Reporting on Race  Andrew Grant-Thomas, Deputy Director Kirwan Institute for the  Study of Race and Ethnicity Columbus Dis...
OVERVIEW <ul><li>Race coverage in the Dispatch  </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting on race  </li></ul><ul><li>Race matters </li><...
I. The Dispatch:  Positives on Race Coverage <ul><li>The Dispatch included an assessment of the racial impacts of the fore...
<ul><li>Too much school coverage criticizes teachers and district administration; little attention to neighborhood factors...
<ul><li>“ Although there is an emphasis on Black life, it often deals with tragedy or athletics.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why ...
<ul><li>“ There is not much on other minority groups, such as Hispanics or Somalis unless it is dealing with crime stories...
<ul><li>“ Would be interesting to get more international news with a 'Columbus connection'  for example, they did a good p...
II. Reporting on Race:  Four  “Red Flag”  Tendencies <ul><li>Minimizing the significance of race and racism </li></ul><ul>...
1. Minimizing significance  of race and racism <ul><li>Possible responses </li></ul><ul><li>Document racial disparities, b...
<ul><li>Possible Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the easy trap of telling individual, “episodic” stories to advance the ...
<ul><li>Possible responses </li></ul><ul><li>Note that many/most challenges are shared across racial lines, though unequal...
4. Highlighting race-as-problem without noting “good news” or possible solutions <ul><li>Possible responses </li></ul><ul>...
IIIa. Race Matters: Demographics and Diversity in Columbus Source: Diversitydata.org 75.1% 107.1% 2.8% Asian 35.8% 150.9% ...
Demographics & Diversity in Columbus: Household Composition    4.4%   22.2%   32.4%   25.6% Asian   13.4%   14.5%   27.2% ...
Diversity & Inequality in Columbus: Homeownership and Overcrowding   15.0%    7.1%   39.2% Asian   17.5%    6.4%   31.2% H...
Diversity & Inequality in Columbus: Economic Opportunity   14.8%   $46,246 Asian   17.8%   $35,198 Hispanic   22.3%   $30,...
Diversity & Inequality in Columbus: Economic Opportunity for Children
Whoa !
In general, Americans think much less well of Blacks than of Whites… IIIb.   Race Matters:   The  Meanings of Race Data fr...
Race Matters:   The  Meanings of Race Except with respect to family, public opinion doesn’t treat Hispanics much better th...
Racial Identity    Social Status
Racial Identity    Social Status
IVa. How Race Matters:  Thinking Race, Thinking Systems
Housing Is a Key Intervention Point  into the Complex Web of Opportunity Housing is a key component of a set of interrelat...
Where Children Live Largely Determines  Their Access to High or Low-quality Schools
Jobs & Role Models…
Playgrounds, Parks, Arts…and More
<ul><li>All These Components Together  </li></ul><ul><li>Define an “Opportunity Structure” </li></ul>
Race and Opportunity in Franklin County <ul><li>Property values  </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood poverty </li></ul><ul><li>...
Latinos and, especially, African Americans, live disproportionately in low-opportunity neighborhoods
Low-income African American Ohioans  enjoy less neighborhood opportunity than do low-income members of other groups
Low-income   white  families  live in stronger neighborhoods than  hi-income   black  families
IVb. How Race Matters:  Implicit (Hidden) Bias
SPINNING GIRL
<ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vqeb peow ytro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cvur ...
<ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul><...
<ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass  </li></u...
<ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunshine </li><...
<ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></...
Implicit Association Test http://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2007/08/19/
Implicit Bias against Nonwhites, Relative to Whites, is Strong Note: Percentages represent the percent biased in favor of ...
What Would You Do?
Implicit Racial Bias:  The Shooter Game <ul><li>Images of suspects  -- armed and unarmed, black and white – flash on a mon...
Implicit Racial Bias:  Demonstrated Behavioral Links <ul><li>Split-second police decisions about when and what to shoot – ...
<ul><li>As physicians' pro-white implicit bias increased, so did their likelihood of giving white patients, but not black ...
Implicit Bias: Not Just Race <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age  </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Skin-tone </...
Perceiving Race <ul><li>Racial categorization occurs automatically, regardless of any efforts to divert attention from rac...
Reducing  Implicit  Bias <ul><li>Seeing targeted groups in favorable social contexts can help undermine hidden bias: e.g.,...
Reducing Implicit Bias (cont.) <ul><li>Feedback to make physicians more aware of their own biases, disparities in behavior...
<ul><li>Ignores the continuing significance of race </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforces notion that the societal playing field ha...
www.KirwanInstitute.org
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Reporting on Race

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  • 1.
  • Race, ethnicity, gender. age, weight…
  • Racial categorization occurs automatically, regardless of any efforts to divert attention from race. Within moments of perceiving someone, we automatically judge that person in terms of in-group favoritism – whether that person is an “us” or a “them” on various attributes such as sex and race. We unconsciously think about race even when we do not explicitly discuss it. Drew Westen’s The Political Brain i.e., Implicit Association Test Implicit thoughts can overpower our explicit positions People have multiple networks that may be activated without our awareness. Depending on the situation, one network becomes dominant over the others Even though we may fight them, implicit biases reside within us. Often these biases are socially unacceptable or embarrassing, so we try to hide them. Nevertheless, our unconscious networks are still operating…
  • The problem is racial bias, not race; ignoring race does not promote equality and fairness
  • Source: “Buried Prejudice: The Bigot in Your Brain.” ttp://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=buried-prejudice-the-bigot-in-your-brain
  • Reporting on Race

    1. 1. Reporting on Race Andrew Grant-Thomas, Deputy Director Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity Columbus Dispatch February 19, 2009
    2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Race coverage in the Dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting on race </li></ul><ul><li>Race matters </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race and Opportunity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Meanings of Race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How race matters (mechanisms) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative “Systems” Bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit Bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colorblindness </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. I. The Dispatch: Positives on Race Coverage <ul><li>The Dispatch included an assessment of the racial impacts of the foreclosure crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Has run articles on challenges facing some of Columbus's marginalized communities (and talked openly about race in those articles) </li></ul><ul><li>Business section does good job covering issues around race (housing, community investment) </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial page includes some columnists who talk about race (Page, Herbert and others) </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Too much school coverage criticizes teachers and district administration; little attention to neighborhood factors and to racial and economic segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage of Ohio's economic crisis has not noted its racial aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion around fixing the state's economy ignores the most marginalized segment of the work force, people we must bring into the econ mainstream if economy is to be revived </li></ul>The Dispatch: Some Gaps in Coverage
    5. 5. <ul><li>“ Although there is an emphasis on Black life, it often deals with tragedy or athletics.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why is it that when an alleged perp is black, his picture appears all week long? White [perps] only make one appearance, if any” </li></ul><ul><li>“ More human interest stories that focus on the positive contributions African-Americans are making to the community. We readily get the crime and sports stories, etc.  ”  </li></ul>The Dispatch: The African American Community
    6. 6. <ul><li>“ There is not much on other minority groups, such as Hispanics or Somalis unless it is dealing with crime stories” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I hardly ever see anything about the Somali population, expect for the recent FBI investigation” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Feature more stories about educated people of color who have something intelligent to say about issues. Obama is not the only smart black (or mixed race) guy out there” </li></ul>The Dispatch: Other Communities of Color
    7. 7. <ul><li>“ Would be interesting to get more international news with a 'Columbus connection'  for example, they did a good piece on the Mexican soccer team coming to Columbus to play the USA” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would like the Dispatch to carry more pictures of African Americans and other races/ethnicities doing “normal” things” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Talk with people of color (focus groups) to find out what kind of issues/stories are current within the city” </li></ul>The Dispatch: Other Communities of Color
    8. 8. II. Reporting on Race: Four “Red Flag” Tendencies <ul><li>Minimizing the significance of race and racism </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on individual attitudes and choices in evaluating racial outcomes and remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Framing the concerns/aspirations of minority and white communities as if they were unrelated </li></ul><ul><li>Highlighting race-as-problem without noting “good news” or possible solutions </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1. Minimizing significance of race and racism <ul><li>Possible responses </li></ul><ul><li>Document racial disparities, but also explain how those disparities came to be (and “narrative trumps numbers”) </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the “racial” benefits and burdens of practices and policies. Who benefits? Who is harmed? Who has power? Who is left out? </li></ul><ul><li>Do not reduce class and culture to race; class and culture matter, but race matters independently </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Some of the language in this section is drawn from Annie E. Casey, “Race Matters: How to Talk about Race” and the Praxis Project’s “Race Framing Memo.” </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Possible Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid the easy trap of telling individual, “episodic” stories to advance the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Structural opportunity and personal responsibility go hand in hand. Avoid the suggestion that one or the other is to blame </li></ul><ul><li>Expose patterns and systems of injustice in ways that help people understand the institutional and structural roots of these issues </li></ul>2. Focusing on individual attitudes and choices in evaluating racial outcomes and remedies
    11. 11. <ul><li>Possible responses </li></ul><ul><li>Note that many/most challenges are shared across racial lines, though unequally (unemployment, health care, foreclosure). Opportunity is at risk for ALL of us </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on situations anyone might find himself in (loss of a job, lack of health care) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress values that unite rather than divide --“opportunity,” “community” instead of “to each his/her own” </li></ul>3. Framing the concerns/aspirations of minority and white communities as if they were completely unrelated
    12. 12. 4. Highlighting race-as-problem without noting “good news” or possible solutions <ul><li>Possible responses </li></ul><ul><li>When discussing race-based inequality, focus on desired outcomes, not just on present disparities </li></ul><ul><li>F ocus coverage on policies, programs, and practices – the places opportunities are lodged </li></ul><ul><li>Where possible, highlight other communities where similar issues have been addressed effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate evidence of progress even while noting the distance still to travel </li></ul>
    13. 13. IIIa. Race Matters: Demographics and Diversity in Columbus Source: Diversitydata.org 75.1% 107.1% 2.8% Asian 35.8% 150.9% 1.8% Hispanic 4.1% 34.6% 14.2% Black 1.6% 7.9% 80.4% White Foreign-Born 2000 Growth, 1990-2000 Share of population, 2000 Columbus Metropolitan Area
    14. 14. Demographics & Diversity in Columbus: Household Composition    4.4%   22.2%   32.4%   25.6% Asian   13.4%   14.5%   27.2%   21.0% Hispanic   23.3%   13.6%   14.3%   31.3% Black    7.5%   28.3%   23.5%   27.7% White Single parent with own children Married couple with no own children Married couple w/own own children One person household   Household Composition by Race/ Ethnicity and Family Type, 2000
    15. 15. Diversity & Inequality in Columbus: Homeownership and Overcrowding   15.0%    7.1%   39.2% Asian   17.5%    6.4%   31.2% Hispanic    6.2%    2.1%   40.4% Black    2.2%    0.6%   67.2% White Renter Owner Overcrowding rate Home- Ownership
    16. 16. Diversity & Inequality in Columbus: Economic Opportunity   14.8%   $46,246 Asian   17.8%   $35,198 Hispanic   22.3%   $30,223 Black    7.5%   $47,776 White Poverty Rate Median Household Income   Median Household Income and Poverty by Race/Ethnicity, 1999
    17. 17. Diversity & Inequality in Columbus: Economic Opportunity for Children
    18. 18. Whoa !
    19. 19. In general, Americans think much less well of Blacks than of Whites… IIIb. Race Matters: The Meanings of Race Data from 2000 GSS. Topical Report No. 32. National Opinion Research Center. 38% 43% 18% Committed to intergroup tolerance 44% 41% 15% Committed to strong families 38% 59% 3% Intelligent 10% 45% 45% Violence-prone 46% 45% 9% Industrious 77% 18% 5% Wealthy Less Equally More   When compared to Whites, are Blacks more ____ than Whites, tied with Whites, or less ____ than Whites?
    20. 20. Race Matters: The Meanings of Race Except with respect to family, public opinion doesn’t treat Hispanics much better than Blacks… Data from 2000 GSS. Topical Report No. 32. National Opinion Research Center. 34% 44% 22% Committed to intergroup tolerance 25% 41% 34% Committed to strong families 42% 54% 3% Intelligent 15% 47% 38% Violence-prone 35% 43% 22% Industrious 78% 15% 7% Wealthy Less Equally More   When compared to Whites, are Hispanics more ___than Whites, tied with Whites, or less ____ than Whites?
    21. 21. Racial Identity  Social Status
    22. 22. Racial Identity  Social Status
    23. 23. IVa. How Race Matters: Thinking Race, Thinking Systems
    24. 24. Housing Is a Key Intervention Point into the Complex Web of Opportunity Housing is a key component of a set of interrelated opportunity structures that affect the attainment of safe, stable housing and are affected by housing Fiscal Policies Housing Childcare Incarceration/ juvenile justice Education Health Employment Transportation
    25. 25. Where Children Live Largely Determines Their Access to High or Low-quality Schools
    26. 26. Jobs & Role Models…
    27. 27. Playgrounds, Parks, Arts…and More
    28. 28. <ul><li>All These Components Together </li></ul><ul><li>Define an “Opportunity Structure” </li></ul>
    29. 29. Race and Opportunity in Franklin County <ul><li>Property values </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Vacancy rates </li></ul><ul><li>Population change </li></ul><ul><li>Projected job growth </li></ul><ul><li>Crime rates </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rates </li></ul><ul><li>School math and reading proficiency rates </li></ul><ul><li>School poverty rates </li></ul><ul><li>School graduation rates </li></ul><ul><li>Home ownership rates </li></ul>Opportunity Indicators
    30. 30. Latinos and, especially, African Americans, live disproportionately in low-opportunity neighborhoods
    31. 31. Low-income African American Ohioans enjoy less neighborhood opportunity than do low-income members of other groups
    32. 32. Low-income white families live in stronger neighborhoods than hi-income black families
    33. 33. IVb. How Race Matters: Implicit (Hidden) Bias
    34. 34. SPINNING GIRL
    35. 35. <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vqeb peow ytro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cvur zxyq brrm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vhrn wwte zytn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xoc jbni oew mne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zre ytu vee mkp </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop sign </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunshine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop sign </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>What colors are the following lines of text? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Implicit Association Test http://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2007/08/19/
    41. 41. Implicit Bias against Nonwhites, Relative to Whites, is Strong Note: Percentages represent the percent biased in favor of group. Source: 94 California Law Review (2006), p. 957 63% 26% 11%   27% 57% 16% Asians/Whites 69% 19% 12%   32% 56% 12% Blacks/Whites White Neutral Nonwhite   White Neutral Nonwhite Implicit   Explicit Groups Compared Distributions of Responses on Explicit (Self-reported) and Implicit Measures
    42. 42. What Would You Do?
    43. 43. Implicit Racial Bias: The Shooter Game <ul><li>Images of suspects -- armed and unarmed, black and white – flash on a monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the man in each picture carrying a gun? Subjects have less than one second to press one key to shoot or another not to shoot. </li></ul><ul><li>After repeated experimentation, people’s mistakes follow a clear pattern: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They shoot more unarmed blacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They fail to shoot more armed whites </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Implicit Racial Bias: Demonstrated Behavioral Links <ul><li>Split-second police decisions about when and what to shoot – regardless of explicit attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit biases affected sentencing decisions for defendants convicted of felonies </li></ul><ul><li>More or less implicit bias corresponded with comfort level and body language in interracial interactions </li></ul><ul><li>People with greater implicit bias were more likely to interpret ambiguous behavior with respect to negative stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Dasgupta 2008 </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>As physicians' pro-white implicit bias increased, so did their likelihood of giving white patients, but not black patients, clot-busting thrombolytic drugs </li></ul><ul><li>White people who exhibited greater implicit bias toward black people reported a stronger tendency to engage in such everyday discriminatory acts as avoiding or excluding blacks socially, uttering racial slurs and jokes, and insulting, threatening or physically harming blacks. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the implicit bias of an employer against Arab-Muslim men, the less likely he or she was to call an applicant with a name such as Mohammed or Reza for an interview. </li></ul>Implicit Racial Bias: Demonstrated Behavioral Links
    46. 46. Implicit Bias: Not Just Race <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Skin-tone </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality </li></ul>Source: Nosek et al, “Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes.” Available at http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/business/20061202money2.pdf
    47. 47. Perceiving Race <ul><li>Racial categorization occurs automatically, regardless of any efforts to divert attention from race. </li></ul><ul><li>Within moments of perceiving someone, we reflexively judge that person in terms of in-group favoritism: Is he or she “us” or “them”? </li></ul><ul><li>We unconsciously think about race even when we do not explicitly discuss it. Our implicit (hidden) thoughts can overpower our explicit positions </li></ul>
    48. 48. Reducing Implicit Bias <ul><li>Seeing targeted groups in favorable social contexts can help undermine hidden bias: e.g., seeing black faces with a church as a background; examples of admired blacks such as Colin Powell and Denzel Washington; reading about Arab-Muslims’ positive contributions to society. </li></ul><ul><li>Working together in a structured environment to solve shared problems </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching explicitly egalitarian views </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing unbiased behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to differentiate other-race faces (facial recognition training) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Dasgupta 2008 </li></ul>
    49. 49. Reducing Implicit Bias (cont.) <ul><li>Feedback to make physicians more aware of their own biases, disparities in behaviors toward their own cohort of patients, privately administering IATs to increase awareness, and targeted education to mitigate effects on decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>People who report a strong personal motivation to be non-prejudiced tend to harbor less implicit bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing simple but concrete plans to supplant stereotypes in particular situations can also short-circuit implicit biases. On researcher found that those who simply resolved to think of the word “safe” whenever they saw a black face showed dramatic reductions in implicit racial bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Siri Carpenter, “Buried Prejudice: The Bigot in Your Brain.” </li></ul>
    50. 50. <ul><li>Ignores the continuing significance of race </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforces notion that the societal playing field has been “leveled” </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages ineffective policy solutions to social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Discounts strategic benefits of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Is not feasible given pervasiveness and strength of implicit racial thinking and bias </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is racial bias, not race; ignoring race actual undermines push for equal opportunity </li></ul>IVc. How Race Matters: Colorblindness
    51. 51. www.KirwanInstitute.org

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