NLADA Substantive Law ConferenceChicago, ILJuly 23, 2010Presented by:Jason ReeceSenior ResearcherDirector of the Opportuni...
   “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a    position to be more likely to succeed or exc...
   Five decades of research    indicate that your environment    has a profound impact on your    access to opportunity a...
Physical             Social                                            Cultural                                      Outco...
Source: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/                                                            ...
•   One variable can explain                         why differential outcomes.…to a multi-dimensional understanding….    ...
Some people ride the “Up”   Others have to run up   escalator to reach       the “Down” escalator to      opportunity     ...
   Everyone should have fair access to the    critical opportunity structures needed to    succeed in life.   Low Opport...
 Deliberate, coordinated, and  regional investments in people,  places, and linkages Two-pronged approach:  ▪ Targeted i...
   Mapping visually represents the                                                 cumulative effects of                 ...
   The Kirwan Institute has conducted    “opportunity mapping” for states and    metropolitan regions across the US     ...
   How do you map opportunity?     Data representing community conditions was gathered      for neighborhood (census tra...
EDUCATION                               HOUSING & NEIGHBORHOOD   Student poverty rates               HEALTH   Reading/Ma...
Education     Economic      Housing &        FinalOpportunity   Opportunity   Neighborhood   Opportunity   Score         S...
Example of an Opportunity Map:          Detroit MI(Dark Areas = Most Opportunity      Rich Communities)(Light Areas = Most...
100%80%60%40%20% 0%       % African American        % Asian             % Latino            % Whites         Low and Very ...
   Background on this project     Originated from effort to incorporate      mapping analysis into legal services   Par...
   Three areas of    opportunity were    analyzed using GIS    mapping capability:     Education Quality and      Opport...
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
   Program design and use within legal services     New programming – proposed “Adopt A Zip Code” program     Use in ex...
   Connecticut     “The mapping is guiding our next round of fair     housing testing…our mapping report has been     id...
   Baltimore     Remedial proposal in Thompson v. HUD   Chicago (Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open    Communitie...
www.KirwanInstitute.org                          www.race-talk.org                           KirwanInstitute              ...
Opportunity Mapping: Mapping the Geography of Opportunity for Public Interest Advocacy
Opportunity Mapping: Mapping the Geography of Opportunity for Public Interest Advocacy
Opportunity Mapping: Mapping the Geography of Opportunity for Public Interest Advocacy
Opportunity Mapping: Mapping the Geography of Opportunity for Public Interest Advocacy
Opportunity Mapping: Mapping the Geography of Opportunity for Public Interest Advocacy
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Opportunity Mapping: Mapping the Geography of Opportunity for Public Interest Advocacy

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Opportunity Mapping: Mapping the Geography of Opportunity for Public Interest Advocacy

  1. 1. NLADA Substantive Law ConferenceChicago, ILJuly 23, 2010Presented by:Jason ReeceSenior ResearcherDirector of the Opportunity Communities ProgramThe Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity
  2. 2.  “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel. Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:  High-quality education  Healthy and safe environment  Stable housing  Sustainable employment  Political empowerment  Outlets for wealth-building  Positive social networks
  3. 3.  Five decades of research indicate that your environment has a profound impact on your access to opportunity and likelihood of success High poverty areas with poor employment, underperforming schools, distressed housing and public health/safety risks depress life outcomes  A system of disadvantage  Many manifestations ▪ Urban, rural, suburban People of color are far more likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and communities 3
  4. 4. Physical Social Cultural Outcomes & BehaviorsThese structures interact in ways that produce racialized outcomes for different groups, but alsoin ways that influence identity
  5. 5. Source: Barbara Reskin. http://faculty.uwashington.edu/reskin/ 5
  6. 6. • One variable can explain why differential outcomes.…to a multi-dimensional understanding…. • Structural Inequality – Example: a Bird in a cage. Examining one bar cannot explain why a bird cannot fly. But multiple bars, arranged in specific ways, reinforce each other and trap the bird.
  7. 7. Some people ride the “Up” Others have to run up escalator to reach the “Down” escalator to opportunity get there 7
  8. 8.  Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life. Low Opportunity neighborhoods limit the development of human capital A Community of Opportunity approach can develop pathways that result in increased social and economic health, benefiting everyone  Looking at people, places and linkages ▪ Linkages = building connections to areas of opportunity ▪ Example: Opportunity based fair housing 8
  9. 9.  Deliberate, coordinated, and regional investments in people, places, and linkages Two-pronged approach: ▪ Targeted in-place, urban revitalization strategies ▪ Mobility-based investments for marginalized residents to access high opportunity communities’These are Not opposing strategies! A sustainable,transformative development strategy requires both
  10. 10.  Mapping visually represents the cumulative effects of opportunity segregation  Also a strong analytical tool to look at disparate impact (especially those impacts which are spatial and racial in nature) • One map may contain tens of thousands of pieces of information than can be understood in secondsA good map can enable you totell a story or solve a problem • Research has shown that people can solve problems faster with map based information, than by looking at charts, tables or graphs
  11. 11.  The Kirwan Institute has conducted “opportunity mapping” for states and metropolitan regions across the US  Projects in at least a dozen states ▪ Full State Analysis: MA, CT, OH, FL ▪ Regions: Seattle, San Francisco, Chicago, Atlanta, Baltimore, Washington D.C., Detroit, Austin, Sacramento, Los Angeles, New York, Houston, New Orleans Why identify the “State of Opportunity”  How are low-income groups situated in the State?  How are racial and ethnic groups situated?  How does housing intersect with race, class and opportunity  What can be done to improve the opportunity landscape?
  12. 12.  How do you map opportunity?  Data representing community conditions was gathered for neighborhood (census tracts) across the state or region ▪ Data for all indicators of community conditions was aggregated to the Census Tract level and analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity index for the census tracts (neighborhoods) throughout the state or region  The opportunity index is then mapped and census tracts are broken into quintiles based on their opportunity score ▪ Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High
  13. 13. EDUCATION HOUSING & NEIGHBORHOOD Student poverty rates HEALTH Reading/Math test scores  Home ownership rates Adult educational attainment  Crime incidence Teacher qualifications  Vacancy rates Graduation rate  Home value appreciation  Neighborhood poverty ratesECONOMIC HEALTH  Population change  Proximity to parks/open space Proximity to employment  Proximity to toxic waste release Commute times sites Job growth trends Business start trends All indicators grounded in social science Unemployment rate research literature, also indicators can be Public assistance rate more narrowly tailored to meet the needs of particular populations (e.g. public housing residents). 13
  14. 14. Education Economic Housing & FinalOpportunity Opportunity Neighborhood Opportunity Score Score Score Score (Map) 14
  15. 15. Example of an Opportunity Map: Detroit MI(Dark Areas = Most Opportunity Rich Communities)(Light Areas = Most Opportunity Deprived Areas) 15
  16. 16. 100%80%60%40%20% 0% % African American % Asian % Latino % Whites Low and Very Low Opp. Moderate Opportunity High and Very High Opp. 17
  17. 17.  Background on this project  Originated from effort to incorporate mapping analysis into legal services Partners  Massachusetts Law Reform Institute, MA Legal Assistance Corp (foundation) and other Legal Services Entities  Year long process of meeting with stakeholders to understand mapping needs and issues  Training with service providers & agencies (using mapping for programming)
  18. 18.  Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapping capability:  Education Quality and Opportunity  Economic Health and Transportation  Neighborhood Stability and Health
  19. 19. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
  20. 20.  Program design and use within legal services  New programming – proposed “Adopt A Zip Code” program  Use in exploring client concerns/challenges State level program design (public sector)  New $5 million state affordable housing program, targeted to high opportunity communities (see press release)  Targeting of $21 million in NSP funds to low opportunity communities by the MA Department of Housing and Community Development Implementation still unfolding
  21. 21.  Connecticut  “The mapping is guiding our next round of fair housing testing…our mapping report has been identified by the CT Department of Economic and Community Development as one of the three central principles that will guide its planning over the next five years.” ▪ Erin Boggs, CT Fair Housing Center
  22. 22.  Baltimore  Remedial proposal in Thompson v. HUD Chicago (Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities)  Use in advising voucher holders in neighborhood selection Austin  Use in evaluating city’s affordable housing investments Related Project: Washington County, OR  Advised on opportunity map created by the County included in recent consolidated plan for County ▪ Exploring application in planning activities for the broader Portland region Child Development  Jacksonville, FL & the Duvall County children’s commission
  23. 23. www.KirwanInstitute.org www.race-talk.org KirwanInstitute on:

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