Summer TrainingInternship Report
(19th may -28th June 2014)
Bihar Museum Project Site,Patna,
Dept. of Civil Engg.
About L&T B&F (ECC contractor)
About BCD, BIHAR (client)
About the project
EHS and safety induction policies
Grade slab preparation
Quality Control/Quality Assurance
Internal material Investigation reports
Quality checks photographs
Trial mix designs
I am very thankful to LARSON AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION and BUILDING
CONSTRUCTION DEPT. GOB for having given the opportunity to undertake my summer
training at their prestigious BIHAR INTERNATIONAL MUSEUM PROJECT SITE,
PATNA. It was a very good learning experience of construction practices, equipment;
challenges field test, site execution and supervision. I would like to thank ER. Kamala Kant
Jha, Technical Secretary to Chief Engineer (South) & Technical Secretary to Engineer-in-
Chief who sanctioned my summer training at their BIHAR MUSEUM site, which is one of
the flagship project undertaken by GOVERNMENT OF BIHAR.
I would also like to give heartfelt thanks to Mr Suresh Sethi, Planning Engineer, who
formulated my training schedule and constantly guided me whenever I needed help. And
most importantly I would like to thank Mohanty sir, Abhishek sir (block B), Rangarao and
Prasanto sir (QA/QC) , and all other staffs of L&T B&F who shared their valuable
Date: June 21St 2014
About the L&T construction
Holck-Larsen and Toubro, founded the partnership firm of L&T in 1938,
which was converted into a limited company on February 7, 1946? Today, this has
metamorphosed into one of India's biggest success stories. The company has grown
from humble origins to a large conglomerate spanning engineering and construction.
Larsen & Toubro Construction is India’s largest construction organisation. Many of
the country's prized landmarks - its exquisite buildings, tallest structures, largest
industrial projects, longest flyover, and highest viaducts - have been built by it.
Leading-edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction: civil, mechanical,
electrical and instrumentation.
L&T Construction has played a prominent role in India’s industrial and infrastructure
Development by executing several projects across length and breadth of the country
and abroad. For ease of operations and better project management, in-depth
Technology and business development as well as to focus attention on domestic and
international project execution, entire operation of L&T Construction is structured
into four Independent Companies.
Buildings & Factories IC
Metallurgical & Material Handling IC
Power Transmission & Distribution
Electrical & Automation
Machinery & Industrial Product• Machinery & Industrial Product
BUILDING & FACTORIES
The Buildings & Factories Independent Company is equipped with the domain
Knowledge , requisite expertise and wide-ranging experience to undertake
Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) of all types of building and factory
• Commercial Buildings & Airports
• Residential Buildings & Factories
Before the year 1982, Road Construction, Building Construction and Rural Engineering
Organisation were all under the Public Works Dept. (PWD). In the administrative view,
Public Works Dept. was split into three different departments named: Road Construction
Dept., Building Construction Dept. and Rural Engineering Organisation Dept. by the Cabinet
Secretariat and Co-ordination Department's Memorandum No. CS-2-M2-10157/80-878,
Patna dated 16th March, 1982.
In this way, the Building Construction Department came into existence in the year 1982. Its
head-quarter is located at Visheshwaraiya Bhawan, Jawahar Lal Nehru Marg, Bailey Road,
Patna - 800 015.
1. Planning and designing building network to provide optimized connectivity to residential
and non-residential govt. buildings of different departments.
2. Construction, renovation, upgradation and maintenance of residential and non-residential
govt. buildings of different departments.
About the Project
ProjectName:- Bihar Museum, patna, Bihar
Client:- Building Construction Department, GOB
ECC contractor:- L&T Constructions B&F
Architectural design consultant:- Fumihiko Maki+ and Maki Associates,
Architect of Record: - OPOLIS, Mumbai
Engineering consultants:- Mahendra Raj Consultantprivate Limited.
MEP consultants:- Design Bureau
Budget:- 498.49 crore
Area:- 13.7 acre
Date of start:- 7/9/2013
Date of finish:- 22/3/1015
Location:- At Hartali more, Bailey Road, Patna
Building:- 25000 sq.mof built-up area , all G+1 except administrative
Construction blocks:- Block A to I
Zones:- children’s museum, entrance lobby, auditorium, permanent
About the museum:-
The design of Bihar Museum, Patna has been conceived and developed as a “campus”, an
interconnected landscape of buildings and exterior spaces. Each of the program elements –
entrance and event spaces, museum exhibition spaces, administration, and children’s
educational zone- has been given a distinct presence and recognizable form within the
complex. These programs are linked together via a series of interior and exterior courtyards
and corridors, ensuring that the interior retains a strong sense of connection to the
surrounding landscape. The museum’s exterior is characterized by extensive use of
weathering steel, a durable material that reflects the coloration of its context and creates a
dignified contrast to the surrounding greenery. The weathering steel symbolizes India’s
historical achievements in metallurgy as well as its current and future prominence within the
international steel industry- of which Bihar’s rich natural resources have played a critical
Work involves the complete Foundation works, RCC works, Waterproofing works, Internal
and External Finishing works, MEP works and Site Development works. The site
development area is 13.5 acres and the proposed built up area is 25000 SQM. Majority of
(G+1) structure with a very small portion being G+4.Floor to floor height is ranging from
4.2m to 9.0m. Quality and standard execution to achieve appropriate GRIHA rating.
Structural Finishing: RCC/MS
Flooring: Granite/Rubber/Vitrified tiles/ Wood
Internal Wall Surfaces: Gypsum /Paint/ Wood Panel/ Stone/ Plaster
External Wall Surfaces: Sandstone/ Limestone/ Granite cladding/
Corten steel panels/Terracotta
Ceilings: Gypsum/ Grid Ceilings/ Wood
Doors/ Windows: MS/ TW/ Aluminium/ SS/ Double glazed
External Areas: Green roofs/ Landscape/ Granite Pavements
Roads: Pervious concrete/ paver blocks/ Cobblestones
EHS and safety induction policies
EHS control and activities
Every person should attend safety induction session and obtain PPE(Personal
Protection Equipment) before entering the worksite.
Open rooftops and excavated pits are well barricaded with iron poles and nylon mesh.
Safety instruction is conveyed to works via hoardings, circulars, open sessions with
workers and quizzes.
Use of eye protection equipment to the workers engaged in welding, cutting, chipping
Working above two meters full body harness and anchoring the lanyard of full body
harness to Firm support.
No one is allowed to take rest below any vehicle.
Figure 1 barricadingopen rooftopswithstrutsandNylonmesh
Figure 2 hoarding displaying safety instruction and barricading along excavated pits
Figure 3 Personal protection units (PPE) displayed on site
1. Extruded Polystyrene (EPS or XPS) Insulation
Excellent damp proof performance, which is because EPS is incorporated in walls.
Fire-resistant and toxic-gas-free
2. Cladding Material
Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide a skin or layer intended to
control the infiltration of weather elements, or for aesthetic purposes. Cladding does not
necessarily have to provide a waterproof condition but is instead a control element.
Faster programme times - not affected by weather or labour shortages.
Improves build ability.
Early enclosure of dry envelope enables follow-on trades to start sooner.
Produces a high standard of workmanship in factory conditions - reduces potential for
accidents, addresses on-site skill shortage.
Has a high quality finish that can be left exposed - concrete's thermal properties can
be exploited in low-energy buildings.
Figure 4 Different samples wall cladding material to be employed
Fly ash bricks
Constituentsare cement(10to 15%), stone dust(50to 60%) and restis flyash.
These are machine made bricksmanufacturedbyvibratoryandrollingpress.
These bricksare driedfor 1 to 2 days,and the cured at 24 degC for 21 days.
At museumsite non- modularbricks (230x70x10),whichwascustom made as perorder,are
Class10 bricksbeingused at Biharmuseumsite,here 10 iscompressive strength10N/mm2
Bricks are uniform in shape, therefore less mortar and plaster thickness is required.
It is environment friendly and uses by product from the Electro Static Precipitator
(ESP) of thermal power plant.
Efflorescence value is very low.
Fly ash bricks are also bacterial and fungal resistant.
Low water absorption value (less than 20%), thus fly ash bricks doesn’t absorb water
Better adherence with the mortar because of cement content in fly ash bricks.
High strength fly ash (up to 15 N/mm2) can be obtained, while in case of conventional
clay bricks its up to 5 N/mm2
Execution (block B)
Pile dia-: 500 mm
Pile depth -: 25 meter
Type of pile :- RCC bored cast in-situ by conventional method (DMC method)
Type of cover block: - circular cover block to facilitate lowering.
Clear cover:- 75 mm
Main and helical bars: - as per BBS of that pile no.
Grade of concrete mix :- M30
Slump required:- 150 to 180
Bentonite solution used of specific gravity 1.12 - 1.15 at the time of boring and 1.05
at the time of flushing bored tip, just before concreting.
Steps involved from boring to casting of pedestal
1. Bore hole of required dia up to target depth is bored via mechanical operated auger, in
the presence of Bentonite solution (to facilitate direct mud circulation) of appropriate
specific density (1.12).
2. Cylindrical reinforcement (welded laps and with helical ties) cage is lowered into the
3. Circular cover blocks (75mm clear cover) are used to ease the lowering.
4. Concreting is done with tremie method.
5. Generally concreting is done above required level (cut off level), and later chipped off
, due to high concentration of slush and mud in top layer.
6. A layer of PCC (nominal mix 1:4:8) is casted around pile cap to facilitate
reinforcement of pile cap.
7. Pedestal reinforcement and foundation beam are also done along with pile cap
8. Finally pile cap and foundation beam is casted as a monolithic unit.
9. If combined concreting is not possible dowels are left in pile cap for foundation
Figure 5 PCC layer prior to chipping and pile cap reinforcement
Figure 6 chipping off concrete up to cut off level
Figure 7 pile cap reinforcement in progress. Notice the DOWEL rebar left in already casted pile
Preparationof Grade Slab
1. Compaction (by roller and mechanical vibrator) of soil over which filling is to be
2. Field Dry Density test (by core cutter method) is carried out to check percentage
compaction relative to the MDD (Maximum dry density) value.
3. The respective area is filled up with sand (Ganga sand) up to 200 mm thickness over
well compacted soil.
4. Anti-termite treatment is then done. For which 300 mm depth hole are made in sand
of 20 dia at a spacing of 100 mm. the holes are filled up with anti-termite
solution(Chlorpyrifos) on an avg. of 5 liters per square meters.
5. Above anti-termite treatment, respective area is filled with sand up to 100 mm.
6. Above sand layer boulder layer is filled up up to 300 mm thickness.
7. Boulder gaps are filled with coarse and fine aggregate.
8. Above boulder layer, PCC is laid as per thickness mentioned in GFC drawing.
9. Above PCC, RCC grade slab is laid out.
Illustrative photos regarding various stages of grade slab preparation
Figure 9 anti-termite treatment
Figure 10 reinforcement of RCC grade slab
Flat Slabs are reinforced concrete slab supported directly by concrete columns without the
use of beams.
Figure 11 Flat slabs with drop panel and column head. Slab is thickened around column to
Benefits of flat slab:-
Architectcan introduce partitionwall anywhere required
Lowerstoreyheightwill reduce buildingweightdue tolowerpartitionsandcladding
Flatplate designwill facilitatethe use of bigtable formworkto increase productivity.
Ease of installationMechanicalandElectrical services.
Disadvantages of Flat slabs:-
Punchingshear:- TOresistpunchingshearfailure shearreinforcementinthe formof shear
heads,shearstudsor stirrupcagesare to be embeddedinthe slabtoenhance shear
Buildingswithflatplate designare generallylessrigid.
Frame action isinsufficienttoresistlateral loadsinhighrise buildings.
Project Quality Plan(PQP)
To address all the quality requirements, standards and quality assurance mechanisms in a
project, a document called 'project quality plan' is developed by the project team. This plan
acts as the quality bible for the project and all the stakeholders of the project should adhere to
the project quality plan.
Components of project quality plan:-
This describes how the management is responsible for achieving the project quality.
The project quality plan should describe a way to manage and control the documents
used in the project.
Testing and Quality Assurance
Periodic quality audits to measure the adherence to the quality standards.
Figure 12 Snaps from PQP illustrating quality standards to be implemented
Field quality program:-
A Field Quality Assurance plan refers to the quality document that lists the checks and tests
to be performed on the equipment at the various stages of the erection and commissioning at
It may be broken into two type:
1. Material testing report sent by the manufacturer of the material received at site. It
involves materials like admixture, rebar, grout materials, acid resistant bricks, anti-
termite chemicals, paints, water proofing, XPS foams etc. Quality(chemical and
physical) assessment of the material AT SITE is highly uneconomical, so QA/QC
department has to depend on MATERIAL TESTING REPORTS sent by the
Figure 13 SAIL'sinternal Testing Report: - this report is showingchemical analysis and mechanical
tests like yieldstrength,ultimate tensile strength,Elongationtest, Bend test, Rebendtestetc.
2. Materials testedin QA/QC lab of site:- It includes cement test( fineness,
consistency, initial and final setting time, soundness test, compressive strength etc.),
aggregate tests (sieve analysis, impact test, moisture content, crushing value, bulk
density, flakiness test etc.) water, concrete etc. These tests are to be executed in
accordance to the schedule.
In this test we find out the percentage of the weight of the aggregate sample which gets
crushed with respect to the total weight of the sample. This percentage is known as the
aggregate impact value and more the aggregate impact value less is the toughness of the
road aggregates and vice versa.
Figure 15 Impact value tester in QA/QC lab
FLAKINESS AND ELONGATION INDEX TEST
Flakiness Index is the percentage by weight of particles in it, whose least dimension (i.e. thickness) is
less than three-fifths of its mean dimension. Elongation Index is the percentage by weight of particles
in it, whose largest dimension (i.e. length) is greater than one and four-fifths times its mean
Standard Consistency of Cement
Consistency means amount of water needed to prepare a plastic mix. .It is necessary to find
the consistency because amount of water present in the cement paste may affect the setting
time. Standard consistency is indicated by the vicat plunger reading (5 to 7) from the bottom
Figure 16 Standard Consistency ofcement using Vicat’s apparatus with 10 MM DIA plunger
Initial and final setting time
Initial setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and time at
which 1 mm square section needle fails to penetrate the cement paste, placed in the Vicat’s
mould 5 mm to 7 mm from the bottom of the mould.
Final setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and the time
at which 1 mm needle makes an impression on the paste in the mould but 5 mm attachment
does not make any impression.
Figure 17 Initial setting time determination with 1 MM plunger needle
Figure 20 REJECTED Boulders due to the presence of large Mica content (reddish). This type of boulders, if used in grade
slab, would disintegrate with time.
1 Check if the shutters are properly cleaned by removing the concrete/ mortar and
2 Formworkshall be made tothe exactdimensionswithinthe permissible tolerances
3 Requiredthicknessandqualityof plywoodconformingtoIS6461 shall be usedto
meetthe requirementsof designandsurface finish.
4 For beam bottom & sides, proper size of timber at required spacing shall be
Providedto take the designloads/pressure considering sleeves,conduitanchors&
Erection of formwork
5. Sufficientlyrigidandtighttopreventthe lossof grout or mortar fromthe concrete.
6 Capable of providing concrete of the correct shape and surface finish within the
7. Soffitsformscapable of impartingacamberif required.
8. The formworkmaybe of timber,plywood, steel, plasticorconcrete dependingupon
the type of finishspecified.
9. Erect staging/shutteringasperdrawing/sketchesinsucha waythat de-shutteringcan
be done easilyincludingprovisionforre-propping,if planned.
10. Check the location, line,level,plumb and dimensions of the formwork to ensure
that the deviationsare withinthe permissiblelimits.
11. Provide bracingat properplaces& intervalsasspecifiedbythe manufactureroras per
formwork scheme totake care of lateral loads.
12. Apply mould oil/other coatings as release agents before reinforcement steel is
13. Wire tiespassingthroughbeams, columnsandwallsshall notbe allowed.Intheir
place bolts passing through sleeves shall be used. For liquid retaining structures
, sleeves shall notbe providedforthroughbolts.
14. Checkall the shutters are properly alignedandfixedfirmlywith requiredlateral
15 Checkall the spanningmembers have properbearingatthe supports.
16. Wedgesorjacks shall be securedinpositionafterthe final checkof alignment.
17. Forms shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt,mortar and other matters such as
metals, blocks,saw dustand foreignmaterialsbefore concretingif requiredthrough
18. Checkall the gaps/openingsare properlyclosedtoavoidleakages.
19. Check all the inserts/embedment and openings are exactly placed as per
20. In case of leakages, bulging and sagging immediate actions shall be taken by
tighteningwedgesoradjustingbyjackswhichmustbe done before the concrete takes
its initial set.
21. Formworkcomponentsshall notbe droppedbutshall be loweredwithoutdamage
to the components and structures. All the removedformworkmaterialsshall be
22. All formsshall be removedafterthe minimumperiodstipulatedmentionedbelow
Withoutdamage to the concrete includingremovalwithoutshockasperIS 456
My Learning Experience/Conclusion
It was a wonderful learning experience at L&T Construction B&F’s site of L&T Project for
six weeks in Patna .It was good to be part of L&T and witness their work culture and
standard. I learned a lot of intricacies of site execution.
For a lay man, a construction site may appear in chaotic state but with efficient management
it could be in systematic and orderly, as in the case of L&T’s worksite. At work site I
observed practical application of various engineering departments. I gained a lot of insight of
about supervision and execution, which included Safety, Earthwork, Formwork and
Scaffolding, Reinforcement, Piling, Concreting, QA/QC, Trial mixes and batching plant
Apart from technical stuff, L&T employees shared their invaluable accounts of working at
other worksite. Graduate engineering trainees shared their placement interviews experience
and also suggested helpful career tips. What I liked most was the younger brother like attitude
of employees towards student trainees. I hope these experiences would be cherished for long
time and would help in shaping my career.