Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Motivation
  2. 2. The Concept of Motivation • Motivation - the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior • Forces either intrinsic or extrinsic to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence • Employee motivation affects productivity • A manager’s job is to channel motivation toward the accomplishment of goals Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. 16.1 A Simple Model of Motivation Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. Content Perspectives on Motivation If managers understand employees’ needs, they can design appropriate reward systems  Needs motivate people  Needs translate into an internal drive that motivates behavior  People have a variety of needs Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 16–5 Early Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • MacGregor’s Theories X and Y • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
  6. 6. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 16–6 Early Theories of Motivation • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory – Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to higher-order needs. • Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. • Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. • Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. – Hierarchy of needs • Lower-order (external): physiological, safety • Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization
  7. 7. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 16–7 Exhibit 16–1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  8. 8. 16.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 16–9 Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y – Theory X • Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. – Theory Y • Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. – Assumption: • Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
  10. 10. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 16–10 Early Theories of Motivation (cont’d) • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory – Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. • Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. • Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. – Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. • The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
  11. 11. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 16–11 Exhibit 16–2 Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
  12. 12. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 16–12 Exhibit 16–3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction- Dissatisfaction
  13. 13. Acquired Needs  Need for achievement  Need for affiliation  Need for power Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. Process Perspectives on Motivation How people select behavioral actions  Goal Setting Theory  Equity Theory  Expectancy Theory Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. Goal Setting Theory • Increase motivation by setting goals • Key components of the theory: » Goal specificity » Goal difficulty » Goal acceptance » Feedback Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. Equity Theory • Individual perceptions of fairness • Perceived inequity can be reduced by: » Changing work effort » Changing outcomes » Changing perception » Leaving the job • Inequity occurs when the input-to-outcome ratios are out of balance Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Expectancy Theory • Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards • E – P: putting effort into a given task will lead to high performance • P – O: successful performance of a task will lead to the desired outcome • Valence – the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. 16.5 Major Elements of Expectancy Theory Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 18
  19. 19. Reinforcement Perspective on Motivation Behavior Modification Reinforcement theory techniques used to modify behavior Reinforcement An act that causes a behavior to be repeated or inhibited Law of Effect Positively reinforced behavior tends to be repeated and unreinforced behavior inhibited Positive Reinforcement Pleasant and rewarding consequences following a desired behavior Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 19
  20. 20. 16.6 Changing Behavior with Reinforcement Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 20
  21. 21. Individual’s motivation can result from thoughts, beliefs, and observations – Vicarious learning – observational learning from seeing others’ behaviors and rewards – Self-reinforcement – motivating yourself by reaching goals and providing positive reinforcement for yourself – Self-efficacy – belief about your own ability to accomplish tasks Social Learning Theory Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 21
  22. 22. Job Design for Motivation  Job Simplification  Job Rotation  Job Enlargement  Job Enrichment Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 22
  23. 23. 16.7 The Job Characteristics Model Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 23
  24. 24. Dimensions that determine a job’s motivational potential:  Skill variety  Task identity  Task significance  Autonomy  Feedback Core Job Dimensions Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 24 Based on: → Critical Psychological States → Personal and Work Outcomes → Employee Growth-Need Strength
  25. 25. Innovative Ideas for Motivating • Organizations are using various types of incentive compensation to motivate employees to higher levels of performance • Variable compensation is a key motivational tool • Incentive plans can backfire – They should be combined with motivational ideas and intrinsic rewards • Incentives should reward the desired behavior Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 25
  26. 26. 16.8 New Motivational Compensation Programs Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 26
  27. 27. Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs Employees receive information about company performance Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals Employees have the power to make substance decisions Employees are rewarded based on company performance Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 27
  28. 28. 16.9 A Continuum of Empowerment Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 28
  29. 29. Giving Meaning to Work through Engagement • Instill a sense of support and meaning • Help employees obtain intrinsic reward • Focus on learning, contribution, and growth Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 29

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