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MAPPING FOR CHANGE:SEIZING OPPORTUNITY & CONFRONTING CHALLENGES               USING MAPS & GIS                            ...
Today’s Presentation    y   Background       Kirwan       Our Work – Opportunity Mapping   Using Opportunity Mapping –...
BackgroundB k      dThe Kirwan I iTh Ki      Institute & Our W k                       O Work
About Kirwan4       Multidisciplinary applied research         Multidisciplinary applied research        institute       ...
Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life     Outcomes   “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individu...
Opportunity Matters:                Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity   Five decades of research     indicate that yo...
About Our Work   Emphasis on how systems work to produce inequity       How do multiple issues interact to either depres...
8   Typical map used for     T i l           df    applied policy     research     Foreclosures in       Columbus, OH   ...
Mapping Opportunity: Why and How   The Kirwan Institute has conducted     “opportunity mapping” for states and      oppor...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators   How do you map opportunity?        Data representing commun...
Creating the Composite Opportunity Map:     Example From a Recent CN Project11  Education      Economic      Housing &    ...
Example of an Opportunity Map:          Detroit MI(Dark Areas = Most Opportunity      Rich Communities)(Light Areas = Most...
Using Opportunity MappingUi O       t it M     iTwo CT Case Studies:          S diBaltimore, MD & Massachusetts
Application and Impact pp               p   In the past five years our opportunity     In the past five years our opportu...
Opportunity Mapping & Fair Housing: Thompson v.HUD in Baltimore    Mapping initiative originated during           pp g   ...
What is Thompson v. HUD?                p   Litigation brought on behalf of class     of 14,000 African‐American resident...
More on Thompson v. HUD   In January 2005, US District Court Judge Garbis found HUD liable     for violating the federal ...
Fair Housing & Subsidized    Housing in the Baltimore Region          g                    g    Subsidized housing      o...
19
Photos Near Public Housing Sites in Baltimore                                   20
Opportunity Mapping in Baltimore   Use of 14 indicators of neighborhood     opportunity to designate high and low     opp...
   Subsidized housing     opportunities in     Baltimore are generally     clustered in the region’s     lowest opportuni...
Final Plaintiff’s Proposed Remedy   Plaintiffs propose providing desegregative housing opportunities     Plaintiffs propo...
Other Impacts        p   Outside of the litigation, the opportunity maps have                        g     ,      pp     ...
Initial Moves and Secondary Moves by Thompson             Consent Decree Program Participants25
26
MA Legal Services and     Opportunity Communities   Background on this project       Originated from effort to incorpora...
Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods     and Indicators   Three areas of    opportunity were    analyzed using GIS...
Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
Applications and Impact pp                p   Program design and use within the legal services       New programming – p...
Local ApplicationsL l A li tiExploringE l i opportunities/challenges through                  i i / h ll    h    hmapping ...
Exploring Duval County  p     g            y   Exploring the dimensions of child poverty      p     g                    ...
Exploring Investments in relation to need – Child Poverty & Children’s Services Investments
Example:Understanding Investment        Patterns   An early look at ARRA(stimulus) investments and       jobs created.Caut...
Example:Sample ComprehensiveOpportunity Map (prepared in2009 for MWC)Based on neighborhoodperformance relative to othernei...
Opportunity Map: In relation to subsidized housing and foreclosure patterns
Closing Thoughts Cl i Th      htMoving ForwardM i F        d
Applications pp   What is this information/approach useful for?                            / pp       Diagnostics and ta...
Moving Forward - Strategies     g                 g   Spend time identifying areas of concern/need prior to      p       ...
Thank You!     For questions, comments or for more information: www.kirwaninstitute.org     or e-mail us at Reece.35@osu.e...
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS
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Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS

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Mapping for Change: Seizing Opportunity and Confronting Challenges Using Maps and GIS

  1. MAPPING FOR CHANGE:SEIZING OPPORTUNITY & CONFRONTING CHALLENGES USING MAPS & GIS Presentation to: Jessie Ball duPont Foundation January 13th 2010 Presented by: Jason R J Reece, S i R Senior Researcher (R h (Reece.35@osu.edu) 35@ d ) Samir Gambhir, Senior Research Associate (Gambhir.2@osu.edu) The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity The Ohio State University
  2. Today’s Presentation y Background  Kirwan  Our Work – Opportunity Mapping Using Opportunity Mapping – Two Examples Using Opportunity Mapping – Two Examples  Baltimore  Massachusetts Local example – exploring mapping applications  Exploring opportunities/challenges in Duval County Concluding Thoughts  Moving forward
  3. BackgroundB k dThe Kirwan I iTh Ki Institute & Our W k O Work
  4. About Kirwan4  Multidisciplinary applied research  Multidisciplinary applied research institute  Our mission is to expand opportunity  for all, especially for our most  f ll i ll f t marginalized communities  Founded in 2003 by john powell  Opportunity Communities Program  (1/3 of staff)  Opening pathways to opportunity for  p gp y pp y marginalized communities through  investments in people, places and  supporting linkages  Opportunity mapping i i
  5. Opportunity Matters: Space, Place, and Life  Outcomes “Opportunity” is a situation or condition that places individuals in a  position to be more likely to succeed or excel. Opportunity structures are critical to opening pathways to success:  High quality education High‐quality education  Healthy and safe environment  Stable housing  Sustainable employment  Political empowerment  Outlets for wealth‐building g  Positive social networks
  6. Opportunity Matters: Neighborhoods & Access to Opportunity Five decades of research  indicate that your environment  has a profound impact on your  access to opportunity and  likelihood of success likelihood of success High poverty areas with poor  employment, underperforming  schools, distressed housing and  schools distressed housing and public health/safety risks  depress life outcomes  A system of disadvantage  Many manifestations Many manifestations  Urban, rural, suburban People of color are far more  likely to live in opportunity  likely to live in opportunity deprived neighborhoods and  communities 6
  7. About Our Work Emphasis on how systems work to produce inequity  How do multiple issues interact to either depress or uplift  certain populations or communities?  What can we do to “strategically intervene” and improve  outcomes for marginalized communities f i li d ii Extensive use of mapping in our work  Inequity has a geographic footprint I it h hi f t i t  Leverage points sometimes geographic in scope  Maps powerful for tools for  Research h  Designing policy/programming  Communicating research/issues to the public and other  stakeholders
  8. 8 Typical map used for  T i l df applied policy  research  Foreclosures in  Columbus, OH  Helps target areas for  investment or policy  intervention
  9. Mapping Opportunity: Why and How The Kirwan Institute has conducted  “opportunity mapping” for states and  opportunity mapping for states and metropolitan regions across the US  Projects in at least a dozen states What is an opportunity map?  Comprehensive map, showing various  neighborhood indicators  Opportunity indicators pp y Why identify the “State of Opportunity”  How are low‐income groups situated in the State?  How are racial and ethnic groups situated? H i l d h i i d?  What can be done to improve the opportunity landscape?  Investments  Policy Reforms  Targeting Services
  10. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods and Indicators How do you map opportunity?   Data representing community conditions was gathered for  neighborhood (census tracts) across the state or region  Data for all indicators of community conditions was aggregated to the  Census Tract level and analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity  Census Tract level and analyzed to create a comprehensive opportunity index for the census tracts (neighborhoods) throughout the state or region  The opportunity index is then mapped and census tracts are broken into  Th i i d i h d d b k i quintiles based on their opportunity score  Very Low, Low, Moderate, High, Very High
  11. Creating the Composite Opportunity Map: Example From a Recent CN Project11 Education Economic Housing & Final Opportunity Opportunity Neighborhood Opportunity Score Score Score Score (Map)
  12. Example of an Opportunity Map: Detroit MI(Dark Areas = Most Opportunity Rich Communities)(Light Areas = Most Opportunity Deprived Areas) 12
  13. Using Opportunity MappingUi O t it M iTwo CT Case Studies: S diBaltimore, MD & Massachusetts
  14. Application and Impact pp p In the past five years our opportunity  In the past five years our opportunity mapping has been utilized in communities  across the nation to promote social justice  Expanding opportunity for marginalized  Expanding opportunity for marginalized groups – informing policy & action  Recent examples:  Public housing residents and fair housing in Baltimore,  Public housing residents and fair housing in Baltimore, MD  Legal service populations & neighborhoods of  opportunity MA
  15. Opportunity Mapping & Fair Housing: Thompson v.HUD in Baltimore  Mapping initiative originated during  pp g g g Director powell’s involvement in both  the liability and remedy phases of  litigation, on behalf of NAACP Legal  Defense Fund and the Maryland  ACLU  Initial partners  Maryland ACLU  NAACP Legal Defense Fund  Expanded beyond litigation  Regional fair housing coalition R i lf i h i li i  Framework for program evaluation &  identifying housing opportunities or  challenges in the region  Used the opportunity community  model to identify solutions for fair  housing litigation in the Baltimore  region (remedial proposal pending)  Potential impact on 7,000 public housing families  Potential impact on 7 000 public housing families in the Baltimore region
  16. What is Thompson v. HUD? p Litigation brought on behalf of class  of 14,000 African‐American residents  f 14 000 Af i A i id t of public housing in response to  history of racial segregation of public  housing and concentration in poor,  g p , distressed neighborhoods in  Baltimore   Represented by Maryland ACLU and  NAACP Legal Defense Fund NAACP Legal Defense Fund US District Court of Maryland, Judge  Marvin Garbis  Began in 1995…judge issued liability  Began in 1995 judge issued liability ruling in 2005  Remedial trial held in 2006  Still waiting for final remedial decision 16
  17. More on Thompson v. HUD In January 2005, US District Court Judge Garbis found HUD liable  for violating the federal Fair Housing Act, for not providing fair  housing opportunities to Baltimore’s African American public  housing residents  "Baltimore City should not be viewed ... as a container for all of the poor of a  contiguous region“ HUD failed to affirmatively promote fair housing by failing to consider a  regional approach to desegregating public housing  “[T]he failure adequately to take a regional approach to the desegregation of public  housing in the region that included Baltimore City violated the Fair Housing Act and  q pp p y requires consideration of appropriate remedial action by the Court.”   [Hon. Marvin J. Garbis, Memorandum of Decision.  Carmen Thompson et. al. vs. US  Department of Housing and Urban Development et. al.  January 6, 2005: 104]
  18. Fair Housing & Subsidized Housing in the Baltimore Region g g Subsidized housing  opportunities in Baltimore  are generally clustered in the  region’s predominately  African American  f neighborhoods   Also high poverty  neighborhoods 18
  19. 19
  20. Photos Near Public Housing Sites in Baltimore 20
  21. Opportunity Mapping in Baltimore Use of 14 indicators of neighborhood  opportunity to designate high and low  opportunity to designate high and low opportunity neighborhoods in the  Baltimore region Indicators of Opportunity (General) pp y  Neighborhood Quality/Health  Poverty, Crime, Vacancy, Property Values,  Population Trends  Economic Opportunity  Economic Opportunity  Proximity to Jobs and Job Changes, Public  Transit  Educational Opportunity  School Poverty, School Test Scores,  School Poverty School Test Scores Teacher Qualifications 21
  22.  Subsidized housing  opportunities in  Baltimore are generally  clustered in the region’s  lowest opportunity  neighborhoods 22
  23. Final Plaintiff’s Proposed Remedy Plaintiffs propose providing desegregative housing opportunities  Plaintiffs propose providing desegregative housing opportunities in the region’s high opportunity neighborhoods to remedy HUD’s  fair housing violations  With the goal of providing nearly 7,000 affordable housing opportunities  in high opportunity communities to public housing residents who  volunteer to relocate in ten years  Flexibility in implementation (new construction and vouchers) Aligned with proposals to provide support services for residents  who volunteer for the program who volunteer for the program 23
  24. Other Impacts p Outside of the litigation, the opportunity maps have  g , pp y p been used in a variety of ways  Program evaluation and planning  Monitoring partial consent decree program M it i ti l td  Identifying Opportunities/Challenges  Assessing opportunities/challenges related to the foreclosure  crisis  Regional housing advocacy  Baltimore Regional Housing Coalition g g  Research  Tracking outcomes for families who move to high opportunity  areas (John Hopkins) areas (John Hopkins)
  25. Initial Moves and Secondary Moves by Thompson Consent Decree Program Participants25
  26. 26
  27. MA Legal Services and  Opportunity Communities Background on this project  Originated from effort to incorporate  mapping analysis into legal services Partners  Massachusetts Law Reform Institute,  MA Legal Assistance Corp  (foundation) and other Legal Services  Entities  Year long process of meeting with  stakeholders to understand mapping  needs and issues d di  Training with service providers &  agencies (using mapping for  programming)
  28. Mapping Communities of Opportunity: Methods  and Indicators Three areas of opportunity were analyzed using GIS mapping capability:  Education Q lit Ed ti Quality and d Opportunity  Economic Health and Transportation T t ti  Neighborhood Stability and Health
  29. Comprehensive Opportunity Map: Greater Boston
  30. Applications and Impact pp p Program design and use within the legal services  New programming – proposed “Adopt A Zip Code” program  Use in exploring client concerns/challenges  Use in litigation (National Consumer Law Center) g ( )  Internal use by funder (MLAC) Direct advocacy  State opportunity impact assessment (proposed) State opportunity impact assessment (proposed)  Dissemination among state agencies State level program design (public sector)  New $5 million state affordable housing program, targeted to  $ ll ff d bl h d high opportunity communities (see press release) Implementation still unfolding
  31. Local ApplicationsL l A li tiExploringE l i opportunities/challenges through i i / h ll h hmapping in Duval County, FL
  32. Exploring Duval County p g y Exploring the dimensions of child poverty p g p y  Geography of neighborhood/school poverty & student  performance Exploring investments  Childrens services & ARRA Looking at intersections L ki i i  Foreclosure patterns and child vulnerability  What does a comprehensive opportunity map for What does a comprehensive opportunity map for  Jacksonville look like (sample map)  Intersection with race, subsidized housing, foreclosure
  33. Exploring Investments in relation to need – Child Poverty & Children’s Services Investments
  34. Example:Understanding Investment Patterns An early look at ARRA(stimulus) investments and jobs created.Caution: thi map i only asC ti this is laccurate as the source data (ARRA data problematic)
  35. Example:Sample ComprehensiveOpportunity Map (prepared in2009 for MWC)Based on neighborhoodperformance relative to otherneighborhoods in state.Indicators:Index based on•Adult educational attainment•School poverty•Teacher qualifications•FCAT scores•Unemployment•Public assistance rates•Jobs and job changes•Commute time•Proximity to Toxic Waste•Home values•Home vacancy/ownership•Crime
  36. Opportunity Map: In relation to subsidized housing and foreclosure patterns
  37. Closing Thoughts Cl i Th htMoving ForwardM i F d
  38. Applications pp What is this information/approach useful for? / pp  Diagnostics and targeted investments  Identifying areas of opportunity and challenges  O Opportunities t iti  Opportunities for investment  Targeting services better, targeting programs  Challenges  E.g. foreclosure patterns – interconnections between foreclosure and  children in need  Looking at broader policy issues and concern  Communications – using maps to illustrate areas of concern, areas of  opportunity, broader community discussions
  39. Moving Forward - Strategies g g Spend time identifying areas of concern/need prior to  p y g / p mapping  Targeted inquiries and analysis (areas of concern, areas of  opportunities for progress) opportunities for progress)  Diagnostics (programs, investments etc.) Consider mapping to help address broader challenges  Planning and strategy, communications, public discourse, advocacy – outreach, stakeholder, informing program design  Comprehensive opportunity maps more useful in this role  p pp y p Be aware of data challenges  Access to data sometimes a limiting factor
  40. Thank You! For questions, comments or for more information: www.kirwaninstitute.org or e-mail us at Reece.35@osu.edu or Gambhir.2@osu.edu50

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