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Front pages of report 132kv gss sitapura jaipur

  1. 1. Page | 1 A Project Report On SINGLE PHASE INVERTER Under the guidance of Ms. Ritu Jain Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Department of Electrical Engineering SURESH GYAN VIHAR UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR Submitted To: - Submitted By:- Mr. Rahul Sharma Kishan Kumar Yadav Asst. Professor Mahipal Singh Shaktawat Dept. of Electrical Engineering NischalDattatreya Nitesh Kumar 3rd year (VI Sem.) DEPARTMENT OF ‘ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING’ SURESH GYAN VIHAR UNIVERSITY,JAIPUR
  2. 2. Page | 2 SINGLE PHASE INVERTER Submitted by S.No. Name of Students Enrolment No. 1. Kishan Kumar Yadav sgvu111055594 2. Mahipal Singh Shaktawat sgvu111055284 3. NischalDattatreya sgvu111055262 4. Nitesh Kumar sgvu111055292 Department of electrical engineering GyanVihar School of Engineering & Technology SURESH GYAN VIHAR VNIVERSITY JAIPUR April, 2014
  3. 3. Page | 3 S.No. Name of Students Enrolment No. 1. Kishan Kumar Yadav sgvu111055594 2. Mahipal Singh Shaktawat sgvu111055284 3. NischalDattatreya sgvu111055262 4. Nitesh Kumar sgvu111055292 Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of Bachelor of Technology In Electrical Engineering GyanVihar School of Engineering & Technology SURESH GYAN VIHAR UNIVERSITY JAIPUR
  4. 4. Page | 4 April, 2014 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Project Report entitled “SINGLE PHASE INVERTER” which is submitted by Kishan Kumar Yadav, Mahipal Singh Shaktawat, NischalDattatreya and Nitesh Kumar in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of B. Tech. degree in department of Electrical Engineering is a record of the candidates own work carried out by him/them under my/our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree. Signature Name of Supervisor Ms. Ritu Jain Designation Asst. Professor Date
  5. 5. Page | 5 DECLARATION I/we hereby declare that this submission is my/our own work and that, to the best of my/our knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning except where due acknowledgment has been made in the text. Signature Signature Name Kishan Kumar Yadav Name Mahipal Singh Shaktawat Enrolment No. Sgvu111055594 Enrolment No. Sgvu111055284 Date Date Signature Signature Name NischalDattatreya Name Nitesh Kumar Enrolment No. Sgvu111055262 Enrolment No. Sgvu111055292 Date Date
  6. 6. Page | 6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It gives us a great sense of pleasure to present the report of the B. Tech project undertaken during B. Tech Pre final year. We owe special debt of gratitude to Ms. Ritu Jain for his constant support and guidance throughout the course of our work. His sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance have been a constant source of inspiration for us. It is only his cognizant efforts that our endeavors has been light of the day. We also take the opportunity to the acknowledge the contribute of Mr. R.K.Gupta Head of department of Electrical Engineering for his full support and during the development of the project. We also do not like to miss the opportunity to acknowledge the contribute of all faculty members of the department for their kind assistance and cooperation during the development of our project. Last but not the least, we acknowledge our friends for their contribute in the completion of the project. Signature Signature Name Kishan Kumar Yadav Name Mahipal Singh Shaktawat Enrolment No. Sgvu111055594 Enrolment No. Sgvu111055284 Date Date Signature Signature Name NischalDattatreya Name Nitesh Kumar Enrolment No. Sgvu111055262 Enrolment No. Sgvu111055292 Date Date
  7. 7. Page | 7 CONTENT CHAPTER NO. TOPIC PAGE NO. 01. INTRODUCTION 8-9 02. COMPONENT SPECIFICATION 10 03. POWER SUPPLY 11-13 3.1) Solar Plate 3.2) Working of Solar Panels 04. INVERTER 14-22 4.1) Single Phase Half Wave Inverter 4.2) Single Phase Full Wave Inverter 4.3) Square Wave Inverter 4.4) PWN control strategy 4.4.1) Amplitude & Harmonics Control 4.4.2) Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) 05. RESISTANCE 23-25 5.1)Resistivity of a conductor 5.2) Resistor Color Coding 06. CAPACITOR 26-28 6.1)Capacitor Color Coding 07. INDUCTOR COIL 29-30 08. TRANSISTOR 31-32 09. TRANSFORMER 33-34 9.1) EHT 9.2) Application
  8. 8. CHAPTER 1 Page | 8 INTRODUCTION Single phaseInverter :- The dc-ac converter, also known as the inverter, converts dc power to ac power at desired output voltage and frequency. The dc power input to the inverter is obtained from an existing power supply network or from a rotating alternator through a rectifier or a battery, fuel cell, photo voltaic array or magneto hydrodynamic generator. The filter capacitor across the input terminals of the inverter provides a constant dc link voltage. The inverter therefore is an adjustable-frequency voltage source. The configuration of ac to dc converter and dc to ac inverter is called a dc link converter. Inverters can be broadly classified into two types, voltage source and current source inverters. A voltage–fed inverter (VFI) or more generally a voltage–source inverter (VSI) is one in which the dc source has small or negligible impedance. The voltage at the input terminals is constant. A current– source inverter (CSI) is fed with adjustable current from the dc source of high impedance that is from a constant dc source. A voltage source inverter employing thyristors as switches, some type of forced commutation is required, while the VSIs madeup of using GTOs, power transistors, power MOSFETs or IGBTs, self commutation with base or gate drive signals for their controlled turn-on and turn-off.
  9. 9. A standard single-phase voltage or current source inverter can be in the half-bridge or full-bridge configuration. The single-phase units can be joined to have three-phase or multiphase topologies. Some industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable-speed ac drives, induction heating, standby aircraft power supplies, UPS (uninterruptible power supplies) for computers, HVDC transmission lines etc. Page | 9
  10. 10. CHAPTER-2 Page | 10 COMPONENT SPECIFICATION Serial No. Components Ratings Quantity 1. Resistance 330 Ω 1 2. Capacitor (electrolytic) 100μf/25v 1 3. Capacitor (tantalum) 0.1μf/35v 2 4. Inductor Coil 10 mH 1 5. EHT(Boost transformer) 12-0-12/500 mA 1 6. Zero PCB - 1
  11. 11. CHAPTER-3 Page | 11 POWER SUPPLY There are many types of DC power supply like a battery, fuel cell, photovoltaic array or magneto hydrodynamic generator. Here we are using solar plates or photovoltaic array as a power supply. 3.1)Solar plate: - Solar plate is a light sensitized steel backed polymer material used by artists as an alternative to hazardous printing techniques. It is a simple, safer, and faster approach than traditional etching and relief printing. It may be done by working on the plate directly, with opaque materials in the form of non-water based pigments, or it may be utilized by exposing the plate through a transparent film with artwork on it. The film may be created by drawing on acetate, photocopying or scanning and printing on film, or darkroom techniques. A positive transparency is for printing as an etching A negative transparency is for printing a relief impression.
  12. 12. Page | 12 3.2)Working of Solar Panels: - A study of photo voltage was made for a series of sandwich structures on the basis of poly(3- dode-cylthiophene) films having characteristic thicknesses 100 and 500 nm and being deposited on n-Si and p-Si substrates from a solution. Semi-transparent Al and Au electrodes were obtained on the surfaces of these films by thermal evaporation. A clear photo response was obtained in films on an n-Si substrate. Two distinct spectral components of the photo voltage were observed in the 1.3- to 3.6-eV (900–300 nm) energy range for incident quanta. The first component corresponds to the absorption edge of the Si substrate (1.4–1.6eV). The other corresponds to the π-π* absorption of the polythiophene films (1.7–2.1eV).
  13. 13. The dependences of the photo voltage upon radiation intensity are different for these two spectral components. The relaxation time of the photo response for the second component, corresponding to the absorption in the film, is 10–20 min. This is 3–4 orders of magnitude higher than the relaxation time for the first component. A model of the potential barrier at the polythiophene/n-Si interface, allowing one to explain the main experimental results, is proposed. This barrier is formed as a result of the chemical interaction of the polythiophene molecules with the substrate. Page | 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER-4 Page | 14 INVERTER An Inverter is basically a converter that converts DC-AC power. Inverter circuits can be very complex so the objective of this paper is to present some of the inner workings of inverters without getting lost in some of the fine details. A voltage source inverter (VSI) is one that takes in a fixed voltage from a device, such as a dc power supply, and converts it to a variable-frequency AC supply. Voltage-source inverters are divided into three general categories: Pulse-width Modulated (PWM) Inverters, Square-wave Inverters, Single-phase Inverters with Voltage Cancellation. Pulse-width modulation inverters take in a constant dc voltage. Diode-rectifiers are used to rectify the line voltage, and the inverter must control the magnitude and the frequency of the ac output voltages. To do this the inverter uses pulse-width modulation using it’s switches. There are different methods for doing the pulse-width modulation in an inverter in order to shape the output ac voltages to be very close to a sine wave. 4.1) Single Phase Half Bridge Inverter  There are 2 switches by dividing the dc source voltage into two parts with the capacitors.  Each capacitor has the same value and has voltage Vdc / 2.  The top(S1) and bottom(S2) switch must be complementary to each other. (When S1 is closed, S2 must be opened and vice versa)
  15. 15.  Feedback (freewheeling) diodes are required to provide continuity of Page | 15 current for inductive loads.  It provides current to flow even switches are opened.
  16. 16. Page | 16 4.2) Single Phase Full Bridge Converter  Full bridge converter is also basic circuit to convert dc to ac.  An ac output is synthesized from a dc input by closing and opening switches in an appropriate sequence.  There are also four different states depending on which switches are closed. State Switches Closed Vo 1 S1 & S2 + Vdc 2 S3 & S4 -Vdc 3 S1 & S3 0 4 S2 & S4 0
  17. 17. Page | 17 State 1 and State 2 State 3 and State 4  Switches S1 and S4 should not be closed at the same time. S2 and S3 should be closed in parallel too otherwise, a short circuit would exist across the dc source.  Real switches do not turn on or off instantaneously. Hence, switching transition times must be accommodated in the control of switches.  Overlap of switch "on" will cause short circuit (shoot-through fault) across the dc voltage source.  The time allowed for switching is called blanking time.
  18. 18. Page | 18 4.3) Square-wave Inverter The figure below is the simple square-wave inverter to show the concept of AC waveform generation.  The current waveform in the load depends on the load components.  The current waveform matches the shape of the output voltage for the resistive load.  The current will have more sinusoidal quality than the voltage for the inductive load because of the filtering property of the inductance.  For a series RL load and a square wave output voltage, switches S1 and S2 is assumed to be closed at t = 0.
  19. 19. Page | 19 4.4) PWM Control Strategy There are several methods of controlling single phase inverter. However, these are few criteria that we need to look at: 1. Output voltage range 2. Maximum output voltage 3. Switching losses 4. Distortion in output and input sides ( Distortion is measured based on inverter performance)
  20. 20. Page | 20 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)  PWM provides a way to decrease the total harmonic distortion of load current.  Generally, THD requirements is met easily than the square wave switching scheme for PWM inverter output after filtering.  The unfiltered PWM output will have a relatively high THD. But, it can be filtered easily due to high frequencies of harmonics. There are two main types of PWM control strategy 4.4.1) Amplitude & Harmonics Control  Amplitude of the output voltage can be controlled with the modulating waveforms.  Harmonics can be decreased and output voltage amplitude can be controlled with the reduced filter requirements.  But, control circuits for the switches is complex, losses increase due to more frequent switching.  The amplitude of the fundamental frequency for a square wave output from the full bridge inverter is determined by dc input voltage.  The switching scheme can be modified to produced a controlled output.  An output voltage has intervals when the output is zero , + Vdc and - Vdc.  The output voltage can be controlled by adjusting the interval α on each side of the pulse where the output is zero.
  21. 21. Page | 21  α is the angle of zero voltage on each end of the pulse.  The amplitude of the fundamental frequency (n=1) is controllable by adjusting α.
  22. 22. Page | 22  Harmonic content can be eliminated by adjusting α. Harmonic n is eliminated if α = 90 0 /n  Note:To control both amplitude and harmonics using the switching scheme, it is necessary to be able to control the dc input voltage to the inverter. 4.4.2) Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) - Bipolar & Unipolar switching Control of the switches for sinusoidal PWM output requires:  reference signal (modulating or control signal) - sinusoid in the case we are going to learn  carrier signal (triangular wave that controls the switching frequency)  Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM)
  23. 23. CHAPTER-5 Page | 23 RESISTANCE The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is the opposition to the passage of an electrical current through that conductor. The inverse quantity is electrical conductance, the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm, while electrical conductance is measured. An object of uniform cross section has a resistance proportional to its resistivity and length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. All materials show some resistance, except for semiconductor which have a resistance of zero. The resistance (R) of an object is defined as the ratio of voltage across it (V) to current through it (I), while the conductance (G) is the inverse: R=V/I 5.1)Resistivity of a conductor The resistance of a given object depends primarily on two factors: What material it is made of, and its shape. For a given material, the resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area; for example, a thick copper wire has lower resistance than an otherwise-identical thin copper wire. Also, for a given material, the resistance is proportional to the length; for example, a long copper wire has higher resistance than an otherwise-identical short copper wire. The resistance R and conductance G of a conductor of uniform cross section, therefore, can be computed as
  24. 24. where is the length of the conductor, measured in meters [m], A is the cross-section area of the conductor measured in square matrix [m²], σ (sigma) is the electrical conductivity measured in per meter (S·m−1), and ρ is the electrical resistivity(also called specific electrical resistance) of the material, measured in ohm-metres(Ωm). The resistivity and conductivity are proportionality constants, and therefore depend only on the material the wire is made of, not the geometry of the wire. Resistivity and conductivity are reciprocal Resistivity is a measure of the material's ability to oppose electric current. Page | 24 Resistence of 330 ohm(Ω) 5.2)Resistor color-coding
  25. 25. Page | 25 To distinguish left from right there is a gap between the C and D bands.  band A is first significant figure of component value (left side)  bandB is the second significant figure (Some precision resistors have a third significant figure, and thus five bands.)  band C is the decimal multiplier  bandD if present, indicates tolerance of value in percent (no band means 20%) Color Significant figures Multiplier Tolerance Temp. Coefficient (ppm/K) Black 0 ×100 – 250 U Brown 1 ×101 ±1% F 100 S Red 2 ×102 ±2% G 50 R Orange 3 ×103 – 15 P Yellow 4 ×104 (±5%) – 25 Q Green 5 ×105 ±0.5% D 20 Z Blue 6 ×106 ±0.25% C 10 Z Violet 7 ×107 ±0.1% B 5 M Gray 8 ×108 ±0.05% (±10%) A 1 K White 9 ×109 – – Gold – ×10-1 ±5% J – Silver – ×10-2 ±10% K – None – – ±20% M –
  26. 26. CHAPTER-6 Page | 26 CAPACITOR A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two- terminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates) separated by a dielectric (i.e., insulator). The conductors can be thin films of metal, aluminium foil or disks, etc. The ' non conducting' dielectric acts to increase the capacitor's charge capacity. A dielectric can be glass, ceramic, plastic film, air, paper, mica, etc. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuit in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, a capacitor does not dissipate energy. Instead, a capacitor stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field between its plates. electolytic capacitor (100μf/25v) When there is a potential difference across the conductors (e.g., when a capacitor is attached across a battery), an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge (+Q) to collect on one plate and negative charge (-Q) to collect on the other plate. If a battery has been attached to a capacitor for a sufficient amount of time, no current can flow through the capacitor. However, if an accelerating or alternating voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, a displacement current can flow. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value for its capacitance. Capacitance is expressed as the ratio of the electric charge (Q) on each
  27. 27. conductor to the potential difference (V) between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the FARAD (F), which is equal to one coulomb per volt (1 C/V). Typical capacitance values range from about 1 pF (10−12 F) to about 1 mF (10−3 F). The capacitance is greater when there is a narrower separation between conductors and when the conductors have a larger surface area. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, known as the breakdown voltage. The conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance. A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The non-conductive region is called the dielectric. In simpler terms, the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric media are glass, air, paper and even a semiconductor depletion layer chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net and no influence from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces and the dielectric develops an electric field. In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them. Page | 27 6.1)Capacitor color-coding Capacitors may be marked with 4 or more colored bands or dots. The colors encode the first and second most significant digits of the value, and the third color the decimal multiplier in picofarads. Additional bands have meanings which may vary from one type to another. Low-tolerance capacitors may begin with the first 3 (rather than 2) digits of the value. It is usually, but not always,
  28. 28. Page | 28 possible to work out what scheme is used by the particular colors used. Cylindrical capacitors marked with bands may look like resistors. Color Significant digits Multiplier Capacitance tolerance Characteristic DC working voltage Operating temperature EIA/vibration Black 0 1 ±20% — — −55 °C to +70 °C 10 to 55 Hz Brown 1 10 ±1% B 100 — — Red 2 100 ±2% C — −55 °C to +85 °C — Orange 3 1000 — D 300 — — Yellow 4 10000 — E — −55 °C to +125 °C 10 to 2000 Hz Green 5 100000 ±0.5% F 500 — — Blue 6 1000000 — — — −55 °C to +150 °C — Violet 7 10000000 — — — — — Grey 8 — — — — — — White 9 — — — — — EIA Gold — — ±5%* — 1000 — — Silver — — ±10% — — — — CHAPTER-7
  29. 29. Page | 29 INDUCTOR COIL An inductor is a passive electronic component which is capable of storing electrical energy in the form of magnetic energy. Basically, it uses a conductor that is wound into a coil, and when electricity flows into the coil from the left to the right, this will generate a magnetic field in the clockwise direction. Presented below is the equation that represents the inductance of an inductor. The more turns with which the conductor is wound around the core, the stronger the magnetic field that is generated. A strong magnetic field is also generated by increasing the cross-sectional area of the inductor or by changing the core of the inductor. The current level remains unchanged when DC (direct current) flows to the inductor so no induced voltage is produced, and it is possible to consider that a shorted state results. In other words, the inductor is a component that allows DC, but not AC, to flow through it.
  30. 30. • The inductor stores electrical energy in the form of magnetic energy. • The inductor does not allow AC to flow through it, but does allow DC to flow through itthe properties of inductors are utilized in a variety of different applications. There are many and varied types of inductors in existence. Page | 30
  31. 31. CHAPTER-8 Page | 31 TRANSISTOR A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switchelectronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. There are two types of transistors, which have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit. A bipolar transistor has terminals labelledbase, collector, and emitter. A small current at the base terminal (that is, flowing between the base and the emitter) can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals. For a field-effect transistor, the terminals are labelledgate, source, and drain, and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source and drain. The image to the right represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. Charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base. Because internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode, a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists. The amount of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from, and is referred to as VBE. PNP P-channel NPN N-channel BJT JFET
  32. 32. Transistor packages are made of glass, metal, ceramic, or plastic. The package often dictates the power rating and frequency characteristics. Power transistors have larger packages that can be clamped to heat sinks for enhanced cooling. Additionally, most power transistors have the collector or drain physically connected to the metal enclosure. At the other extreme, some surface-mount microwave transistors are as small as grains of sand. Page | 32
  33. 33. CHAPTER-9 Page | 33 TRANSFORMER A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive coupling between its winding circuits. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic flux induces a varying electromotive force (emf) or voltage in the secondary winding. Transformers range in size from thumbnail-sized used in microphones to units weighing hundreds of tons interconnecting the power grid. A wide range of transformer designs are used in electronic and electric power applications. Transformers are essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy. 9.1)EHT (transformer) A boost (EHT) transformer is a type of transformer used to make adjustments to the voltage applied to alternating current equipment. The boost connections are used in several places such as uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units for computers, and in the tanning bed industry. Operating electrical equipment at other than its designed voltage may result in poor performance, short operating life, or possibly overheating and damage. Buck–boost transformers can be used to power low voltage circuits including control, lighting circuits, or applications that require 12, 16, 24, 32 or 48 volts, consistent with the design's secondaries. The transformer is connected as an isolating transformer and the nameplate kVA rating is the transformer’s capacity.
  34. 34. Page | 34 9.2)Application Buck-boost transformers may be used for electrical equipment where the amount of buck or boost is fixed. For example, a fixed boost would be used when connecting equipment rated for 230 V AC to a 208 V power source. Units are rated in volt-amperes (or more rarely, amperes) and are rated for a percent of voltage drop or rise. For example, a buck–boost transformer rated at 10% boost will raise a supplied voltage of 208 V AC to 229 V AC. A rating of 10% buck will yield the result of 209 V AC if the actual incoming supplied voltage is 230 V AC.
  35. 35. Page | 35 Working of single phase inverter:- One of the most incredible things about photovoltaic power is its simplicity. It is almost completely solid state, from the photovoltaic cell to the electricity delivered to the consumer. Whether the application is a solar calculator with a PV array of less than 1 W or a 100 MW grid-connected PV power generation plant, all that is required between the solar array and the load are electronic and electrical components. Compared to other sources of energy humankind has harnessed to make electricity, PV is the most scalable and modular. Larger PV systems require more electrical bussing, fusing and wiring, but the most complex component between the solar array and the load is the electronic component that converts and processes the electricity: the inverter. In the case of grid-tied PV, the inverter is the only piece of electronics needed between the array and the grid. Off-grid PV applications use an additional dc to dc converter between the array and batteries and an inverter with a built-in charger. In this article we discuss how inverters work, including string, or single-phase, and central, 3-phase inverters; explore major inverter functions, key components, designs, controls, protections and communication; and theorize about future inverter technology. Reference: http//