Islamic art and byzantine art


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Islamic art and byzantine art

  1. 1. Islamic Art and Byzantine Art
  4. 4. ISLAMIC ART It does not just pertain to religious art but also artwork from Muslim ruled territories or art produced by Muslims. The art style varied within dynasties but tend to all focus on surface decoration.
  5. 5. BYZANTINE ART (527-726) The term Byzantine art is commonly used to describe the artistic products of the Byzantine Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of the Constantinople in 1453. Also used to refer to the art of Eastern Orthodox states which were contemporary with the Byzantine Empire and were actually influenced by it, without actually being part of it, such as Bulgaria, Serbia or Rus and also for the art of the Republic of Venice and kingdom of Sicily, which had close ties to Byzantine Empire despite being in the other part of western European culture.
  6. 6. BYZANTINE ART BYZANTINE EMPIRE In 324 Constantine 1 founded the city Constantinople on the site of the Ancient city of Byzantium to serve as the new capital of the Roman Empire.
  7. 7. COMPONENTS OF ISLAMIC ART The four basic components of Islamic art areCalligraphy Vegetal Pattern Geometric pattern Figural representation
  8. 8. BYZANTINE ART Characteristics of Byzantine art  Flattened, symbolic, (heavenly) space (gold backgrounds       common) Shapes and figures show continuing trend toward shallow space Details are described by line, not light and shade Elongated proportions Dematerialized bodies with strong emphasis on the eyes Ornate haloes (fr. Persia - designating descent from the Sun) Narrative is created by flat, symbolic shapes, lined up
  9. 9. CALLIGRAPHY Calligraphy is the most highly regarded and most fundamental element of Islamic art. It is significant that the Qur’an, the book of God’s revelations, was transmitted in Arabic, and that inherent within the Arabic script is the potential for developing a variety of ornamental forms.
  10. 10. CALLIGRAPHY  There are over 100 styles of Arabic calligraphy.  But only 6 are primary styles.  Names are based onwidth of pen, usage, curvature of style, place of development or the name of creator.
  11. 11. CALLIGRAPHY A major application of Arabic calligraphy is in architect where inscription provideo Place identity and function o Historical information o Spiritual verses o Decoration
  12. 12. CALLIGRAPHY Arabic lettering has achieved a high level of sophistication, and Arabic scripts can vary from flowing cursive styles like Naskh and Thuluth to the angular Kufi. On a traditional Islamic building, a number of different writing styles may appear on, for example, the walls, windows, or minarets. Most of the inscriptions are not only from the Qur'an but also the Hadith (the Prophet's words) and are in harmony with the religious purposes of the building. An inscription can give meaning to the building by clarifying its function.
  13. 13. CALLIGRAPHY A close-up of a section of a page of a large format 16th century Shirazi (Iranian) Quran: note the loving detail of what is essentially barely visible “background”. Gold “ink” was added in a number of washes with different colors and transparency. An 18th century Ottoman manuscript.
  14. 14. CALLIGRAPHY two parallel texts, each in a different color This is an end-piece of 16th century Shirazi Quran, inscribed — crosswordpuzzle-like — with the 99 names of God:
  15. 15. CALLIGRAPHY  Arabic calligraphy is a symbol representing power and beauty. Its history is the integration of artistry and scholarship. Through the abstract beauty of the lines, energy flows in between the letters and words. All the parts are integrated into a whole. These parts include positive spacing, negative spacing, and the flow of energy that weaves together the calligrapher's rendering. The abstract beauty of Arabic calligraphy is not always easily comprehended -- but this beauty will slowly reveal itself to the discerning eye.  Arabic calligraphy is not merely an art form but involves divine and moral representations -- from which calligraphy acquires its sublime reputation.
  16. 16. BYZANTINE ART In the Byzantine period, a building’s interior decoration often took the form of mosaic “paintings". Mosaic tiles were more costly than materials for traditional painting, demonstrating the wealth of the Byzantine empire.
  17. 17. BYZANTINE ART San Vitale Basilica, Ravenna, Italy
  18. 18. BYZANTINE ART San Vitale is a small domed church in the Byzantine architectural style. It has an octagonal plan, with a two-story ambulatory enclosing a central space beneath a great cupola. Attached at an angle to the west side is an entrance porch or narthex while a small choir and apse extends to the east.
  19. 19. BYZANTINE ART San Vitale Basilica, Ravenna, Italy The great cupola is decorated with uninteresting 18thcentury murals, but the remainder of the interior is fully Byzantine and provides an authentic atmosphere of antiquity. And most famously, the ceilings of the choir and apse glitter with magnificent Byzantine mosaics in green and gold.
  21. 21. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Islamic architecture can be defined as a building traditions of Muslim populations of the Middle East and any countries where Islam has been dominant from the 7 century.
  22. 22. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Types of Islamic architecture  Mosque  Madarsah  Hammam  Caravanserai  Casbah/citadel  Mausoleum
  23. 23. Islamic Architecture Mashrabiya – projecting window enclosed with carved wood lattice work Sahn – a courtyard combine with ablution area. Mihrab – a semicircular niche in thwe wall of a mosque that indicates the Qibla,
  24. 24. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Mosque architectural features
  25. 25. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE THE BLUE MOSQUE The construction of the mosque began in 1609 when Ahmed I the Sultan was only 19 years old. The constructor of the mosque was the architect Mehmet Aga. He was building this masterpiece of Muslim architecture for seven years. In 1616 the mosque was finished. It officially became known as the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, but people gave it another name: "Blue Mosque" because of the fact that the interior of the temple is decorated with blue tiles. There are more than two hundred thousand of tiles covering the walls of the mosque like a dense carpet.  The mosque was deliberately built next to the church of St. Sophia to demonstrate the ability of the Ottoman and Islamic architects and builders to compete with any construction of their Christian predecessors. Thus, the two buildings form a unique historical and architectural territory.  The block of the "Blue Mosque" in Istanbul is quite traditional for Muslim architecture. Undoubtedly, a model for the construction of the temple was the Hagia Sophia: this is evidenced by the growing upward cascade of domes which reminds of a similar technique employed by the builders of the Byzantine temple. The large central dome is surrounded by four little domes, and under them there are four smaller domes. The number of minarets is quite unusual - there are six of them: four tall minarets usually stand at the corners of the fence and two lower minarets - on the outer corners of the inner courtyard.  The "Blue Mosque" is the world's only mosque with six minarets. 
  26. 26. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Architectural features of the famous Blue Mosque
  27. 27. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Madarsa at Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt) The building becomes a mosque and religious school for all four juristic branches of sunni Islam. Mosque of Sultan Hassan represent a great Mamluk architecture monument in Cairo. Verse from Quran in elegant Kufic and Thuluth scripts adorn the wall.
  28. 28. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Bath houses have played an important ritual role in Islam since the earliest times, as cleanliness is an essential prerequisite of religious activities. "Minor ablutions" must be performed before each of the five daily prayers, and "major ablutions" are de rigeur after disease and other defilements. The Hammam thus came to serve a pivotal role in the daily lives of Iranian Muslims. As both men and women gathered there daily (at separate times), it became a space of social gathering as well. Services rendered there might also include massages and hair cuts, including full-body depilation for women to comply with Islamic hygienic practice. Most hammams were located in densely populated areas near the local bazaar. Often they were constructed on the grounds of madrasas or hospitals supported by a waqf (endowment for financing religious institutions). In present times, the use of hammam has fallen off markedly as indoor plumbing became widely available.
  29. 29. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE GEOMETRIC PATTERNS These patterns exemplify the Islamic interest in repetition, balance, symmetry and continuous generation of patterns. The integration of geometry with such optical effects as the balancing of positive and negative areas, a skillful use of colour and tone values.
  30. 30. ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Arabesque – Arabesque designs are biomorphic, floral patterns representing the Underlying order and unity of nature with a great deal of accuracy . Flowers and Trees might be used as the motifs for decorations.
  31. 31. BYZANTINE ART HAGIA SOPHIA, ISTANBUL, TURKEY The Church of the Holy Wisdom, known as Hagia Sophia in Greek,Sancta Sophia in Latin, and Ayasofya or Aya Sofya in Turkish, is a former Byzantine church and former Ottoman mosque in Istanbul. Now a museum, Hagia Sophia is universally acknowledged as one of the great buildings of the world.
  32. 32. BYZANTINE ART Unfortunately nothing remains of the original Hagia Sophia, which was built on this site in the fourth century by Constantine the Great. Constantine was the first Christian emperor and the founder of the city of Constantinople, which he called "the New Rome." Following the destruction of Constantine's church, a second was built by his son Constantius and the emperor Theodosius the Great. This second church was burned down during the Nika riots of 532, though fragments of it have been excavated and can be seen today. Hagia Sophia was rebuilt in her present form between 532 and 537 under the personal supervision of Emperor Justinian I.
  33. 33. BYZANTINE ART The Hagia Sophia has a classical basilica plan. The main ground plan of the building is a rectangle, 230 feet (70 m) in width and 246 feet (75 m) in length. The area is covered by a central dome with a diameter of 102 feet (31 m), which is just slightly smaller than that of the Pantheon in Rome.
  34. 34. BYZANTINE ART The main dome is carried on pendentives: four concave triangular sections of masonry which solve the problem of setting the circular base of a dome on a rectangular base. Each pendentive is decorated with a seraphim. The weight of the dome passes through the pendentives to four massive piers at the corners, and between them the dome seems to float upon four great arches.
  35. 35. BYZANTINE ART All interior surfaces are sheathed with polychrome marble, green and white with purple porphyry, and gold mosaics. On the exterior, simple stuccoed walls reveal the clarity of massed vaults and domes. The Islamic calligraphic roundels suspended from the main dome since the 19th century remain in place and make for a fascinating religious contrast with the uncovered Christian mosaics.
  36. 36. BYZANTINE ART The Byzantine mosaics are being gradually uncovered, but only those on the higher gallery levels. The best-known mosaic is called the Deësis Mosaic, and it is the first you come to as you enter the South Gallery through the Marble Door. It depicts a triumphant and kingly Christ (known as "Christ Pantrocrator"), flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist.
  37. 37. BYZANTINE ART Byzantine Icons •During the 9th century, religions icons became an important part of the Eastern Orthodox Church •Become very symbolic, using specific iconography •Icons used as objects of devotion •Icons become more and more abstract and stylized
  39. 39. BYZANTINE ART Icons made of other materials-
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