Mapping Opportunity for Advocacy and Social Justice


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Mapping Opportunity for Advocacy and Social Justice

  1. 1. Mapping Opportunity for Advocacy and Social Justice Pre-Conference Workshop March 11, 2010 Samir Gambhir Senior Research Associate (GIS) [email_address] Matthew Martin Research Associate [email_address] Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity The Ohio State University
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Use of mapping in our work </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity mapping: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications and Impact </li></ul>
  3. 3. Space and Social Equity <ul><li>Racial and social inequity often manifest as spatial inequity </li></ul><ul><li>Local issues tend have a regional scope and variation e.g. school performance, housing vacancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps are naturally the best tools to display this spatial phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps give us the opportunity to look at our entire regions or states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informing people about an issue at a scale they may not usually think of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>linking communities sharing similar problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why use maps? <ul><li>Maps are incredibly efficient </li></ul><ul><li>compacting volumes of data </li></ul><ul><li>ability to convey information in seconds </li></ul><ul><li>tell a story or solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Provide spatial reference </li></ul><ul><li>Shared sense of value </li></ul><ul><li>Builds mutual trust </li></ul>Columbus Neighborhoods: 2006 Foreclosures
  5. 5. About Our Work <ul><li>Emphasis on how systems work to produce inequity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do multiple issues interact to either depress or uplift certain populations or communities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can we do to “strategically intervene” and improve outcomes for marginalized communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of GIS/mapping in our work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequity has a geographic footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage points sometimes geographic in scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps powerful for tools for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designing policy/programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating research/issues to the public and other stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Using Maps for Advocacy <ul><li>In our work we see mapping as serving these primary advocacy goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existing conditions, spatial trends, scenarios, optimization etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A narrative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Analytical Examples <ul><li>Are hospital investments benefiting communities of color? (Columbus) </li></ul><ul><li>Are job growth areas connected to transit? (Baltimore) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hospital Investments and African American neighborhoods Columbus Health Equity Research Franklin County, OH Health Investment Disparity
  9. 9. Spatial Mismatch Job Growth & Public Transit in Baltimore
  10. 10. Narratives Examples <ul><li>Foreclosures in African American neighborhoods are due to subprime lending patterns (Cleveland) </li></ul><ul><li>What if Montclair, NJ schools returned to neighborhood school system? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Race and Foreclosure Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SAGES Presidential Fellow, Case Western University Cleveland MSA Foreclosures: 2006
  12. 12. Race and Subprime Lending Maps: Produced and adapted from Charles Bromley, SAGES Presidential Fellow, Case Western University Cleveland MSA Subprime Loans: 2005
  13. 13. Montclair School District, NJ
  14. 14. Opportunity Mapping: Combining Analysis with a Strong Narrative <ul><li>Research tool to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the dynamics of “opportunity” within metropolitan areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>illustrate where opportunity rich communities exist (and assess who has access to these communities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand what needs to be remedied in opportunity poor communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on Kirwan Institute’s “Communities of Opportunity” framework </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Communities of Opportunity Approach <ul><li>Everyone should have fair access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Low Opportunity neighborhoods limit the development of human capital. </li></ul><ul><li>A Community of Opportunity approach can develop pathways that result in increased social and economic health, benefiting everyone. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communities of Opportunity Primer
  17. 17. Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life Outcomes <ul><li>“ Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a position to be more likely to succeed or excel. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-quality education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy and safe environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlets for wealth-building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive social networks </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Space and Opportunity
  19. 19. Redlining maps (Hartford, CT)
  20. 20. Some people ride the “Up” escalator to reach opportunity. Others have to run up the “Down” escalator to get there.
  21. 21. Mapping Opportunity: Why and How <ul><li>The Communities of Opportunity framework is inherently spatial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality has a geographic footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps can visually track the history and presence of discriminatory and exclusionary policies that spatially segregate people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying places with gaps in opportunity can help direct future investment and identify structures which impede access to opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The model uses state-of-the-art GIS and extensive data sets to analyze the distribution of opportunity in our metro regions </li></ul>
  22. 22. Opportunity Mapping Model <ul><li>A refined model to depict spatial pattern of opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying indicators as proxy for opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by social science literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data easily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index based approach compresses multi-factors to an index </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model is a good communications tool to work with communities </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Geography of Opportunity
  24. 24. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators <ul><li>How do you map opportunity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data representing community conditions is gathered for neighborhood (census tracts) across the state or region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregated to the Census Tract level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity index for the region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The opportunity index is then mapped and census tracts are broken into quintiles based on their opportunity score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Massachusetts Opportunity Mapping, Boston area
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Opportunity Analysis
  28. 28. Redlining: 1937 to 2009
  29. 29. African American men are isolated from neighborhoods of opportunity in Detroit Detroit Opportunity and Race
  30. 30. Low opportunity neighborhoods have higher number of linguistically isolated households Austin Opportunity and Linguistic Isolation
  31. 31. Applications
  32. 32. Building A Fair Florida A Study of Opportunity and Recovery Pre-Conference Workshop March 11, 2010
  33. 33. Recession and Recovery <ul><li>What does Florida’s opportunity landscape look like? </li></ul><ul><li>What communities in Florida have been impacted the most by the recession? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s happening with the resources from The Recovery Act (ARRA)? </li></ul><ul><li>Are jobs being created in Florida’s hard-hit communities? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s being done about the housing crisis? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Build A Fair Florida <ul><li>Phase 1: A call for transparency, tracking, and accountability (September 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Analysis of the opportunity landscape and the effects of the recession (October 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: A study of ARRA contract procurement and job creation (January 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 4: Reviewing the neighborhood stabilization program and the Federal response to the housing crisis (May 2010) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Opportunity Mapping <ul><li>A study of the opportunity status of key regions in Florida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miami </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tampa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orlando </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacksonville </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparatory analysis for ARRA resource allocation research and advocacy efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What places and have the greatest need for investment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What people and have the greatest need for investment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What elements of success need the most investment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education, Housing, Transportation, Employment, etc.? </li></ul></ul></ul>Phase 2 Report
  36. 36. Mapping Opportunity <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math & Reading Scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduation Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Qualifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics & Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs & Job Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>% on Public Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean Commute Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Vacancy Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Housing & Neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Ownership Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential Vacancy Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median Home Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity to Hazardous Sites </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Layers of Opportunity <ul><li>Economics & Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Housing & Neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul>
  38. 38. Visualizing the Opportunity Model
  39. 39. Opportunity & Subsidized Housing Jacksonville Miami
  40. 40. Opportunity & Foreclosure Jacksonville Orlando
  41. 41. Opportunity & Race Tampa-St. Petersburg Orlando
  42. 42. Race and Low Opportunity Low Opportunity and Race
  43. 43. Housing and Low Opportunity Percentage of Subprime Loans per Opportunity Area by Region
  44. 44. Phase 2 Conclusions <ul><li>Assuring a Fair and Equitable Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Collection, Tracking, and Transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted, Equitable Reinvestment for Hard-Hit Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuring Jobs Reach Those in Greatest Need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating Pathways to Opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of Opportunity Model: Opening the “Levers” of Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People, Places, and Linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equitable and Sustainable Fiscal and Economic Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforming the State Tax Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Road Economic Development: Not a continuation of policies that encourage unsustainable growth and low-wage job creation </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. ARRA Jobs & Contracting <ul><li>Measuring the Employment Impact of ARRA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has been most impacted by rising unemployment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is ARRA creating jobs in hard-hit communities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What industries or programs are experiencing success? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is ARRA Contract Procurement Equitable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are minority-owned firms receiving Federal and State contracts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are procurement goals being met? </li></ul></ul>Phase 3 Report
  46. 46. Race and Unemployment Change in Florida Unemployment Rate by Race
  47. 47. Jobless Recovery? <ul><li>Marginal Overall Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Saved Over 20,000 Education Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Projects Maintain Employment Status Quo </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Weatherization Job Growth </li></ul>Florida 2009 Employment by Month
  48. 48. ARRA Investment & Jobs Miami Tampa-St. Petersburg
  49. 49. ARRA Contract Procurement Share of Federal Contracts by Type of Firm FDOT Projects: DBE Participation by District FDOT ARRA Construction Projects
  50. 50. Opportunity & ARRA Projects
  51. 51. Phase 3 Conclusions <ul><li>Improve Tracking of ARRA Spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track recipients of jobs created with ARRA funding by demographics and job quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require reporting by all sub-contractors down to end-user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report the percent of state and local transportation contracts that go to Black, Latino, and Women-owned enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase Small & Minority Business Participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unbundle large contracts for small businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set specific DBE participation goals for the construction industry, and actively recruit African American-owned businesses into this sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure That Disadvantaged Communities Get Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use first source hiring to make sure local communities get jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require recipients of ARRA funding to use apprentices or on-the-job trainees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize bonding to increase employment opportunities for ex-offenders </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Phase 4 Research <ul><li>Are Federal programs helping to alleviate Florida’s housing crisis? </li></ul><ul><li>How are NSP funds being used to alleviate Florida’s housing crisis? </li></ul><ul><li>Is NSP helping to stabilize Florida’s rental housing markets? </li></ul><ul><li>Is NSP helping to create jobs in Florida’s hard-hit communities? </li></ul>
  53. 53. Impact
  54. 54. Thompson v. HUD <ul><li>Opportunity mapping in the Baltimore region was conducted as part of the Thompson v. HUD fair housing litigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiffs used opportunity mapping to frame their remedial proposal, in response to a liability ruling that found the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in violation of the Fair Housing Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plaintiffs have proposed establishing 7,000 affordable housing units in the region’s high- opportunity communities, available to volunteers who wish to relocate out of the City of Baltimore’s public housing </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Thompson v. HUD <ul><li>Fair housing Litigation in Baltimore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brought on behalf of 14,000 African-American residents of public housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in response to history of racial segregation of public housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented by Maryland ACLU and NAACP Legal Defense Fund </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US District Court of Maryland, Judge Marvin Garbis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began in 1995…judge issued liability ruling in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>found HUD liable for violating the federal Fair Housing Act </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Opportunity Mapping in Baltimore <ul><li>Use of 14 indicators of neighborhood opportunity to designate high and low opportunity neighborhoods in the Baltimore region </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators of Opportunity (General) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Quality/Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty, Crime, Vacancy, Property Values, Population Trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity to Jobs and Job Changes, Public Transit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School Poverty, School Test Scores, Teacher Qualifications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Opportunity and Housing <ul><li>Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s lowest opportunity neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidized housing as a way of connecting people to opportunity </li></ul>
  58. 58. Impacts <ul><li>Outside of the litigation, the opportunity maps have been used in a variety of ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program evaluation and planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring partial consent decree program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying Opportunities/Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing opportunities/challenges related to the foreclosure crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional housing advocacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baltimore Regional Housing Coalition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking outcomes for families who move to high opportunity areas (John Hopkins) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. c c c Initial Moves and Secondary Moves by Thompson Consent Decree Program Participants
  60. 60. MA Legal Services and Opportunity Communities <ul><li>Background on this project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originated from effort to incorporate mapping analysis into legal services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Law Reform Institute, MA Legal Assistance Corp (foundation) and other Legal Services Entities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year long process of meeting with stakeholders to understand mapping needs and issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training with service providers & agencies (using mapping for programming) </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators <ul><li>Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapping capability: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education Quality and Opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Health and Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Stability and Health </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Impact <ul><li>Program design and use within the legal services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New programming – proposed “Adopt A Zip Code” program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use in exploring client concerns/challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use in litigation (National Consumer Law Center) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal use by funder (MLAC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct advocacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State opportunity impact assessment (proposed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination among state agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State level program design (public sector) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New $5 million state affordable housing program, targeted to high opportunity communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation still unfolding </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63.
  64. 64. Work in progress <ul><li>National Opportunity Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based Opportunity mapping </li></ul>
  65. 65. Comparison Orlando: National Opportunity Context Orlando: Florida Opportunity Context
  66. 66. Web-based mapping <ul><li>Online interactive maps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ArcGIS Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baltimore Foreclosures ( </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Austin Opportunity Mapping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( </li></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Concluding Thoughts <ul><li>What is this information/approach useful for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostics and targeted investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying areas of opportunity and challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for investment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting services better, targeting programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Foreclosure patterns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking at broader policy issues and concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications – using maps to illustrate areas of concern, areas of opportunity, broader community discussions </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Thank you! For questions, comments or for more information: or e-mail us at [email_address] or [email_address]