the greatest crime.To forget one’s own Atman is the greatest sin. Therefore destroy timidity and selfishness. Abandon identification with the body and remember always your essential divine nature. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 10
    10. 10. Film Songs on Confidence VoteFilm Songs on Confidence Vote:3. Prakash Karat: Dost dost na rahaa...4. Manmohan Singh: Merey dushman tu meri dosti ko tarsey...5. Sonia Gandhi: Aaj phir jeeney ki tamanna hai...6. Somnath Chatterjee:Jhoom, jhoom ke nacho/ Aaj kis ki jeet hui hai/ Aaj kis ki haar...7. Mulayam Singh: Na na kartey haan tumhi ko kar baithey...8. Lalu Prasad Yadav: Samajhney-wale samajh gaye hain/ Jo naa samajhey woh anari hai…9. Amar Singh: Lagaa chunri mein daag...10. Mayawati: Mera sundar sapna toot gaya ...11. Sitaram Yechury: Merey tutey huey dil se koi to aaj yeh puchhey...12. AB Bardhan: Kasmein, vaade, pyaar wafaa sab/ Baatein hain, baaton ka kya...13. Rahul Gandhi: Hoshiar! Hum hain yahaan ke Raj Kumar Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 11
    11. 11. Film Songs on Confidence VoteFilm Songs on Confidence Vote:l LK Advani: Raha gardishon mein har dam...l Arun Jaitley: Yeh kya hua, kaise hua, kyon hua...l Pranab Mukherjee: Duniya kee sair kar lo...l Vayalar Ravi: Jo vadaa kiya hai nibhaana paadey ga...l Shibu Soren: Jo tum ko ho pasand wahi baat karenge...l Deve Gowda: Mujhe tum se kuch bhi naa chahiye/ Mujhe mere haal pe chhod do…l Ajit Singh: Kora kagaz thaa, kora hi reh gayaa...l SS Dhindasa: Garibo ki suno, woh tumhari sunega...l Raj Babbar: Ghungroo ki tarah bajta hi raha hoon main...l Omar Abdullah: Begaani shaadi mein Abdullah deewana...l Manmohan-Bush, over phone: Yeh dosti hum nahin chodenge...l Aam Aadmi: Jinhein naaz hai Hind pe, woh kahan hain? Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 12
    12. 12. Books for ReadingHave you read any of the following Books or their likesBooks by Swami Vivekanand / Aurobindo / Sivanand / Chinmayanand /Books by Mahatma Gandhi / Jawaharlal Nehru/ Babasaheb AmbedkarBooks by Voice of India: Dr Abdul Kalam / Dr Arun Shourie /Books and articles by Francis Gautier/ Sister Nivedita / Annie Besant / Koenraad Elst / Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 13
    13. 13. Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee responsible for • 9% Hindu Rate of Growth of GDP – second highest in the world. • 11 and 13th of May 1998: 5 successful Nuclear Tests at Pokhran1. Changing India’s Global Image from a borrowing country for the past 50 years to lending country. India now has a Foreign Exchange Reserve of over 300 Billion dollars.3. India’s Giant leap forward in Nuclear Science, Satellite and Rocket Technologies, Super Computer, Fast Breeder Reactor, Remote Sensing Camera, Cars, Trucks, Motor-bikes, Pharmaceuticals, Mobile Phones, Engineering Goods, Diamond Cuttings, Soft-wares, Information Technology, Production of milk, rice, tea, vegetables, fruits etc. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 14
    14. 14. Thoughts Expressed by Dr Abdul Kalam Do we have answers to his questionsl We want foreign TVs, foreign shirts & foreign technology. Why this obsession with everything imported? Do we not realize that self-respect comes with self-reliance?l Look at Dr Sudarshan (and Nanaji Deshmukh). He has transferred the tribal village into self-sustaining, self-driving unit. There are millions of such achievements but our media is only obsessed in the bad news and failures and disasters. In India we only read about death, sickness, terrorism, crime. Why are we so NEGATIVE?l We complain - Our roads are not good. Public places are not clean. We do not have proper drinking water & electricity. Our hospitals are over crowded. India is No.1 in AIDS, Malaria, TB, blind people; We say, Government is indifferent (towards Terrorism, Bangladeshi infiltration, demographic imbalance & conversions. It indulges in over appeasement of Minorities. What has been our duty & Responsibility?)l We make boardroom talks against the practice of (bride burning, infanticide of girl babies, caste hatred, untouchability &) corruption. But in our own lives we practice them.l We know that 22% of our population is illiterate & below poverty line. What do we do about it. l What is our duty? How to be Pro-active Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 15
    15. 15. How can I Serve Dharma? for Dharma-abhimanis who are in search of a direction.1. Do I have enough time for my Dharma? To begin with, you can speak about Hinduism and share information you have come across about it with your family, neighbors and friends. When you have some more time, you can involve yourself in other higher-level activities.4. Do I have the qualities to serve Dharma? Each individual has certain physical, psychological and spiritual strengths. Serve your Dharma, with any of these strengths.7. Can I influence others. Every one of us can influence some one or the other. Evolve yourself Spiritually and you can influence more people. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 16
    16. 16. Methods to Serve Dharma 1. Directly From Homel Online Prasar: Web promotion of news, campaigns etc in various groups friends contactsl Financial help: Donations to Sewa International;l Psychological or intellectual help: Writing articles or answering them in news medial Spiritual help: Doing spiritual practice and guiding othersl Translation of Matter on Dharma from Tamil/ Telugu/ Kannada/ Marathi/Hindi to English, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Indnesian, Thai, Russian, French, Spanish, Italian, …. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 17
    17. 17. Methods to Serve Dharma 2. Directly Outside Homel Physical help: Put up posters, banners, writing News Board (Phalak) arrange lectures, workshops, protest demonstrations, invite persons, screening of VCDl Educating Intellectuals & Academicians - Political, Economists etc. on Dharmal Contacting like-minded influential persons in the society - Those in authority in Temples, colleges-schools, organised societies and clubsl Providing Publicity - Liasoning with the press - print media, TV, cable channelsl Reporting events that concern Dharma - for and againstl Cable TV advertisement, screening of VCDl Providing free Legal Aid unto the cause of Dharma Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 18
    18. 18. Methods to Serve Dharma 3. Indirectlyl Offline Prasar: Giving information about website to others.l Sponsoring activities of the HSS, Sewa International,l Providing advt. Space for Sewa Intl campaigns on hired bill boardsl Providing advt. Space for Messages on Dharma on your products, servicesl Providing a link to the HSS, Sewa Intl, Ekal Vidyalay website on your websitel Attaching messages with your e-mails on Dharma-Shikshanl Taking up the cause of Dharma with various media - writing letters, sending e-mails, SMSs in your individual capacity Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 19
    19. 19. Dhanur Veda, Our Ancient War TechniquesDhanur Veda our most ancient text on Warfare.Sage Vishwamitra, Vasishta, Parashurama, Dronacharyawere great exponents of wars and weapons. Vedas, Manu’s Rajadharma, Ramayan, Mahabharat, Puranas, Pancha Tantra, Kautilya Artha Sastra, Thiruk-Kural deal with wars, weapons and strategies.Lord Vishnu (Mohini Avtar), NarasimhaAvtar, Vamana Avtar, Lord Krishna,Arya Chanakya, Shivaji Maharaj weregreat warriors and war strategists. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 20
    20. 20. Criteria for Super Power1. Must have won a Major War2. Must be a Knowledge Based Society Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 21
    21. 21. Criteria for Super Power3. Must be a land of Wealth Creators4. Must influence other nations Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 22
    22. 22. Criteria for Super Power5. Women and Youth Empowerment Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 23
    23. 23. From Super Power to Vishwa Guru Valmiki, Ved Vyas, Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhwacharya, Ramadas, Vidyaranya, Sw Ramakrishna, Dayanand, SV, Sivanand Sw Chinmayanand, Dr Hedgewar, Guruji 6. Must be a land of Spiritual Leaders Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 24
    24. 24. Our Present ShortcomingsEducation: 20% are still illiterate and below Poverty lineIntellectuals Apathy, anti Indians, Uncaring for Poor & NeedyMedical: Most govt hospitals for the poor and needy do not have proper facilities, are over-crowded,Health Maximum Blind people, TB Patients, Malaria victims, Small Pox, Hepatitis, Gastro-entities,Poverty: 20% are below poverty lineInfra-Structure Bijli, Sadak, Pani, Hospitals, Schools,Corruption: Govt agencies are best with corruption Judiciary, Police, Bureaucracy, Politicians,Cultural Invasion: Most TV Programs are anti Indian in culture Valentine’s day, Friendship Bands, New Year Dances Dance-Discotheque-Drugs, Pub Bharo Andolan by Renuka Devi,English: is replacing Mother-TonguesLaw & Order: Serial Bomb Blasts – not arrested, Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 25
    25. 25. 1st Criteria for Super Power Military SuperiorityIndependent Military AgendaMust have won a Major War Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 26
    26. 26. India’s Military Superiority• India defeated Pakistan 1. In 1971 India defeated Pakistan supported by USA and China in and liberated entire Bangladesh 1965 and in 1971. in 12 days taking Gen Niazi and• 95,000 Pak soldiers as POW. In 1965 war Lt. Col. Tarapore smashed maximum number of 3. In 1971 India made USA nuclear USA Patton tanks. powered warship Enterprise• (much dreaded 7th Fleet) to India’s suicide air-pilots made a retreat. mincemeat of the most sophisticated Pakistan’s 5. In 1999 India defeated Pakistan surveillance system at Sargoda in Kargil war. It was a war air port. It was gifted by USA. fought on the most difficult• terrain (-60°C) and highest In 1971 India destroyed Pak altitude on Himalayan peaks. Submarine PNS Gazi gifted to it by USA. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 27
    27. 27. Indian War GeneralsField MarshallGen Cariappa Shivaji Maharaj, one of the greatest generals in World history Pioneer of Guerilla Warfare.Lt Gen.Thimaiyya Jhansi Rani Laxmibai Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 28
    28. 28. Brave Women of India Padmavathy Bandhopadhyay the first woman Punita Arora Air Marshal in the first Indian woman Indian Air Force. Lieutenant General in the Indian Army Bachendri Pal, the first Indian woman (and the fifth in the world), to scale Mt. Everest, the highest peak in the world on 23rd May 1984, and stood on the summit of Sagarmatha (the Nepali name for the Mt. Everest) for 43 minutes. She is a Poor village girl from Garhwal.Nirmal ChawlaIst Lady Indian pilot to Sarla Thakralparticipate in any war (Kargil), first Indian womanshe was flying Chetak Indias Pilot 1936.best fighter Chopper. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 29
    29. 29. 1971 India Pak WarLiberation of Bangladesh Field Marshall Gen Sam Manekshaw Lt Gen J.S.Arora & Lt Gen JFR Jacob architects of 1971 Bangla Desh liberation. Gen. Niazi & 93,000 Pak soldiers surrendered. INS Vikrant India’s Nuclear Carrier Vice Admiral Krishnan PNS Gazi, Pak Submarine lured and destroyed, Seventh Fleet / Enterprise American Nuclear Carrier made to retreat in 1971 Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 30
    30. 30. Param Vir Chakra Highest Indian Gallantry Award Major Somnath Sharma awarded the first Param Vir Chakra, He on November 3, 1947 saved Srinagar airport (and Kashmir) at the supreme cost of his life. Kuch yaad karo unhe bhi, Jo laut ke ghar na aye! Capt Vikram Batra died on 8 July 1999 after capturing 3 peaks in Drass sector.Lt. Col Tarapore smashedseveral US Patton Tanks Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 31
    31. 31. Higher than Mount Everest height emotional words of the martyr-memorial at KohimaSantosh Kanwar, widow of Martyr Mangej SinghsworeI shall not hesitate to send all my three sons to the front and will be proud if they die defending the country like their father" When you go home tell them of us And say for your tomorrow we gave our today Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 32
    32. 32. One Family – All Soldiers Maj Gen P Venkateshwarlu Son Lt PV Mohan Daughter Capt PV Punita at IMA Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda Let Passing out Parade 33
    33. 33. Kargil Heroes Param Veer Chakras Vikram Batra (Posthumous), Grenedier Yogendra Singh RFN Sanjay Kumar Mahaveer Chakras Major Sonam Wangchuk Lt Balwan Singh,Lt Keishing Clifford Nangrum Major Padmapani Acharya Major Shyam Sundar, Major Vikrant Shastri, Major Vivek Gupta, Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 34
    34. 34. Kargil Heroes Lt Atul Karya, Major M. Saravanan, Lt Kanad Bhattacharya, Capt Saju Cherian Major Abhimanyu Sikka, Capt Jerry Prem Raj, Lt Amit Verma, Capt Vijayant ThaparCapt Aditya Mishra,Capt. Sanjiv Dahiya, Capt Umang Bharadwaj, Capt Anuj Nayyar Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 35
    35. 35. Param Vir Chakra Highest Indian Gallantry Awards Kargil Heroes Captain Vikram Batra, Rifleman Sanjay Kumar, Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav, Colonel Hoshiar Singh, Company Quarter Master Havildar Abdul Hamid, Flying officer Nirmal Singh Sekhon 2nd Lt Arun Khetrapal, Lance Naik Albert Ekka,Lt Colonel Ardeshir Tarapore, Lt Manoj Kumar Pandey Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 36
    36. 36. Param Vir Chakra Highest Indian Gallantry Awards Major Dhan Singh Thapa, Major Hoshiar Singh, Major Ramaswamy Parameswaran, Major Shaitan Singh Bhati Major Somnath Sharma, Naib Subedar Bana Singh, Naik Jadunath Singh, Naik Karam Singh Piru Singh Shekhawat,Capt Gurbachan Singh Salaria2nd Lt Rama Raghoba Rane, Subedar Joginder Singh Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 37
    37. 37. India Vs Pakistan 1. Air Crafts 1007 710 2. Helicopters 240 31 3. Transport Aircraft 220 30 4. Air to Air Refuellers 6 0 6. Active Military Personnel 1.3 million 550,000 7. Active Military Reserve 495,000 500,000 8. Active Para Military Units 1,089,700 304,0002.Nuclear Warheads 70-100 30 - 403.Ballastic Missiles Agni-2 Gauri4.2,000 KMs 2,200 KMs5.Cruise Missiles BrahMos Babur 290 KMs 700 KMs Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 38
    38. 38. India Vs Pakistan1.Land-Based Weapons 10,340 3,9192. Tanks 3,898 2,4613.Multiple Rocket Launch Systems 150 524.Anti Aircraft Weapons 2,424 1,9006.Aircraft Carriers 1 07.Destroyers 8 08.Sub-Mariners 18 119.Frigates 16 710.Amphibious Craft 7 0 Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 39
    39. 39. India’s Nuclear Tests ?.1974 May 18, 1 Test1998 May 11 and 13 5 Tests Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 40 all Directions- Rig Veda
    40. 40. Swami Vivekananda’s Secret for Success "Each nation has an identity and destiny. As far as Bharat is concerned, Hindu is its identity and religion is its way of working" There is no limit to the power of the human mind. The more concentrated it is, the more power is brought to bear on one point. That is the secret. Have faith in yourself – all power is in you – be conscious and bring it out. Say I can do everything. Whatever you do, devote your whole mind, heart and soul to it. Conversion is not one Hindu less but one enemy more. Daridra Narayano bhava; Murkha Narayano bhava. Serve man serve God. They alone live who live for others; the rest are more dead than alive. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 41
    41. 41. Why India Makes MissilesIf Indias rocket can hit any target with nuclear bomb and if India hassufficient numbers of bombs and means to deliver, West will startrespecting India and her Hindu philosophy.When India made 5 Nuclear tests, US President Bill Clinton said India is aland of Buddha and Gandhi. But India is a land of thousand Buddhas and Gandhis from Vedic Age onwards. How many Bombs should India possess for the world to know all our genius. Without power no one will respect us Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 42
    42. 42. Indian Ballistic Missiles Better than American – Saraswat – DRDO ScientistBMD Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Shield is better than AmericanPAC-III Patriot Advanced Capability (Anti Missile System) is outdatedIndian Advanced Air Defence (AAD) missile is 30% superior – Range &Capability. The warhead weighs 30Kg but its impact is similar to 150 KgOmni-directional warhead. Can tackle the maneuvers of enemy’s incomingmissile including Russian Topol M Class missiles which move in zigzag waySystem is “Fully Automated” (Hot-Stand-by mode) – can take off in 120secs of the detection of incoming missiles by the tracking radars. GroundRadars constantly update the Interceptor about the position of the targetenemy Ballistic Missile. In a war a volley of interceptor missiles will beused against the enemy ballistic missiles to improve the hit probability.Various counter measures in place to prevent jamming the interceptor byenemy missile.Under Development: New Interceptor PDV – Hypersonic Interceptormissiles (Speed of 6-7 Mach), Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 43
    43. 43. Our Missiles PRITHVI – II Test fired in Nov 2006. Surface to surface. Range 250 KM AGNI – III Surface to Surface, 2 Stage Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM). Over 3,500 km Range. War head 1,500 Kg. The Circular Error Probable (CEP) was less than 20 meters, which is best of class in the worldAKASH.Long Range Surface to AirRAMJET. Nishant Unmanned Aerial Vehicle – DayCan Target 5 enemy Air Crafts Night Capability, Artillery Fire Correction etcsimultaneously at a Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 44RANGE of 25 KM
    44. 44. Our Missiles TRISHUL. Surface to surface or Surface to Air. Short Range 50 KMNAG. Fire & ForgetAnti Tank Guided Missile(ATGM) RANGE: 4 KMs BRAHMOS. Super Sonic Cruise Missile. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 45
    45. 45. Our MissilesSHOURYA. (Valor) AGNI - 3 (12 Nov 2008) 3,500 KMs RangeSurface to SurfaceMedium Range Missile.600 KMs Range Testfired successfully CHANDRAYAAN -1. (22 Oct 2008). (Moon Craft) India’s Lunar Satellite – launched from Sriharikota Space Center, 09 Nov 2008 – entered Lunar Orbit 18 days later. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 46
    46. 46. Our Satellite Lauch VehiclesASLV Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle. Range: 4,000 KMs. 150 Kg Pay Load. In Lower Orbit. Indian Satellites Aryabhatt, Rohini, Bhaskara PSLV Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. Range: 8,000 KMs. Pay Load: 1,200 KgGSLVGeo-Synchronous SatelliteLaunch Vehicle. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 47
    47. 47. World Record in Satellite Technology Bharatiya Space Scientists successfully put 10 Satellites into orbit on 28 April 2008. 10 Satellites  8 foreign nano satellites for Canada, Germany, Japan etc  Cartosat-2A Remote Sensing Satellite 690 Kg  Bharatiya Mini satellite MS-1 (89 Kg)  weighed 824 Kgs Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 48
    48. 48. Lee Kwan Yew – Singapore PMIndias navy has an aircraft-carrier force;Its air force has the latest Sukhoi and MiGaircraft;Its army is among the best trained and equipped in Asia.India can project power across its borders farther and better than China can, yet there is no fear that India has aggressive intentions. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 49
    49. 49. Swami Vivekananda’s Secret for Success "Each nation has an identity and destiny. As far as Bharat is concerned, Hindu is its identity and religion is its way of working" There is no limit to the power of the human mind. The more concentrated it is, the more power is brought to bear on one point. That is the secret. Have faith in yourself – all power is in you – be conscious and bring it out. Say I can do everything. Whatever you do, devote your whole mind, heart and soul to it. Conversion is not one Hindu less but one enemy more. Daridra Narayano bhava; Murkha Narayano bhava. Serve man serve God. They alone live who live for others; the rest are more dead than alive. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 50
    50. 50. Why India Makes MissilesIf Indias rocket can hit any target with nuclear bomb and if India hassufficient numbers of bombs and means to deliver, West will startrespecting India and her Hindu philosophy. Without power no one will respect us Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 51
    51. 51. Indian Nuclear Scientists Rishi Kanad Vedic Nuclear Scientist Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha – Father of India’s Nuclear Tech Dr Raja Ramanna Nuclear Tests Dr. PK.Iyengar 1974: 1 Test 1998: 5 Tests – all successful One of the 9 countries Fast Breeder Reactors One of the 4 Countries Dr Anil Kakodkar Dr Chidambaram Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 52
    52. 52. Lord Nataraja at CERN Geneva Lord Shiva veritably presided over the world’s largest experiment as scientists today sent the first beam of protons zooming at nearly the speed of light around the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at the CERN laboratory near Geneva in search of the God particle.Next to the 2m statue of the dancing Shiva or Nataraj at the EuropeanCenter for Research in Particle Physics in Geneva is a plaque that explainsthe connection: "It is the clearest image of the activity of God which any artor religion can boast of" ..."Hundreds of years ago, Indian artists created visual images of dancingShivas in a beautiful series of bronzes. In our time, physicists have used themost advanced technology to portray the patterns of the cosmic dance.The metaphor of the cosmic dance thus unifies ancient mythology, religiousart and modern physics." Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 53
    53. 53. Indian Space & Missile Scientists Missiles used during Ramayan and Mahabharat times Vikram Sarabhai – Father of Indian Space Tech Dr Satish Dhawan Our Missiles Agni, Akash, Prithvi, Trishul, Nag, Our Satellites: Aryabhatt, Rohini, Bhaskara, Dr Abdul Kalam, Dr Madhawan Nair, Missile Man of India Present Chief of ISRO Dr Kasturi Rangan- 11th expert in the world and 1st Asian in Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing in 48 years to be honored by ISPRS with Brock Medal. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 54
    54. 54. Ancient & Modern Space Scientists Acharya Bharadwaj Pavana Putra Hanuman Vedic Aviation Scientist Ancient Astronaut Kalpana Chawla USA- Modern Astronaut Acharya Kapil Vedic Cosmology Scientist Sunita Pandya (Williams) USA - Longest Space walk 22 Hrs 27 Mints, took Bhagwad Gita, Statue of Lord Ganesha and a letter in Hindi to outer space Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 55
    55. 55. India’s Super Computer Param 10,000 Dr. VIJAY BHATKAR We want to preserve our timeless heritage in the form of a multimedia digital library on param-10000’.Dr. NARENDRAKARMARKARthe scientists who prepared an algorithm which could make computerto perform calculations 50-100 times faster.India in the race to build the fastest supercomputer capable ofcomputing speeds of a PetaFlop (1000 tera flops) The Tatas providefunds to Dr. Narendra Karmakar to develop from allarchitecture. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us new Directions- Rig Veda 56
    56. 56. 2nd Criteria for Super PowerMust be a Knowledge Based Society Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 57
    57. 57. Ancient & Modern India’s Achievements in Science, Technology,Missiles and Industries Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 58
    58. 58. 1 ST Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology ended 3,000 years ago Inventions & Discoveries made inMedical Sciences Mathematics Yoga & MeditationChemistry Gandharva Ved VyakarnaCosmology Sthapathya Ved DictionaryPhysics Artha Shastra ThesaurusAstronomy, Military Science Memorizing Techniques Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 59
    59. 59. 1ST Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology Inventions 3,000 Years BeforeMedical Sciences Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Veterinary Science, Chemistry of Medicines, Botany,Chemistry Material Science, Nuclear ScienceCosmology Age of UniverseAstronomy, Calendar, Age of Universe,Mathematics Pythagoras Theorem, Number system including Zero & Infinity, Geometry, Trigonometry,Physics Machines, Naval and Air Ships, Vimana ShastraSthapathya Ved Buildings & ConstructionsMilitary Sciences Modern Martial Arts, Conventional warfare, Missiles, Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 60
    60. 60. 1ST Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology Scientists 3,000 Years before Dhanwantari, Charaka, Sushruta Medical Science including Plastic Surgery, Nano Technology, Veterinary Science, Botany, Pharmacy, Rishi Bharadwaj, Kapil, Kanad Vimana Shastra or Space Vehicles, Cosmology or Creation of Universe, Nuclear Physics & Chemistry Sage Valmiki, Ved Vyas, Patanjali War Techniques, Missiles, War Techniques, Architecture, Artha Shastra Yoga, Meditation, Grammar, Ayurveda Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 61
    61. 61. 1ST Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology Scientists 3,000 Years beforeDhanvantari & Ashwini Kumars Medical SciencesSushruta Medical Surgery including Plastic SurgeryCharaka Medicinal Science including Veterinary ScKanad Chemistry including Nuclear ScienceKapil Cosmology Age of UniverseBharadwaj Vimana Shastra Air Crafts, alloys,Patanjali Yoga & MeditationLagadha, Parashara Astronomy, Mathematics Vedic MathsBodhayana Mathematics including Pythagoras ThBhrugu Rishi Sthapathya Ved Buildings & ConstructionsBharata Muni Gandharva Ved Vocal, Instruments, DancesValmiki, Vishwamitra Military Science RamayanVeda Vyasa Artha Shastra Mahabharat, Bhagwad Gita Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 62
    62. 62. J. Robert Oppenheimer, American nuclear physicist (1904-1967):"If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst into the sky, that would be like thesplendor of the Mighty One. . . . Now I am become death, the destroyer of worlds.“ Oppenheimer "the father of the atomic bomb"quoting from the Hindu scripture Bhagavad-Gita upon witnessing the mushroom cloud resulting from the detonation of the world’s first atomic bomb in New Mexico, U.S.A., on July 16, 1945. “Access to the Vedas is the greatest privilege this century may claim over all previous centuries.” Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 63
    63. 63. Albert Einstein (1879 -1955): “When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.” "We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.”“I have made the Gita as the main source of my inspiration and guide for the purpose of scientific investigations and formation of my theories.” Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 64
    64. 64. Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961), Austrian theoretical physicist, Nobel Laureate 1933On the dualism of mind and matter"The only solution to this conflict, in sofar as any is available to us at all, lies inthe ancient wisdom of the Upanishad." “Some blood transfusion from the East to the West” to save Western science from spiritual anemia.” The unity and continuity of Vedanta are reflected in the unity and continuity of wave mechanics. In 1925, the world view of physics was a model of a great machine composed of separable interacting material particles. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 65
    65. 65. Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962) Danish nuclear physicist who developed the Bohr model of the atom I go into the Upanishads to ask questions. Asking questions aboutBible and Koran is heresy and invites death punishment. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 66
    66. 66. 2 nd Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology 400 AD – 1500 AD Inventions & Discoveries made in Takshashila UniversityMedical Sciences Mathematics Nalanda UniversityChemistry Gandharva Ved Vaishali UniversityMetallurgy Sthapathya Ved Bakshali ManuscriptsPhysics Artha Shastra Kancheepuram UniversityAstronomy, Saraswati Mahal, Tanjavur Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 67
    67. 67. Ancient Hindu Universities Taksha Shila University World’s 1st University Vaishali University Nalanda University Destroyed by Ala ud din Khilji Kanchipuram University Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 68
    68. 68. 2nd Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology 400 AD – 1500 ADProminent Astronomers & Mathematicians Aryabhatt, Varahamihir, Nagarjun Mathematics & Astronomy, Science Encyclopedia & Astrology Organic and Inorganic Chemistry Bhaskaracharya Mathematics & Astronomy, Magic Square, Goladhyay Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 69
    69. 69. 2 nd Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology 400 AD – 1500 AD Prominent Astronomers & Mathematicians475 AD Aryabhatt 932 AD Aryabhatta - II505 AD Varahamihir 1114 AD Bhaskara - II600 AD Bhaskara 1227 AD Sridhara600 AD Brahma Gupta 1376 AD Parameswara700 AD Lalla, 1500 AD Neelakanta Somayaji Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 70
    70. 70. 3rd Golden Age ofIndian Science & Technology is TodayInventions & Discoveries made inNuclear Technology PharmaceuticalsFast Breeder Reactors Automobile TechnologyRocket Technology Information TechnologySatellite Technology Diamond CuttingMissile Technology, Yoga & MeditationSuper Computers Spiritual Power Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 71
    71. 71. 3rd Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology is Today Modern Indian Scientists01. Shri Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858-1937) Life in Plants, Radio Transmission02. Prafulla Chandra Ray (1861-1944). Discovery of mercurous nitrate03. Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887 – 1920). a genius in mathematics, No. 172904. Sir C.V. Raman (1888-1970). First Nobel Scientist of India.05. Meghnad Saha (1893-1956). ‘ionization formula’06. Satyendranath Bose (1894 – 1974). Bose – Einstein Statistics, Bosons07. Shantiswaroop Bhatnagar (1894–1955) chemistry of magnetism & emulsions08. Krishnan K.S. (1898-1961) worked on crystals.09. Sheshadri T.R. (1900 – 1975). Research on hundreds of plants10. C.N.R. Rao (B.1934). Solid State Chemistry, Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 72
    72. 72. 3rd Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology is Today Modern (a-a)11. Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha Indian Scientists Nuclear Science, BARC12. Dr Homi Sethna (a-a). Nuclear Science13. Dr Raja Ramanna (a-a). Nuclear Science14. Dr Vikram Sarabhai (a-a). Space Scientist15. Dr Satish Dhawan (a-a). Space Science16. Dr APJ Abdul Kalam (a-a). Missile Man of India17. Dr Kasturi Rangan (a-a) Tele Photography18. Dr PKR Iyengar. (a-a) Nuclear Science19. Dr Chidambaram. (a-a). Nuclear Science20. Dr Anil Kakodkar (B.). Nuclear Science21. Dr Madhavan Nair (B.). Chandrayan, Cryogenic Engine Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 73
    73. 73. 3rd Golden Age of Indian Science & Technology is Today Modern Indian Scientists Dam21. Dr Visweshvaraiah (a-a) Civil Engineer, Brindavan22. E. Sreedharan (a-a). Metro Man of India, Konkan Rly23. Shyam Pitroda (a-a). Tele Communications24. Dr Raghnath A Mashelkar (a-a). Patent Man of India25. Dr Verghese Kurien (a-a). AMUL, Milk Revolution26. Dr MS Swaminathan (a-a). Agriculture, Green Revolution27. Dr Jayant Narlikar (a-a) Correction to Bose Einstein Eqn28. Dr Vijay Bhatkar (a-a) Param-10,000 Super Computer29. Dr Narendra Karmarkar. (a-a). Param-10,000 Super Computer30. Dr Appadurai (B.). Chandrayan31. Dr (B.). a Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 74
    74. 74. Incredible India - Do You Know…• India is No.1 in Remote Sensing Camera• India is one of the FOUR counties that produces SUPER COMPUTERS.• India has the Fastest Super Computer in Asia• India is one of the FOUR countries that has the Fast-Breeder Reactors.• India is one of the FOUR countries that have landed on the Moon.• India is one of the SIX countries that have Satellite Technology, Rocket Launching capabilities, ICBMs & Cryogenic Engines.• Bharat is one of the Nine Countries that have conducted Nuclear Tests. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 75
    75. 75. Do you Know that India is No1 in …• India is No.1 in Software Development• India is No. 1 in Call Centers• India is No. 1 in BPOs• India is No. 1 in KPO (Knowledge Process Outsourcing).• Bangalore has maximum Software Engineers• India is No. 1 in Youth Power and will remain so for another 30 years.• India is No.1 in Diamond Cutting.• India is No.1 in Tea & Milk Production.• Hero Honda produces maximum Motorbikes• Bharat Forge is the largest Forging Co in the world. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 76
    76. 76. Do you Know that ……..• India is No.2 in Truck Manufacturing,• India is No.2 in Rice and Wheat Production.• India is No.2 in Vegetables and Fruits Production.• India is No.4 in Pharmaceuticals Production.• India is No.5 in Commercial Car Production.• India is advancing fast in Mobile Phones, Automobiles, Pharmaceuticals, Ayurveda, Machineries, Research and Developments, Satellites, Super Computers, Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 77
    77. 77. India’s Growth in 60 years 1947 to 2007 Times of India Aug 15, 2007 1947 2007• Average Life Expectancy 31.4 - 64.7• Literacy Rate 14% 67%• Population 300 million – 1.13 Billion• Per Capita Income Rs. 255 Rs. 29,382• Total Wheat Production 5-6 72.5 Million Tonnes• Per Capita Power Consumption 15.5 606 kwh• Telephones in millions 1.1 218• Infant Mortality (Per 1,000 live births) 145.6 58• Doctors in lacs 0.5 5.54 lacs• National Highways in kms 19,634 65,569 km• India’s Exports in Rs. Crores 403.4 5.64 lacs• India’s Imports in Rs. Crores 408.7 8.20 lac• Govt. Revenue in Rs. Crores 171 4.03 lacs• Govt. Expenditure in Rs. Crores 200 5.64 lacsCurrency Calculator: * A Rupee in 1947 is worth Rs. 32 in 2007. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 78
    78. 78. India’s Growth in 60 years 1947 to 2007 Times of India Aug 15, 2007 1947 20071. Average Life Expectancy 31.4 - 64.72. Literacy Rate 14% 67%3. Population 300 million – 1.13 Billion4. Per Capita Income Rs. 255 Rs. 29,382Currency Calculator: * A Rupee in 1947 is worth Rs. 32 in 2007.Gujarat is top Investment destination cornering over 25% of investments from Banks. Andhra Pradesh-2nd, Maharashtra-3rd (8.6%)40 Indian Billionaires (Asia’s Top Spot) worth $170 Billion (Ref. US Business Magazine Forbes) Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 79
    79. 79. They should have got at least one Nobel Prize each Srinivasa Ramanujam,(1887 – 1920): Great Indian Mathematician, whose interest from academics at Trinity, College, Cambridge, led him to collaborate there and postulate and prove well over 3,542 theorems. Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose, (1858 – 1937) USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century old suspicion amongst academics that the pioneer of wireless-radio communication was Professor Jagdish Chandra Bose and not Guglielmo Marconi. Dr. Satyendranath Bose, (1894-1974) Indian Physicist, who solved one of the mysteries of quantum mechanics, showing that in the quantum world some particles are indistinguishable. His collaborations with Albert Einstein led to a new branch on statistical mechanics know commonly known as the “Bose-Einstein” statistics. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 80
    80. 80. They should have got at least one Nobel Prize each Srinivasa Ramanujam, (22 Dec 1887 – 26 Apr 1920) Mathematical Analysis, Number Theory, Infinite Series and Continued Fractions.Littlewood: "I can believe that hes at least a Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi",Hardy said he "can compare him only with [Leonhard] Euler or Jacobi.“1918 – one of the youngest Fellows in the entire history of Royal Society.1729: The smallest nontrivial number, i.e., the smallest number representable in two ways as a sum of two cubes. It is given by1729 1729 = 13 + 123 = 93 + 103. Ramanujan is generally hailed as an all-time great mathematician, like Leonhard Euler, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, for his natural mathematical genius. A prize for young mathematicians from developing countries has been created in the name of Ramanujan by the International Centre for Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 81 Theoretical Physics (ICTP), in cooperation with the International
    81. 81. They should have got at least one Nobel Prize each Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose, (30 Nov 1858 – 23 Nov 1937) a physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, and writer of science fiction. Pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, Made very significant contributions to plant science, Laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent. One of the fathers of radio science, Father of Bengali science fiction. First from the Indian subcontinent to get a US patent, in 1904.Neville Francis Mott, Nobel Laureate in 1977 for his own contributions to solid-state electronics, remarked that "J.C. Bose was at least 60 years ahead of histime" and "In fact, he had anticipated the existence of P-type and N-typesemiconductors." Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 82
    82. 82. They should have got at least one Nobel Prize each Dr. Satyendranath Bose, (1 Jan 1894 - 4 Feb 1974) Mathematical Physics, worked on Quantum Mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose-Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate. He is honored as the namesake of the boson. Although more than one Nobel Prize was awarded for research related to the concepts of the boson, Bose-Einstein statistics and Bose-Einstein condensate—the latest being the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics, which was given for advancing the theory of Bose- Einstein condensates, Bose himself was never awarded the Nobel Prize. Bose spoke several languages and could also play the Esraj, a musical instrument similar to a violin.In 1924, he spent a year in France and worked with Marie Curie, and metseveral other well-known scientists. He then spent another year abroad,working with Einstein in Berlin. His work ranged from X-raycrystallography to unified field theories. He also published an equation ofstate for real gases with Megh Nad Saha. to us from all Directions- Rig Veda Let Noble Thoughts Come 83
    83. 83. They should have got at least one Nobel Prize each Megh Nad Saha, (6 Oct 1893 – 16 Feb 1956) Astro Physicist Saha Equation: used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.Invented an instrument to measure the weight and pressure of solar rays."The impetus given to astrophysics by Saha’s work can scarcely beoverestimated, as nearly all later progress in this field has been influenced byit and much of the subsequent work has the character of refinements ofSaha’s ideas." - S. Rosseland. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 84
    84. 84. They should have got at least one Nobel Prize each Yellapragada SubbaRow born in India in 1895 and he died in USA in 1948 at the young age of 53.1923 Graduated from Madras Medical College1923 USA, worked at Harvard Medical School until3 went to Lederle Laboratories to direct its medical research. DiscoveriesPolymyxin widely used even today in cattle-feed andAureomycin the first of tetracycline antibiotics which all of us have had some time or the other in our lives. Tetracyclines have saved millions of lives over the last 50 years.Folic acid isolated from liver and a microbial source and then synthesized it in 1945.Methotrexate used widely for alleviating the suffering from Burkitt’s lymphoma, one kind of cancer Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 85
    85. 85. They should have got at least one Nobel Prize each Yellapragada SubbaRow born in India in 1895 and he died in USA in 1948 at the young age of 53.Discoveries ofAureomycin the first of tetracycline antibiotics which all of us have had some time or the other in our lives. Tetracyclines have saved millions of lives over the last 50 years.Aureomycin was presented to medicine in 1948, the year SubbaRow died. It was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic, that is, one effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative germs. It was thus more powerful than either Fleming’s penicillin or Waksman’s streptomycin. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 86
    86. 86. Indian Nobel Laureates Sir C.V. Raman, (1888 – 1970) 1930 - Nobel Laureate in Physics for work on scattering of light and Raman effect. Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, (1910-1995): 1983 Nobel Laureate in Physics. His many contributions V.S.Naipaul to physics, on the structure and evolution of stars including 2001 for rotational figures of equilibrium, stellar interiors, black holes, literature radiative transfer, hydromagnetic stability, stellar dynamics.Har Gobind Khorana, (b-1922 ):1968 - Nobel Laureate in Medicine for work oninterpretation of the genetic code . Currentlyresiding as professor at MIT. Rabindranath Tagore, Amartya Sen, (b-1933): 1913 - for Literature 1998 - The Nobel Prize for Economics for his redefining work on ethical welfare economics. Currently residing as Lamont University Professor Emeritus at Harvard, after stepping down from the prestigious post of Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. to us from all Directions- Rig Veda Let Noble Thoughts Come 87
    87. 87. Nobel Prize for 1 DiscoveryWilhelm Roentgen for x-rays,Marie Curie for radium,P M S Blackett for cosmic rays,Ronald Ross for the life cycle of the malarial parasite,Alexander Fleming for penicillin Nobel Prize for 2 DiscoveriesAlbert Einstein for the photoelectric effect and the theory of relativityJohn Bardeen for transistors and super-conductivity,Hargobind Khurana for the genetic code and synthesis of gene.Robert Woodward more discoveries in 1 field organic chemistry Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 88
    88. 88. No Nobel Prize for 1 Discovery Jonas Salk who made the first polio vaccine, Michael Heidelberger the father of modern immunology, G N Ramachandran who discovered the structure of collagen, the most abundant protein in our body and also laid the foundations for CT scan and NMR technologies. No Nobel Prize for 2 or 3 DiscoveriesDr. Jagdish Chandra Bose Plants, Metals, Radio, MicrowavesYellapragada SubbaRow Such an individual is perhapsborn once in a thousand years or more. I do not believe there is any otherperson in the documented history of biology and medicine over the last 5,000years who made such a large number of basic discoveries that are applied sowidely. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 89
    89. 89. Role Models for Indian Youth Mata Durga Our Veer Jawans, Freedom Fighters who protected our freedom Mata Saraswati Sages, Scholars, Kavis who gave us knowledge & Culture Mata Laxmi Our Scientists & Industrialists who enriched us Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 90
    90. 90. Unrecognised Indian Scientists in USAYallapragada Subbarao Aureomycin, presented to the medical world in 1948, should have won him the Nobel Prize. Dr Rangaswamy Srinivasan, Lasik eye surgery, only Indian to feature in the US National Inventors Hall of Fame in the company of greats such as Edison, Ford, Disney, Nobel and the Wright Brothers Dr Praveen Chaudhari Rewritable compact disc (CD-RW), Dr Shiv Subramanya Coordinator or Joint Coordinator of all US Space Projects for 20 years in 70s and 80s. USA honored him with their highest National award Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 91
    91. 91. Great Indian Modern Scientists M. Visveshvaraiyya Engineer of Bharat Metroman Sreedharan Dams, Roads, …. Konkan Rlys, Delhi Metro Dr R.A. Mahshelkar Dr. Varghese Kurien Scientific Advisor Milk Revolution Dr. Jayant Narlikar Dr. M.S.Swaminathan Shyam Pitroda Agriculture Revolution Telephone Revolution Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 92
    92. 92. India’s Super Computers PARAM 1 0000 Fas tes t in As ia Param Aanant Low Cost Super Computer for Educational, Research & Business Institutes. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 93
    93. 93. Incredible India: Pharmaceuticals The Indian pharmaceutical industry at $6.5 billion and growing at 8-10% annually, is the 4th largest pharmaceutical industry in the world, and is expected to be worth $12 billion by 2008. Its exports are over $2 billion. India is among the top five bulk drug makers and at home, the local industry has edged out the Multi- National companies whose share of 75% in the market is down to 35%. Trade of medicinal plants has crossed $900M already. There are 170 biotechnology companies in India, involved in the development and manufacture of genomic drugs, whose business is growing exponentially. Sequencing genes and delivering genomic information for big Pharmaceutical companies is the next boom industry in India. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 94
    94. 94. Incredible India Foreign Multi-National Companies (Job Opportunities & Patents)Top 5 American employers in India as on 2002: General Electric: : 17,800 employees Hewlett-Packard : 11,000 employees IBM : 6,000 employees American Express : 4,000 employees Dell : 3,800 employees General Electric (GE) in India employs 16,000 staff, 1,600 R&D staff who are qualified with PhD’s and Master’s degrees. Largest Research outfit outside USA. Fundamental research in areas such as nanotechnology, hydrogen energy, photonics, and advanced propulsion. The number of patents filed in USA by the Indian entities of some of the MNCs (upto September, 2002) are as follows: Texas Instruments - 225, Intel - 125, Cisco Systems - 120, IBM - 120, Phillips - 102, GE - 95. (about 800) Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 95
    95. 95. India: BPO The domestic BPO sector is projected to increase to $4 billion in 2004 and reach $65 billion by 2010. (McKinsey & Co.). The outsourcing includes a wide range of services including design, architecture, management, legal services, Accounting and drug development and the Indian BPOs are moving up in the value chain. There are about 200 call centers in India with a turnover of $2 billion and a workforce of 150,000. 100 of the Fortune 500 are now present in India compared to 33 in China. Cummins of USA uses its R&D Centre in Pune to develop the sophisticated computer models needed to design upgrades and prototypes electronically and introduce 5 or 6 new engine models a year. Business Week of 8th December 2003 has said "Quietly but with breathtaking speed, India and its millions of world-class engineering, business and medical graduates are becoming enmeshed in Americas New Economy in ways most of us barely imagine". Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 96
    96. 96. Indians in the USA. Statistics that show: 38% of doctors in the USA, 12% of scientists in the USA, 36% of NASA scientists, 34% of Microsoft employees, 28% of IBM employees, US H1-B Visa 17% of INTEL scientists, applicants country 13% of XEROX employees, of origin  1.  India 44% … are Indians.  2.  China 9%  3.  Britain 5%  4.  Philippines 3% Of the 1.5M Indians living in the USA, 1/5th of them live in the Silicon Valley.  5.  Canada 3%  6.  Taiwan 2% 35% of Silicon Valley start-ups are by Indians.  7.  Japan 2%  8.  Germany 2% Indian students are the largest in number among foreign students in USA.  9.  Pakistan 2%  10. France 2% Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 97
    97. 97. “IIT = Harvard + MIT + Princeton” “IIT = Harvard + MIT + Princeton” , says CBS ‘60 Minutes’. CBS highly-regarded ‘60 Minutes’, the most widely watched news programme in the US,told its audience of more than 10 Million viewers that “IIT may be the most important university youve never heard of.""The United States imports oil from Saudi Arabia, cars from Japan, TVs from Korea andWhiskey from Scotland. So what do we import from India? We import people, really smartpeople," co-host Leslie Stahl began while introducing the segment on IIT.“…the smartest, the most successful, most influential Indians whovemigrated to the US seem to share a common credential:They are graduates of the IIT.” “…in science and technology, IIT undergraduates leave their American counterparts in the dust.“ “Think about that for a minute: A kid from India using an Ivy League university as a safety school. Thats how smart these guys are.” There are “cases where students who couldnt get into computer science at IIT, they have gotten scholarships at MIT, at Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 98 Princeton, at Caltech.”
    98. 98. 1. The nuclear deal is an agreement between India and the US for the US government to supply nuclear fuel and reactors to India. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy CommissionContrary to common perception, the nuclear deal or the 123 Agreement is nota commitment on the part of the US government to provide us withuranium or nuclear reactors. Presently American law prohibits nuclearcooperation with India because we have not signed the Non-ProliferationTreaty (NPT). All the nuclear deal does is to grant a waiver from thatlaw, so that American companies can now pursue nuclear trade withIndia. However, if India conducts a test at any time, the waiver is revoked. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 99 all Directions- Rig Veda
    99. 99. 2. Imported uranium and nuclear reactors will be cheap and cost-effective. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission Even if the nuclear deal is made operational, the actual sale of uranium and nuclear reactors will be governed by market forces – there are no guarantees of cheap or competitive nuclear power. To the contrary, there is every reason to believe that it will be expensive. The cost of uranium in the international market has gone up four-fold in the last few years, and will rise further with further demand. The same is true of the cost of steel and other materials used in a reactor. Manpower costs are much higher in the West. The example of the Dhabol power plant has already shown us that importing power plants from the West is not necessarily a viable option. We would do well to learn from that experience. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 100 all Directions- Rig Veda
    100. 100. 3. The nuclear deal will safeguard our energy security. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission It is true that nuclear energy is green energy, and therefore essential for our long-term energy security. But this does not translate into the nuclear deal will ensure our energy security. Power from the nuclear reactors that we buy will definitely be more expensive than indigenous nuclear power. Further, to keep the reactors running, we will always be dependent on imported uranium, which is controlled by a cartel – the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Therefore, the nuclear deal, by making us dependent on the cartel, will only compromise our energy security. Only our indigenous nuclear power program can truly ensure our energy security. And in any case, for the next few decades, nuclear power will not exceed 6% of our total electricity production. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 101 all Directions- Rig Veda
    101. 101. 4. Importing nuclear plants is a quick-fix solution to the present power crisis. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission Nuclear technology is sensitive. Even if the nuclear deal goes through, it willtake time to buy and setup new reactors. We have examples of the Frenchreactors in China, and the Russian reactors in Kudankulam, India. Itwill actually take longer to setup foreign reactors compared toindigenous ones. Just the negotiations and legal formalities could take years.It will be at least eight years before we see the first power. So importingreactors is certainly no quick solution. For the short term, we will still have torely on coal and hydroelectricity. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 102 all Directions- Rig Veda
    102. 102. 5. The nuclear deal does not stop India from further nuclear testing, and therefore does not compromise our national security. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission It is very clearly stated in the 123 Agreement it will be subject tonational laws, and the Hyde Act is a law of the US. Therefore, the 123Agreement is certainly circumscribed by the Hyde Act, which veryclearly states that if India tests a nuclear device, all further nuclear tradeis to stop, and the nuclear materials that have already been sold to ushave to be returned. No future Indian government would dare tojeopardise such a huge investment in nuclear power, by testing. So, forall practical purposes the nuclear deal caps our strategic programme –which is precisely what the Americans intend. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 103 all Directions- Rig Veda
    103. 103. 6. We can pass a national law to counteract the Hyde Act, and this will protect our strategic programme. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission Just as the Hyde Act is not binding on us, our laws are not binding on the US. We can certainly amend our Atomic Energy Act to enable participation of the private sector in nuclear power. But if we pass a law saying that we will retain the right to test, it will have no influence on the actions of the US. If and when we test, they can simply quote the 123 Agreement and the Hyde Act, and pull out all their nuclear materials, leaving us devastated. The only option here is to renegotiate the 123 Agreement and have the clause inserted there. However, the Americans are unlikely to agree to this, since it goes against their non-proliferation policy. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 104 all Directions- Rig Veda
    104. 104. 7. The nuclear deal and the safeguards agreement give India the status of a nuclear power. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission While the 18 July 2005 Joint Statement did indeed talk about Indiabeing treated as an equal by the US, neither the 123 Agreement nor theIAEA Safeguards Agreement, have borne out those optimisticstatements. In fact, the IAEA safeguards agreement that has beennegotiated is closely based on the model agreement that IAEA has fornon-nuclear weapon states. The safeguards agreements that the nuclearweapon countries have signed with the IAEA require them to put veryfew reactors under safeguards, and allow them to take reactors out ofsafeguards. India, however, will have to place most of its reactors undersafeguards for perpetuity. Therefore we are certainly not being treatedas a nuclear weapons country. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 105 all Directions- Rig Veda
    105. 105. 8. Without the nuclear deal, we cannot get adequate uranium for our domestic nuclear programme. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission The Department of Atomic Energy has always maintained that we have enough indigenous uranium for 10,000 MW of nuclear power for 30 years. We are not yet close to that number. The present mismatch in uranium availability for operating reactors is a consequence of poor planning, and inadequate prospecting and mining. There is talk of importing 40,000 MW of nuclear power, which will cost not less than $100 billion or Rs. 4 lakh crores. If even 10% of this money were spent on uranium mining in existing mines in Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya, on searching for new uranium deposits, and negotiating with non-NSG countries, there will be enough uranium for a robust indigenous nuclear power programme, until such time as thorium reactors takes over. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 106 all Directions- Rig Veda
    106. 106. 9. The safeguards agreement with the IAEA guarantees fuel supplies even if India conducts a nuclear test. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission The safeguards agreement only notes, in the preamble, that Indias concurrence to the safeguards is linked to getting fuel supplies. However, the IAEA has no role in this matter, and certainly, no such commitment is given in the safeguards agreement. It also notes that India may take corrective measures in the event of a disruption of foreign fuel supplies. It does not specify what these measures will be, it does not provide for any role for the IAEA in this, and it does not bestow legitimacy on any such measures that India may take. It may well be that any such measures that we suggest, such as importing fuel from another country, will be disallowed by the nuclear cartel (the NSG). The only tangible corrective measure is for India to explore and mine more uranium, and to enhance the enrichment capability to provide fuel for those reactors. The latter is subject to uncertainty. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 107 all Directions- Rig Veda
    107. 107. • The nuclear deal has no impact on our foreign policy. Dr P. K. Iyengar Chairman (Retd.), Atomic Energy Commission The Hyde Act states clearly that it is the policy of the US to secure Indias cooperation on anumber of issues involving Iran, including its capability to reprocess nuclear fuel (in spite of thefact that Iran, as an NPT signatory, has the right to enrich uranium for use in light-waterreactors). This has nothing to do with the nuclear deal, and can only be related to influencingour foreign policy. Recent statements by Gary Ackerman, Chairman of the US House ForeignAffairs Committee, regarding Indo-Iran gas pipeline, only add fuel to such suspicions. It can therefore be seen, that the Indo-US nuclear deal is not in the national interest. Itpresents the very serious danger of capping our strategic programme. That alone is reasonenough not to go forward with the deal. Additionally, it does not guarantee the energy securitythat we are seeking, and, in fact, may only end up making us as vulnerable to the nuclear cartel,as we are today to the oil cartel. It is easy to see why the US wants this deal so badly. At virtually no cost, since there is nocommitment towards fuel supplies, they can cap our strategic programme, bring us into theNPT net, through the back door, as a non-nuclear power, keep a close eye on our nuclearactivities, including R&D, through intrusive IAEA inspections, and subjugate us to the wishesof the nuclear cartel. If there were no cartel, we could have easily extended the Kudankulamagreement for more reactors, and avoided the present situation. If these are not reasons enoughnot to go ahead with the nuclear deal, then there are no reasons that reason can find. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 108 all Directions- Rig Veda
    108. 108. 3rd Criteria for Super PowerMust be a land of Wealth Creators Mata Laxmi, Kuber, Ravan,Temples (Somnath), Kolar Gold Fields, Bhama Shah Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 109
    109. 109. Builders of Modern Bharat Jamshedji Tata JRD Tata Bhama Shah Tatas Gave us • Indian Institute of Science • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research TIFR • Tata Institute of Social Sciences TISS • Air India, New India Assurance Company • Tisco, Telco, Tea, textiles, chemicals, Power, Dhirubhai G.D.Birla Ambani Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 110
    110. 110. Hindu Rate of Growth9% Hindu or India’s Rate of Growth and 13% in Gujarat is one of the fastest in the world.Figures for the year 2004-05 in Rs. CroresGross Domestic Savings Rs. 907,416 Crores(Share in GDS: Govt Sector: 2.2 % Private Sector: 4.8% )Share of Household Sector Rs. 687,079 Crores 76% of GDSForeign Investment Rs. 67,249 Crores *{7.4% of GDS} (Direct Investment Rs. 25,395 Cr + Portfolio Investment Rs. 41,854 Cr) (NRI Remittances: Rs. 110,000 Crores *{12.12% of GDS}Who sustains our Growth Indian Housewives Household Savings of Rs. 687,079 Crores is sustaining Bharat’s economy.The countrys growth is fully due to the peoples efforts and particularly of the households and, especially, the frugal attitude of housewives who wage a battle day in and day out against inflation.(The author R.Vaidyanathan is Professor of Finance and Control, Indian Institute of Management-Bangalore, and can be contacted at vaidya@iimb.ernet.in). Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 111
    111. 111. Hindu Rate of GrowthTimes of India 15 Aug, 2007 Amdavad editionFor the year 2006-07$ 15 Billion Foreign Direct Investment last year (FDI)$ 6.6 Billion net Foreign Institutional Investment (FII)$ 70 Billion Investment by Indian Banks and Financial Institutions for 1054 Projects (Rs. 2.83 lac Crores) Full credit to common man. This is more than double the Rs. 1.31 lac Crore ($34 Billion) sanctioned for 812 projects in the previous year.• FDI: Part of the FDI was used for Acquisitions rather than creating new capacity• FII flows by definition do not add to Productive Assets.• 37% of Indian investment will flow into Infra Structure (Power, Telecom, Petroleum) Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 112
    112. 112. Hindu Rate of GrowthAll in a Year 2007Sensex rose by 47.1% 6,500 pointsNSE Nifty vaulted by 2,172 pts or 54.76%Market cap rose by Rs 35 lakh crore to Rs 71,87,800 croreFIIs invested $17.23 bn ($8 B in 2006) Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 113
    113. 113. India’s Richest 10 #1: Laxmi Niwas Mittal, 10% of World’s - Steel - 45 B $ in 2008 Steel Production. Richest in Europe#2: Mukesh Ambani #3: Anil AmbaniPetro Chemicals 43 B$ 2008 Diversified industries, 42 B$, 2008Richest in Asia Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 114
    114. 114. India’s Richest 10 #4: Kushal Pal SinghIndustry / DLF Real Estate 30 B$, 2008 #5: Shashi & Ravi Ruia, Telecom, #6: Azim Premji of Wipro#5: Sunil Mittal, Industry, Software, 13.8 B $Telecom, 19.7 B$ Aug 10, 2007Aug 10, 2007 Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 115 all Directions- Rig Veda
    115. 115. India’s Richest 10 #7: Kumar Birla, Commodities, 6.8 B$. India’s largest Copper and Alluminium Producer #9: Ramesh Chandra, Real Estate, 5.3 B$ #8: Tulsi Tanti, Wind Energy, 5.9B$ #10: Pallonji Mistry, Construction, 4.9 B$ Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 116
    116. 116. India’s Rich Billionaires - 2008• Laxmi Mittal 004 1. GM Rao 198• Mukesh Ambani 005 2. Indu Jain 236• Anil Ambani 006 3. Dilip Sanghvi 260• K.P.Singh 008 4. Jaiprakash Gaur 277• Shashi & Ravi Ruia 043 5. Shiv Nadar 277• Azim Premji 060 6. Uday Kotak 288• Sunil Mittal 064 7. Cyrus Poonawala 307• Kumar Birla 076 8. Anand Jain 327• Ramesh Chandra 086 9. Chandru Raheja 368• Gautam Adani 091 10. Tulsi Tani 368• Savitri Jindal 110 11. Rakesh Wadhawan 428• Anil Agarwal 164 12. Sameer Gehlaut IIT- India Bulls 1.2B$• Adi Godrej 178 Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 117
    117. 117. 4 of 8 World’s Richests are Indians Karlo Duniya Mutheemein World’s Richest Businessmen• ($62B) Warren Buffet USA• ($60 B) Carlos Slim Helu Mexico• ($58 B) Bill Gates USA• ($45 B) Lakshmi Mittal UK/ India Ambani Bros together can buy the stock Exchange of• ($43 B) Mukesh Ambani Bharat Karachi and still be richer• ($42 B) Anil Ambani Bharat by a few billion $.• ($31 B) Ingvar Kamprad Sweden Ambani Bros together are• ($30 B) K.P.Singh Bharat richer than World’s No. 1. Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 118
    118. 118. Karlo Duniya Mutheemein World’s Richest Indian Businessmen• 4 ($45 B) Laxmi Niwas Mittal Arcelor Mittal India has• 5 ($43 B) Mukesh Ambani Reliance Energy retained its• 6 ($42 B) Anil Ambani Reliance Mobile position as• 8 ($30 B) K.P.Singh DLF the top source of• 43 ($15 B) Shashi & Ravi Ruia Essar Group billionaires in• 60 ($12.7 B) Azim Premji Wipro Asia with• 64 ($11.8 B) Sunil Mittal Airtel total 53• 76 ($10.2 B) Kumar Birla Aditya Birla Grp persons,• 86 ($9.6 B) Ramesh Chandra Unitech who have a• 91 ($9.3 B) Gautam Adani Adani cumulative Group networth of $340.9• 110 ($8.2 B) Savitri Jindal billion on• 164 ($6 B) Anil Agarwal Vedanta Forbes’ 2008• 178 ($5.5 B) Adi Godrej Godrej• 198 ($5.2 B) G.M.Rao Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda Let GMR 119
    119. 119. •Highest GDS (Gross Domestic Savings) in the world (due to Hindu Reasons for Hindu Rate of GrowthFamily System). GDS is about 30% of GDP.•Remittances from Overseas Hindus is Highest in the world $440.5 Mn(about Rs 2100 Crore) in 2007-08 as against just $72.8 Mn (Rs 350 Crore)in 2006-07 a rise of 505% in a year.•Also remittances have touched $380.4 Mn (Rs 1800 Crore) in 5 months(April-Aug) of 2008-09 under Liberalised Remittances Scheme (LRS) forresident individuals despite market meltdowns and financial crisis.•Disinvestments by Arun Shourie (Loss making firms like SBI, SAIL,ONGC are now in Fortune 300 Companies.•Computerization of Banks, Railways, Insurances, Stock Exchanges,•Huge Profits in IT Sector, Pharmaceuticals, Automobiles, Diamonds,Machineries,•Huge Profits thru sale of Super Computers, Satellites,•Entering World Markets•Bharat 2020: Bharat will still be a young country 70% is below 35 yrs of age 55% Letbelow is Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 25 yrs 120 35% is below 19 yrs of age
    120. 120. Reasons for Hindu Rate of Growth•Highest GDS (Gross Domestic Savings) in the world (due to HinduFamily System). GDS is about 30% of GDP.•Remittances from Overseas Hindus is Highest in the world $440.5 Mn(about Rs 2100 Crore) in 2007-08 as against just $72.8 Mn (Rs 350 Crore)in 2006-07 a rise of 505% in a year.•Disinvestments by Arun Shourie (Loss making firms like SBI, SAIL,ONGC are now in Fortune 300 Companies.•Computerization of Banks, Railways, Insurances, Stock Exchanges,•Huge Profits in IT Sector, Pharmaceuticals, Automobiles, Diamonds,Machineries, Huge Profits thru sale of Super Computers, Satellites,•Entering World Markets•Bharat 2020: Bharat will still be a young country 70% is below 35 yrs of age 55% is below 25 yrs 35% is below 19 yrs of age 25% is below 14 yrs of age Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 121
    121. 121. Overseas Remittances for Hindu Rate of Growth•Remittances from Overseas Hindus is Highest in the world.• $440.5 Mn (about Rs 2100 Crore) in 2007-08 as against just $72.8 Mn (Rs350 Crore) in 2006-07 a rise of 505% in a year.•Also remittances have touched $380.4 Mn (Rs 1800 Crore) in 5 months(April-Aug) of 2008-09 under Liberalised Remittances Scheme (LRS) forresident individuals despite market meltdowns and financial crisis. (LRSwas introduced in Feb 2004)•Indians used these remittances towards deposits abroad, purchase ofimmovable property, investment in equity/debt, gifts, education, tours andtravel.•Remittances from Abroad in 2007. India $30 Billion China $27 Billion Mexico $23.8 Billion Let Noble Thoughts Come to us from all Directions- Rig Veda 122