Butterfly Migration By  Kishen Das   kishen.das@gmail.com  [email_address]
Insect Migration – Few definitions To go from one habitat to another –  Oxford English Dictionary A Continued movement in ...
Types of Migration Short Distance Migration  or  Local Movement  ( Few hundred meters to few kms )  Long Distance Migratio...
Monarch Migration Sierra Pelon, Michoacan, Mexico, by Carole Jordan
Monarch Migratory Path Credits: Carol Cullar
Monarch Migration Credits :  Cerro Pelon , Jim Mason
Monarch ( Danaus plexippus) Life Cycle
Butterfly Migration in India <ul><li>60 Species in India  </li></ul><ul><li>44 species in Western Ghats </li></ul><ul><li>...
Few migratory species in India
Lime ( Papilio demoleus )
Large Blue Oakleaf (Kallima horsfieldi)
Common Emigrant (Catopsilia pomona)
Mottled Emigrant(Catopsilia pyranthe)
Common Albatross (Appias albina)
Lemon Pansy (Junoniana lemonias)
Striped Tiger ( Danaus genutia )
Common Leopard ( Phalanta phalanta )
Painted Lady ( Cynthia cardui )
Early work on butterfly Migration Moore 1838 – English News Paper Aitken 1897– 98 - Migration of Euploea core and Tirumala...
Recent work on butterfly Migration Raizuddin and Singh 1977 Larsen T. B. 1978-79  ( Family Pieridae ) Chaturvedi and Sathe...
Danainae Migration in South India <ul><li>3 Species Tirumala septentrionis, Euploea core and Euploea sylvester migrate tog...
Dark Blue Tiger (Tirumala septentrionis)
Blue Tiger ( Tirumala limniace ) Migrates only locally
Niligiri Tiger ( Parantica nilgiriensis ) Non-migratory species
Glassy Tiger ( Parantica aglea )  Non-migratory species
Double Branded Crow ( Euploea sylvester)
Common Indian Crow ( Euploea core ) Has both migrating and residential populations
 
Brown King Crow ( Euploea klugii ) Non migratory species
Sex determination in Tirumala septentrionis
Ratios <ul><li>Tigers : Crows – 3 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Crows - Euploea core : Euploea sylvester – 1 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li...
Time Period  <ul><li>March End / April/May - South West to North East </li></ul><ul><li>September/October / November – Nor...
Direction during Sept/Oct/Nov
Places in South India where migration has been observed
Life Cycle – Tirumala limniace
Life Cycle- Tirumala septentrionis  By Dr K. Saji
Life cycle of Euploea core Host Plants: Nerium sp. Ficus sp.  Tylophora indica
 
Marsdenia brunoniana, Dregea volubilis, Marsdenia volubilis, Asclepias volubilis,Watakaka volubilis Host Plant
Wattakaka volubilis Host Plant
Asclepias curassavica Host Plant
Calotropis gigantea  (White)  Host Plant
Feeding on Heliotropium indicum
Crotalaria verrucosa Alkaloidal  Resource
Crotalaria retusa Alkaloidal Resource
Reasons for Migration <ul><li>Extreme climatic conditions in Western Ghats during Monsoon </li></ul><ul><li>Availability o...
Other Activities – Congregation
Other Activities - Basking
Other Activities – Mud-Puddling
Other Activities – Courtship and Mating
Tracking Techniques <ul><li>-Gliders </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Markers </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Tagging </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Gliders Credits : http://www.Papalotzin.com
Monarch Tag Credits : Jim Gallion
Monarch Tag Credits: NancyLee Bergy
Radio Tagging -Credits: Vijay Barve
Importance of Migration <ul><li>Role in Food Web </li></ul><ul><li>Pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as an iconic ...
Pollination – Euploea sylvester
Predation on Tirumala spp. and Euploea core <ul><li>Spiders </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs and Toads </li></ul><ul><li>Geckos and...
Nephilengys malabarensis preying on Tirumala septentrionis
Threats <ul><li>Homo sapiens  </li></ul><ul><li>- Habitat destruction ( Depletion of host and nectar resources) </li></ul>...
I have collected thousands of dead butterflies every year during migration season. It’s just sad        
Need for a Network of People <ul><li>Migration takes place through 4 states in south India </li></ul><ul><li>Migratory Pat...
Books on Insect Migration Insect Migration:  Tracking Resources through Space and Time. V.A. Drake & A.G. Gatehouse (eds) ...
Thank You [email_address]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Butterfly migration latest_kishen_das

6,727 views

Published on

Information about butterfly migration in South India.

Published in: Education
3 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,727
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,362
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
3
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Butterfly migration latest_kishen_das

  1. 1. Butterfly Migration By Kishen Das kishen.das@gmail.com [email_address]
  2. 2. Insect Migration – Few definitions To go from one habitat to another – Oxford English Dictionary A Continued movement in a more or less definite direction, in which both movement and direction are under the control of the animal concerned – Williams, 1958 Transfer of populations from place to place by mass flights – C. G. Johnson, 1969
  3. 3. Types of Migration Short Distance Migration or Local Movement ( Few hundred meters to few kms ) Long Distance Migration ( Hundreds of kms ) Dispersal – Random , sporadic movements Note: There are various other classifications of Migration as well.
  4. 4. Monarch Migration Sierra Pelon, Michoacan, Mexico, by Carole Jordan
  5. 5. Monarch Migratory Path Credits: Carol Cullar
  6. 6. Monarch Migration Credits : Cerro Pelon , Jim Mason
  7. 7. Monarch ( Danaus plexippus) Life Cycle
  8. 8. Butterfly Migration in India <ul><li>60 Species in India </li></ul><ul><li>44 species in Western Ghats </li></ul><ul><li>Species belonging to families Nymphalidae and Pieridae exhibit more migratory instincts </li></ul><ul><li>Pea Blue (Lampides boeticus) supposed to be the only Lycaenidae member that migrates in India </li></ul>
  9. 9. Few migratory species in India
  10. 10. Lime ( Papilio demoleus )
  11. 11. Large Blue Oakleaf (Kallima horsfieldi)
  12. 12. Common Emigrant (Catopsilia pomona)
  13. 13. Mottled Emigrant(Catopsilia pyranthe)
  14. 14. Common Albatross (Appias albina)
  15. 15. Lemon Pansy (Junoniana lemonias)
  16. 16. Striped Tiger ( Danaus genutia )
  17. 17. Common Leopard ( Phalanta phalanta )
  18. 18. Painted Lady ( Cynthia cardui )
  19. 19. Early work on butterfly Migration Moore 1838 – English News Paper Aitken 1897– 98 - Migration of Euploea core and Tirumala limniace Dudgeon, G.C. 1902 Andrew 1910 Lefroy 1909 – Lampides boeticus Nurse G. C. 1914 – Catopsilia spp. J. Evershed 1907 ,1914,1921 – Migration in Kodaikanal Williams C. B. 1927, 1930 Fisher K.J. 1945 – Migration in India and Ceylon Wynter Blyth 1957
  20. 20. Recent work on butterfly Migration Raizuddin and Singh 1977 Larsen T. B. 1978-79 ( Family Pieridae ) Chaturvedi and Satheesan - Euploea core Meena Haribal 1997 - Danaus genutia Jaffer Palot 2002 - Appias spp. and Catopsilia spp. Chaturvedi 2005– Papilio polymnestor Krushnamegh Kunte 2005– Euploea spp. and Tirumala spp. Kishen Das, Adavanne Shivaprakash 2000- Till date – Euploea spp. and Tirumala spp.
  21. 21. Danainae Migration in South India <ul><li>3 Species Tirumala septentrionis, Euploea core and Euploea sylvester migrate together </li></ul><ul><li>Distance covered is 350-500Kms </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate between Western Ghats and Plains/ Eastern Ghats </li></ul><ul><li>Twice a year </li></ul><ul><li>March/April/May Towards Plains/Eastern Ghats </li></ul><ul><li>September/October/November towards Western Ghats </li></ul><ul><li>Direction -- SW-NE in March/April/May </li></ul><ul><li>Direction -- NE-SW in Sept/Oct/Nov </li></ul>
  22. 22. Dark Blue Tiger (Tirumala septentrionis)
  23. 23. Blue Tiger ( Tirumala limniace ) Migrates only locally
  24. 24. Niligiri Tiger ( Parantica nilgiriensis ) Non-migratory species
  25. 25. Glassy Tiger ( Parantica aglea ) Non-migratory species
  26. 26. Double Branded Crow ( Euploea sylvester)
  27. 27. Common Indian Crow ( Euploea core ) Has both migrating and residential populations
  28. 29. Brown King Crow ( Euploea klugii ) Non migratory species
  29. 30. Sex determination in Tirumala septentrionis
  30. 31. Ratios <ul><li>Tigers : Crows – 3 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Crows - Euploea core : Euploea sylvester – 1 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Tigers - Sex Ratio - Male : Female – 3 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>( Sometimes 2:1 has also been observed) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Time Period <ul><li>March End / April/May - South West to North East </li></ul><ul><li>September/October / November – North East to South West </li></ul><ul><li>Fly between 9AM – 4 PM </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate is immediately halted if there is sudden rain </li></ul><ul><li>Migration is never seen on cloudy days </li></ul>
  32. 33. Direction during Sept/Oct/Nov
  33. 34. Places in South India where migration has been observed
  34. 35. Life Cycle – Tirumala limniace
  35. 36. Life Cycle- Tirumala septentrionis By Dr K. Saji
  36. 37. Life cycle of Euploea core Host Plants: Nerium sp. Ficus sp. Tylophora indica
  37. 39. Marsdenia brunoniana, Dregea volubilis, Marsdenia volubilis, Asclepias volubilis,Watakaka volubilis Host Plant
  38. 40. Wattakaka volubilis Host Plant
  39. 41. Asclepias curassavica Host Plant
  40. 42. Calotropis gigantea (White) Host Plant
  41. 43. Feeding on Heliotropium indicum
  42. 44. Crotalaria verrucosa Alkaloidal Resource
  43. 45. Crotalaria retusa Alkaloidal Resource
  44. 46. Reasons for Migration <ul><li>Extreme climatic conditions in Western Ghats during Monsoon </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of Alkaloidal (Pyrrolizidine) resources </li></ul><ul><li>Overwintering sites </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of Diapause </li></ul>
  45. 47. Other Activities – Congregation
  46. 48. Other Activities - Basking
  47. 49. Other Activities – Mud-Puddling
  48. 50. Other Activities – Courtship and Mating
  49. 51. Tracking Techniques <ul><li>-Gliders </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Markers </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Tags </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 wheeler / 4 wheeler ( Just kidding, this has been my technique so far  . Though highly inefficient when done alone, you can still collect decent amount of Natural History !!!) </li></ul>
  50. 52. Gliders Credits : http://www.Papalotzin.com
  51. 53. Monarch Tag Credits : Jim Gallion
  52. 54. Monarch Tag Credits: NancyLee Bergy
  53. 55. Radio Tagging -Credits: Vijay Barve
  54. 56. Importance of Migration <ul><li>Role in Food Web </li></ul><ul><li>Pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as an iconic species to conserve large stretches of forests </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to orient general public towards nature using butterflies </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-indicators </li></ul>
  55. 57. Pollination – Euploea sylvester
  56. 58. Predation on Tirumala spp. and Euploea core <ul><li>Spiders </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs and Toads </li></ul><ul><li>Geckos and skinks </li></ul><ul><li>Birds ( Bee-eaters, Bulbuls , Myna , Crow ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rodents </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Specific predator species data is not shown as its not published yet. Rather it’s in the pipeline for last few years !!! </li></ul>
  57. 59. Nephilengys malabarensis preying on Tirumala septentrionis
  58. 60. Threats <ul><li>Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>- Habitat destruction ( Depletion of host and nectar resources) </li></ul><ul><li>- Soil Mining ( Destruction of mud puddling sites) </li></ul><ul><li>- Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>- Traffic ( Thousands of them die every year on highways during their migration) </li></ul><ul><li>- Mining ( Affects the entire breeding cycles) </li></ul><ul><li>- GM crops </li></ul><ul><li>- Extensive use of Agro-chemicals ( Especially Endosulphan) </li></ul><ul><li>- Butterfly Trade ( Prominent in parts of Kerala) </li></ul>
  59. 61. I have collected thousands of dead butterflies every year during migration season. It’s just sad   
  60. 62. Need for a Network of People <ul><li>Migration takes place through 4 states in south India </li></ul><ul><li>Migratory Paths change every year depending on rain </li></ul><ul><li>More people more natural history </li></ul>
  61. 63. Books on Insect Migration Insect Migration: Tracking Resources through Space and Time. V.A. Drake & A.G. Gatehouse (eds) (1995). The Biomechanics of Insect Flight : Form, Function, Evolution. R. Dudley (2000). Flow of Life in the Atmosphere: An Airscape Approach to Understanding Invasive Organisms. S.A. Isard & S.H. Gage (2001). Migration: the Biology of Life on the Move. H. Dingle (2001). Insect Migration: Mechanisms and Consequences. I.P. Woiwod, D.R. Reynolds & C.D. Thomas (eds) (2001). Johnson, C.G. 1969. Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Methuen & Co Ltd., London. Williams, C. B. 1930. The migration of butterflies . Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh
  62. 64. Thank You [email_address]

×