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summer Internship report L&T_ Bihar museum_Patna


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Civil engineering Internship report

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summer Internship report L&T_ Bihar museum_Patna

  1. 1. Summer TrainingInternship Report (19th may -28th June 2014) Bihar Museum Project Site,Patna, Submitted by:- Kishore Anand Dept. of Civil Engg. BE/15290/11
  2. 2. Contents  Acknowledgement  Introduction About L&T B&F (ECC contractor) About BCD, BIHAR (client)  About the project  EHS and safety induction policies  Materials  EXECUTION(Block B) Pile foundation Grade slab preparation Flat slabs  Quality Control/Quality Assurance PQP Lab tests Internal material Investigation reports Quality checks photographs  Formwork  Batching Plant Trial mix designs  Conclusion
  3. 3. Acknowledgement I am very thankful to LARSON AND TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION and BUILDING CONSTRUCTION DEPT. GOB for having given the opportunity to undertake my summer training at their prestigious BIHAR INTERNATIONAL MUSEUM PROJECT SITE, PATNA. It was a very good learning experience of construction practices, equipment; challenges field test, site execution and supervision. I would like to thank ER. Kamala Kant Jha, Technical Secretary to Chief Engineer (South) & Technical Secretary to Engineer-in- Chief who sanctioned my summer training at their BIHAR MUSEUM site, which is one of the flagship project undertaken by GOVERNMENT OF BIHAR. I would also like to give heartfelt thanks to Mr Suresh Sethi, Planning Engineer, who formulated my training schedule and constantly guided me whenever I needed help. And most importantly I would like to thank Mohanty sir, Abhishek sir (block B), Rangarao and Prasanto sir (QA/QC) , and all other staffs of L&T B&F who shared their valuable experiences. Kishore Anand Date: June 21St 2014
  4. 4. Introduction About the L&T construction Holck-Larsen and Toubro, founded the partnership firm of L&T in 1938, which was converted into a limited company on February 7, 1946? Today, this has metamorphosed into one of India's biggest success stories. The company has grown from humble origins to a large conglomerate spanning engineering and construction. Larsen & Toubro Construction is India’s largest construction organisation. Many of the country's prized landmarks - its exquisite buildings, tallest structures, largest industrial projects, longest flyover, and highest viaducts - have been built by it. Leading-edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction: civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation. L&T Construction has played a prominent role in India’s industrial and infrastructure Development by executing several projects across length and breadth of the country and abroad. For ease of operations and better project management, in-depth Technology and business development as well as to focus attention on domestic and international project execution, entire operation of L&T Construction is structured into four Independent Companies. Hydrocarbon IC Buildings & Factories IC Infrastructure IC Metallurgical & Material Handling IC Power Transmission & Distribution Heavy Engineering Shipbuilding Power Electrical & Automation Machinery & Industrial Product• Machinery & Industrial Product
  5. 5. BUILDING & FACTORIES The Buildings & Factories Independent Company is equipped with the domain Knowledge , requisite expertise and wide-ranging experience to undertake Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) of all types of building and factory Structures. • Commercial Buildings & Airports • Residential Buildings & Factories Building ConstructionDepartment,GOB HISTORY Before the year 1982, Road Construction, Building Construction and Rural Engineering Organisation were all under the Public Works Dept. (PWD). In the administrative view, Public Works Dept. was split into three different departments named: Road Construction Dept., Building Construction Dept. and Rural Engineering Organisation Dept. by the Cabinet Secretariat and Co-ordination Department's Memorandum No. CS-2-M2-10157/80-878, Patna dated 16th March, 1982. In this way, the Building Construction Department came into existence in the year 1982. Its head-quarter is located at Visheshwaraiya Bhawan, Jawahar Lal Nehru Marg, Bailey Road, Patna - 800 015. OBJECTIVE 1. Planning and designing building network to provide optimized connectivity to residential and non-residential govt. buildings of different departments. 2. Construction, renovation, upgradation and maintenance of residential and non-residential govt. buildings of different departments.
  6. 6. About the Project Project details: ProjectName:- Bihar Museum, patna, Bihar Client:- Building Construction Department, GOB ECC contractor:- L&T Constructions B&F Architectural design consultant:- Fumihiko Maki+ and Maki Associates, Tokyo, Japan Architect of Record: - OPOLIS, Mumbai Engineering consultants:- Mahendra Raj Consultantprivate Limited. MEP consultants:- Design Bureau Budget:- 498.49 crore Area:- 13.7 acre Date of start:- 7/9/2013 Date of finish:- 22/3/1015 Location:- At Hartali more, Bailey Road, Patna Building:- 25000 sq.mof built-up area , all G+1 except administrative block(G+4) Construction blocks:- Block A to I Zones:- children’s museum, entrance lobby, auditorium, permanent exhibition etc. About the museum:- The design of Bihar Museum, Patna has been conceived and developed as a “campus”, an interconnected landscape of buildings and exterior spaces. Each of the program elements – entrance and event spaces, museum exhibition spaces, administration, and children’s educational zone- has been given a distinct presence and recognizable form within the complex. These programs are linked together via a series of interior and exterior courtyards and corridors, ensuring that the interior retains a strong sense of connection to the surrounding landscape. The museum’s exterior is characterized by extensive use of weathering steel, a durable material that reflects the coloration of its context and creates a dignified contrast to the surrounding greenery. The weathering steel symbolizes India’s historical achievements in metallurgy as well as its current and future prominence within the international steel industry- of which Bihar’s rich natural resources have played a critical role.
  7. 7. Work involves the complete Foundation works, RCC works, Waterproofing works, Internal and External Finishing works, MEP works and Site Development works. The site development area is 13.5 acres and the proposed built up area is 25000 SQM. Majority of (G+1) structure with a very small portion being G+4.Floor to floor height is ranging from 4.2m to 9.0m. Quality and standard execution to achieve appropriate GRIHA rating. Basic Finishes: Structural Finishing: RCC/MS Flooring: Granite/Rubber/Vitrified tiles/ Wood Internal Wall Surfaces: Gypsum /Paint/ Wood Panel/ Stone/ Plaster External Wall Surfaces: Sandstone/ Limestone/ Granite cladding/ Corten steel panels/Terracotta Ceilings: Gypsum/ Grid Ceilings/ Wood Doors/ Windows: MS/ TW/ Aluminium/ SS/ Double glazed External Areas: Green roofs/ Landscape/ Granite Pavements /Plantations Roads: Pervious concrete/ paver blocks/ Cobblestones
  8. 8. EHS and safety induction policies EHS control and activities Every person should attend safety induction session and obtain PPE(Personal Protection Equipment) before entering the worksite. Open rooftops and excavated pits are well barricaded with iron poles and nylon mesh. Safety instruction is conveyed to works via hoardings, circulars, open sessions with workers and quizzes. Use of eye protection equipment to the workers engaged in welding, cutting, chipping and grinding. Working above two meters full body harness and anchoring the lanyard of full body harness to Firm support. No one is allowed to take rest below any vehicle. Figure 1 barricadingopen rooftopswithstrutsandNylonmesh
  9. 9. Figure 2 hoarding displaying safety instruction and barricading along excavated pits Figure 3 Personal protection units (PPE) displayed on site
  10. 10. Materials 1. Extruded Polystyrene (EPS or XPS) Insulation  Excellent damp proof performance, which is because EPS is incorporated in walls.  Fire-resistant and toxic-gas-free 2. Cladding Material Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide a skin or layer intended to control the infiltration of weather elements, or for aesthetic purposes. Cladding does not necessarily have to provide a waterproof condition but is instead a control element. Benefits  Faster programme times - not affected by weather or labour shortages.  Improves build ability.  Early enclosure of dry envelope enables follow-on trades to start sooner.  Produces a high standard of workmanship in factory conditions - reduces potential for accidents, addresses on-site skill shortage.
  11. 11.  Has a high quality finish that can be left exposed - concrete's thermal properties can be exploited in low-energy buildings. Figure 4 Different samples wall cladding material to be employed
  12. 12. Fly ash bricks  Constituentsare cement(10to 15%), stone dust(50to 60%) and restis flyash.  These are machine made bricksmanufacturedbyvibratoryandrollingpress.  These bricksare driedfor 1 to 2 days,and the cured at 24 degC for 21 days.  At museumsite non- modularbricks (230x70x10),whichwascustom made as perorder,are beingused.  Class10 bricksbeingused at Biharmuseumsite,here 10 iscompressive strength10N/mm2 Benefits  Bricks are uniform in shape, therefore less mortar and plaster thickness is required.  It is environment friendly and uses by product from the Electro Static Precipitator (ESP) of thermal power plant.  Efflorescence value is very low.  Fly ash bricks are also bacterial and fungal resistant.  Low water absorption value (less than 20%), thus fly ash bricks doesn’t absorb water from mortar.  Better adherence with the mortar because of cement content in fly ash bricks.  High strength fly ash (up to 15 N/mm2) can be obtained, while in case of conventional clay bricks its up to 5 N/mm2 
  13. 13. Execution (block B) Pile Foundation  Pile dia-: 500 mm  Pile depth -: 25 meter  Type of pile :- RCC bored cast in-situ by conventional method (DMC method)  Type of cover block: - circular cover block to facilitate lowering.  Clear cover:- 75 mm  Main and helical bars: - as per BBS of that pile no.  Grade of concrete mix :- M30  Slump required:- 150 to 180  Bentonite solution used of specific gravity 1.12 - 1.15 at the time of boring and 1.05 at the time of flushing bored tip, just before concreting.
  14. 14. Steps involved from boring to casting of pedestal 1. Bore hole of required dia up to target depth is bored via mechanical operated auger, in the presence of Bentonite solution (to facilitate direct mud circulation) of appropriate specific density (1.12). 2. Cylindrical reinforcement (welded laps and with helical ties) cage is lowered into the hole. 3. Circular cover blocks (75mm clear cover) are used to ease the lowering. 4. Concreting is done with tremie method. 5. Generally concreting is done above required level (cut off level), and later chipped off , due to high concentration of slush and mud in top layer. 6. A layer of PCC (nominal mix 1:4:8) is casted around pile cap to facilitate reinforcement of pile cap.
  15. 15. 7. Pedestal reinforcement and foundation beam are also done along with pile cap reinforcement. 8. Finally pile cap and foundation beam is casted as a monolithic unit. 9. If combined concreting is not possible dowels are left in pile cap for foundation beam. Figure 5 PCC layer prior to chipping and pile cap reinforcement Figure 6 chipping off concrete up to cut off level
  16. 16. Figure 7 pile cap reinforcement in progress. Notice the DOWEL rebar left in already casted pile cap (left) Preparationof Grade Slab 1. Compaction (by roller and mechanical vibrator) of soil over which filling is to be done. 2. Field Dry Density test (by core cutter method) is carried out to check percentage compaction relative to the MDD (Maximum dry density) value. 3. The respective area is filled up with sand (Ganga sand) up to 200 mm thickness over well compacted soil. 4. Anti-termite treatment is then done. For which 300 mm depth hole are made in sand of 20 dia at a spacing of 100 mm. the holes are filled up with anti-termite solution(Chlorpyrifos) on an avg. of 5 liters per square meters. 5. Above anti-termite treatment, respective area is filled with sand up to 100 mm. 6. Above sand layer boulder layer is filled up up to 300 mm thickness. 7. Boulder gaps are filled with coarse and fine aggregate. 8. Above boulder layer, PCC is laid as per thickness mentioned in GFC drawing. 9. Above PCC, RCC grade slab is laid out. Illustrative photos regarding various stages of grade slab preparation
  17. 17. Figure 8 boulder layer( 300 mm) above compacted sand
  18. 18. Figure 9 anti-termite treatment Figure 10 reinforcement of RCC grade slab FLAT SLABS Flat Slabs are reinforced concrete slab supported directly by concrete columns without the use of beams.
  19. 19. Figure 11 Flat slabs with drop panel and column head. Slab is thickened around column to resistpunching shear Benefits of flat slab:-  Flexibilityinroomlayout:-  Architectcan introduce partitionwall anywhere required  Savinginbuildingheight:-  Lowerstoreyheightwill reduce buildingweightdue tolowerpartitionsandcladding to façade.  reduce foundationload  Shorterconstructiontime:-  Flatplate designwill facilitatethe use of bigtable formworkto increase productivity.  Ease of installationMechanicalandElectrical services. Disadvantages of Flat slabs:-  Punchingshear:- TOresistpunchingshearfailure shearreinforcementinthe formof shear heads,shearstudsor stirrupcagesare to be embeddedinthe slabtoenhance shear capacity.  Buildingswithflatplate designare generallylessrigid.  Frame action isinsufficienttoresistlateral loadsinhighrise buildings. QA/QC
  20. 20. Project Quality Plan(PQP) To address all the quality requirements, standards and quality assurance mechanisms in a project, a document called 'project quality plan' is developed by the project team. This plan acts as the quality bible for the project and all the stakeholders of the project should adhere to the project quality plan. Components of project quality plan:-  This describes how the management is responsible for achieving the project quality.  The project quality plan should describe a way to manage and control the documents used in the project.  Testing and Quality Assurance  Periodic quality audits to measure the adherence to the quality standards. Figure 12 Snaps from PQP illustrating quality standards to be implemented
  21. 21. Field quality program:- A Field Quality Assurance plan refers to the quality document that lists the checks and tests to be performed on the equipment at the various stages of the erection and commissioning at site. It may be broken into two type: 1. Material testing report sent by the manufacturer of the material received at site. It involves materials like admixture, rebar, grout materials, acid resistant bricks, anti- termite chemicals, paints, water proofing, XPS foams etc. Quality(chemical and physical) assessment of the material AT SITE is highly uneconomical, so QA/QC department has to depend on MATERIAL TESTING REPORTS sent by the manufacturer. Figure 13 SAIL'sinternal Testing Report: - this report is showingchemical analysis and mechanical tests like yieldstrength,ultimate tensile strength,Elongationtest, Bend test, Rebendtestetc. 2. Materials testedin QA/QC lab of site:- It includes cement test( fineness, consistency, initial and final setting time, soundness test, compressive strength etc.), aggregate tests (sieve analysis, impact test, moisture content, crushing value, bulk density, flakiness test etc.) water, concrete etc. These tests are to be executed in accordance to the schedule.
  22. 22. Figure 14 FieldQuality Plan for cement
  23. 23. LAB TESTS AGGREGATE TEST In this test we find out the percentage of the weight of the aggregate sample which gets crushed with respect to the total weight of the sample. This percentage is known as the aggregate impact value and more the aggregate impact value less is the toughness of the road aggregates and vice versa.
  24. 24. Figure 15 Impact value tester in QA/QC lab FLAKINESS AND ELONGATION INDEX TEST Flakiness Index is the percentage by weight of particles in it, whose least dimension (i.e. thickness) is less than three-fifths of its mean dimension. Elongation Index is the percentage by weight of particles in it, whose largest dimension (i.e. length) is greater than one and four-fifths times its mean dimension.
  25. 25. CEMENT TEST Standard Consistency of Cement Consistency means amount of water needed to prepare a plastic mix. .It is necessary to find the consistency because amount of water present in the cement paste may affect the setting time. Standard consistency is indicated by the vicat plunger reading (5 to 7) from the bottom of mould.
  26. 26. Figure 16 Standard Consistency ofcement using Vicat’s apparatus with 10 MM DIA plunger Initial and final setting time Initial setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and time at which 1 mm square section needle fails to penetrate the cement paste, placed in the Vicat’s mould 5 mm to 7 mm from the bottom of the mould.
  27. 27. Final setting time is that time period between the time water is added to cement and the time at which 1 mm needle makes an impression on the paste in the mould but 5 mm attachment does not make any impression.
  28. 28. Figure 17 Initial setting time determination with 1 MM plunger needle
  29. 29. Compressive test of cement
  30. 30. Figure 18 Casting ofConcrete Mortar cube using sands ofGrade I, II and III.
  31. 31. Quality checks photographs Figure 19 Poor compaction beneath PCC of plinth beam
  32. 32. Figure 20 REJECTED Boulders due to the presence of large Mica content (reddish). This type of boulders, if used in grade slab, would disintegrate with time.
  33. 33. Formworkand scaffolding Pre Check 1 Check if the shutters are properly cleaned by removing the concrete/ mortar and Protrudingnails. 2 Formworkshall be made tothe exactdimensionswithinthe permissible tolerances as mentionedbelow. 3 Requiredthicknessandqualityof plywoodconformingtoIS6461 shall be usedto meetthe requirementsof designandsurface finish. 4 For beam bottom & sides, proper size of timber at required spacing shall be Providedto take the designloads/pressure considering sleeves,conduitanchors& Inserts. Erection of formwork 5. Sufficientlyrigidandtighttopreventthe lossof grout or mortar fromthe concrete. 6 Capable of providing concrete of the correct shape and surface finish within the Specifiedtolerancelimits. 7. Soffitsformscapable of impartingacamberif required.
  34. 34. 8. The formworkmaybe of timber,plywood, steel, plasticorconcrete dependingupon the type of finishspecified. 9. Erect staging/shutteringasperdrawing/sketchesinsucha waythat de-shutteringcan be done easilyincludingprovisionforre-propping,if planned. 10. Check the location, line,level,plumb and dimensions of the formwork to ensure that the deviationsare withinthe permissiblelimits. 11. Provide bracingat properplaces& intervalsasspecifiedbythe manufactureroras per formwork scheme totake care of lateral loads. 12. Apply mould oil/other coatings as release agents before reinforcement steel is placed. 13. Wire tiespassingthroughbeams, columnsandwallsshall notbe allowed.Intheir place bolts passing through sleeves shall be used. For liquid retaining structures , sleeves shall notbe providedforthroughbolts. 14. Checkall the shutters are properly alignedandfixedfirmlywith requiredlateral supportsandties. 15 Checkall the spanningmembers have properbearingatthe supports. 16. Wedgesorjacks shall be securedinpositionafterthe final checkof alignment. 17. Forms shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt,mortar and other matters such as metals, blocks,saw dustand foreignmaterialsbefore concretingif requiredthrough Clean-outopenings. 18. Checkall the gaps/openingsare properlyclosedtoavoidleakages. 19. Check all the inserts/embedment and openings are exactly placed as per the drawings. 20. In case of leakages, bulging and sagging immediate actions shall be taken by tighteningwedgesoradjustingbyjackswhichmustbe done before the concrete takes its initial set. Removal ofForms
  35. 35. 21. Formworkcomponentsshall notbe droppedbutshall be loweredwithoutdamage to the components and structures. All the removedformworkmaterialsshall be thoroughlyscarped,cleanedimmediatelyandstackedproperly forreuse. 22. All formsshall be removedafterthe minimumperiodstipulatedmentionedbelow Withoutdamage to the concrete includingremovalwithoutshockasperIS 456 Batching plant
  36. 36. My Learning Experience/Conclusion It was a wonderful learning experience at L&T Construction B&F’s site of L&T Project for six weeks in Patna .It was good to be part of L&T and witness their work culture and standard. I learned a lot of intricacies of site execution. For a lay man, a construction site may appear in chaotic state but with efficient management it could be in systematic and orderly, as in the case of L&T’s worksite. At work site I observed practical application of various engineering departments. I gained a lot of insight of about supervision and execution, which included Safety, Earthwork, Formwork and Scaffolding, Reinforcement, Piling, Concreting, QA/QC, Trial mixes and batching plant operation. Apart from technical stuff, L&T employees shared their invaluable accounts of working at other worksite. Graduate engineering trainees shared their placement interviews experience and also suggested helpful career tips. What I liked most was the younger brother like attitude of employees towards student trainees. I hope these experiences would be cherished for long time and would help in shaping my career.