Chapter research design


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Chapter research design

  1. 1. Marketing Research Presented by Abhay Singh Kishor Bhamare Sandeep Netawate
  3. 3. What is Research Design? A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research Design Constitutes Decisions like: What, Where, When, How, How much
  4. 4. • A research design is the framework or plan for a study used as a guide in collecting and analyzing data.
  5. 5. Need for Research Design: • It facilitates the smooth flow of various research processes. • It would result in more accurate results with minimum usage of time, effort and money
  6. 6. Types of Research Designs: There are three basic types of research design: Exploratory Descriptive Causal
  7. 7. • The goal of exploratory research is to discover ideas and insights. • Descriptive research is usually concerned with describing a population with respect to important variables. • Causal research is used to establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables.
  8. 8. 1 What is going on (descriptive research)? 2 Why is it going on (exploratory research)?
  9. 9. Exploratory Design: • Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, “informal” research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. • Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information.
  10. 10. • Exploratory research is conducted to provide a better understanding of a situation. It isn’t designed to come up with final answers or decisions. Through exploratory research, researchers hope to produce hypotheses about what is going on in a situation. • Exploration is particularly useful when researches lack a clear idea of the problems they will meet during the study. • Through exploration the researchers develop concepts more clearly, establish priorities, develop operational definitions, and improve the final research design. •
  11. 11. • Exploratory research (sometimes referred to as qualitative research) shouldn’t be expected to provide answers to the decision problem that you are attempting to solve for a client. It can provide very rich, meaningful information—or even definitive explanations—for particular individuals (“I hate the old-fashioned styling of that car; that’s why I won’t buy one”), but exploratory research doesn’t provide definitive answers for the overall population.
  12. 12. • There are two reasons for this: (1) Exploratory research usually involves only a relatively small group of people, (2) these people are almost never randomly selected to participate.
  13. 13. Exploratory Design: Contd… • Exploratory research is used in a number of situations: – – – – To To To To gain background information define terms clarify problems and hypotheses establish research priorities
  14. 14. Exploratory Design: Contd… A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research: • Secondary Data Analysis • Experience Surveys/Depth Interviews • Case Analysis • Focus Groups
  15. 15. Descriptive Design: • Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why. • It is a research design in which the major emphasis is on determining the frequency with which something occurs or the extent to which two variables cover.
  16. 16. • Descriptive research assumes that the researcher has much prior knowledge about the problem situation. In fact, a major difference between exploratory and descriptive research is that descriptive research is characterized by prior formulation of specific hypotheses. Thus the information needed is clearly defined. As a result, descriptive research is pre planned and structured
  17. 17. • Descriptive research in contrast to exploratory research is marked by a clear statement of the problem, specific hypotheses, and detailed information needs. • A descriptive design requires a clear specification of the who, what, when, where, why, and way (the six Ws) of the research.
  18. 18. we use descriptive research for the following purposes: 1. Major objective is to describe some thing usually market characteristics or functions 2. To describe the characteristics of certain groups. 3. To determine the proportion of people who behave in a certain way. 4. To make specific predictions 5. To determine relationships between variables
  19. 19. Longitudinal Vs. Cross-Sectional Analysis
  20. 20. • Typically, a cross-sectional study involves drawing a sample of elements from the population of interest. Characteristics of the elements, or sample members, are measured only once. • A longitudinal study, on the other hand, involves a panel, which is a fixed sample of elements. The elements may be stores, dealers, individuals, or other entities.
  21. 21. Types of Descriptive studies
  22. 22. Longitudinal Analysis • The study of change over time is called longitudinal analysis. In this sense, longitudinal studies involve the study of a process of change over a period of time. Such trends can also be observed by comparing the results of surveys that are conducted in separate years. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of conducting longitudinal surveys for a variety of situations, and the importance of applying the correct statistical techniques for data obtained from longitudinal surveys.
  23. 23. • Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time. • One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame. • A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically. • On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries.
  24. 24. There are two types of panels: Continuous panel A fixed sample of respondents who are measured repeatedly over time with respect to the same variables. Discontinuous panel A fixed sample of respondents who are Measured repeatedly over time, but on variables that change from measurement to measurement.
  25. 25. Cross-sectional Analysis • Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time. • Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population. • On-line survey research is being used to collect data for cross-sectional surveys at a faster rate of speed.
  26. 26. • Cross-sectional surveys often provide data that reveal little change from one year to the next. This can be seen especially, when we consider figures on unemployment or characteristics of poor households receiving Samurdhi-benefits – implying that the same households remain poor over time.
  27. 27. • Cross-sectional study in which the sample is selected to be representative of the target population and in which the emphasis is on the generation of summary statistics such as averages and percentages.
  28. 28. a cross-sectional study involves drawing a sample of elements from the population of interest. Because a great deal of emphasis is placed on selecting sample members, preferably with a probability sampling plan, the technique is often called a sample survey.
  29. 29. sample survey A sample survey offers a couple of big advantages over panel designs. For one thing, you can target very specific populations. Targeted recruitment is possible with consumer panels, but only using the data that have been collected about the participating individuals or households. Here’s a second big advantage of sample surveys: If you use a probability sampling plan, the results from the sample can be projected to the overall population. (Managers care more about populations than they do samples.) On the downside, survey research is expensive. It takes lots of time, energy, and money to successfully collect and analyze survey data. And unless you have the technical skills required for each aspect of the process, you’ll have to hire others to help, adding to the overall cost of the project.