Research and Advocacy at the Intersection of Race and Poverty PRRAC Small Grants Program john a. powellExecutive Director, The Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity
Communities of Opportunity Everyone should have access to the critical opportunity structures needed to succeed in life Affirmatively connecting people to opportunity creates positive, transformative change in communities
Mapping Opportunity The Kirwan Institute has conducted “opportunity mapping” for states and metropolitan regions across the US How are low-income groups situated in the State? How are racial and ethnic groups situated? What can be done to improve the opportunity landscape?
Opportunity maps can illuminate… What neighborhoods are at risk of becoming low opportunity communities? Where is affordable housing needed in opportunity rich communities within the region? Which neighborhoods are significantly impacting the quality of life and development of children in the region? What are the neighborhood conditions for neighborhoods impacted by foreclosure?
Subsidized housing opportunities in Baltimore are generally clustered in the region’s predominately African American neighborhoods
Remedial proposal The remedy must provide desegregative housing units in areas of opportunity The remedy must be regional in scope The remedy must be race conscious The remedial program should be a structured choice model The remedy must be goal driven, not process driven HUD must consider both vouchers and housing production to meet the remedy’s goals
Race and Classintersections:low income whites are notas spatially segregated
Indicators of Opportunity: AustinEDUCATION ECONOMIC MOBILITY & HEALTH & NEIGHBORHOOD TRANSPORTATION ENVIRONMENT QUALITY School Poverty Unemployment Commute Time Proximity to toxic Neighborhood poverty waste rates Teacher Dependence on Access to public transit Experience Public Assistance stops Access to parks and Housing vacancy rates open spaceStudent/ Teacher Proximity to Frequency of public Crime rates Ratio Employment transit service Proximity to health care facilities and Home ownershipMath & Reading Ratio of jobs to physicians Scores residents Median income Access to grocery Home valuesStudent Retention Job growth trends stores Insurance access Figure 1: Opportunity indicators used in the Austin analysis 17
Opportunity in a Hot Market City•Opportunity in theAustin region ismore centralized --not a hollow regionlike Cleveland orBaltimore•Althoughopportunity is morecentralized, it is stillspatially segregated 18
Children of Color and Educational Opportunity 19
Opportunity and Subsidized Housing Subsidized housing is almost non existent in high opportunity areas Approximately 1 out of 10 subsidized housing sites can be found in high opportunity census tracts, while 2 out of 3 sites are concentrated in the region’s low opportunity areas 20
Linguistically Isolated People and the ComprehensiveOpportunity Map for the Austin Region 21
King County, WA Opportunity Mapping –Mapping to Promote Equitable Community Development and Fair Housing
Project Tasks & Schedule Phase 1 Data collection and geo-coding of opportunity indicator data for the region. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of opportunity indicator data for the region’s census tracts and communities, creation of initial maps. Basic analysis of racial characteristics within various areas of opportunity Phase 2 Mapping and in-depth analysis of socio-economic conditions (race, class and ethnicity) in various opportunity areas Mapping and analysis of subprime lending trends and foreclosures, affordable housing, subsidized housing and other housing characteristics in various opportunity areas Mapping and evaluation of neighborhood performance based on indicators related to national averages (identifying high and low performing areas based on national trends) Preparation of report outlining mapping results and identification of strategies to remedy opportunity isolation for marginalized communities Publication of results on-line and presentation of results
Seattle / King CountyOpportunity “indicators” Education: Housing and Neighborhood Health: Educational attainment for the total Property values population School poverty for neighborhood schools Property appreciation (based on local realty Test scores for neighborhood schools data if available) Teacher qualifications for neighborhood Housing vacancy rates schools (or certified teachers) Crime rates Teacher student ratio Poverty rates Population change Economic Opportunity and Mobility: Home ownership Proximity to toxic waste Unemployment rates release sites Population on public assistance Proximity to parks/open space Proximity to employment (job opportunities within 5 miles) Economic climate 1 (change in # of jobs w/in 5 miles) Economic climate 2 (business creation w/in 5 miles) Mean commute time