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  1. 1. Eyes:  Blinking or corneal reflex-newborn blinks at sudden approach of bright light or at approach of object towards the cornea;persists throughout life  Pupillary-pupil constricts when bright light shines towards it,persists throughout life  Dolls eye-as head is moved slightly towards right or left,eyes lag behind and do not immediately adjust to new position of head ;disappears as fixation develops;if persists indicates neurologic damage
  2. 2. Nose:  Sneeze-nasal passage respond spontaneously to irritation or obstruction:persists throughout life  Glabellar-tapping briskly on glabella causes eyes to close tightly
  3. 3. Mouth and throat:  Sucking-infant begins strong sucking movements of the circumoral area in response to stimulation:persists throughout infancy evenwithout stimulation,such as during sleep  Gag-stimulation of posterior paharynx by food ,suction or passage of tube causes infant to gag,persists throughout life  Rooting-touching or stroking cheek along the side of the mouth causes infant to turn the head towards that side and begin to suck;should disappear by 3-4 mo,but may persists upto 12mo
  4. 4.  Extrusion-when tongue is touched or depressed infant responds by forcing it outward,disappears by age of 4mo  Yawn-spontaneous reponse to decreased oxygenation by increasing amount of inspired air;persists throughout life  Cough-irritation of mucus membrane of larynx or tracheo bronchial tree causes coughing;persists throughout life;usually present after first day of life
  5. 5. Extremities  Grasp-touching palms or soles near base of digits causes flexion of hands and toes;palmar grasp lessons after age 3mo,to be replaced by voluntary movement,;plantar grasp lessens by 8mo  Babinski-stoking outer sole of the foot upward from heel and across ball of foot causes toes to hyperextend and hallux to dorsiflex ,disappears by 1yr  Ankle clonus-briskly dorsiflexing foot while supporting knee in partially flexed position results in 1-2 oscillating movements (beats);eventually no beats shoould be felt
  6. 6. moro  Sudden jarring or change in equilibrium causes sudden extension and abduction of extremities and fanning of fingers ,with index finger and thumb forming c shape;followed by flexion and adduction of extremities;legs may weakly flex,infant may cry,disappears by 3-4 mo,usually strongest during first 2mo
  7. 7. startle  Sudden loud noise causes abduction of arms with flexion of elbows ;hands remain clenched ,disappears by age 4mo
  8. 8. Perez-  While infant is prone on firm surface and and thumb is pressed along spine from sacrum to neck,infant responds by crying,flexing extremities ,elevating pelvis and head ;lordosis of spine ,defecation and urination may occur,disappears by age 4-5mo
  9. 9. Assymetric tonic neck  When infants head is turned to one side,arm and leg extend on that side ,and opposite arm and leg flex,disappears by age 3-4mo to be replaced by symmetric positioning of both sides of the body
  10. 10. Trunk incurvation(galant)  Stroking infants back alongside spine causes hips to move toward sstimulated side ,disappears by age of 4weks
  11. 11. Dance or step  If infant is held so that the sole of the foot touches a hard surface ,there is reciprocal flexion and extension of legs ,simulating walking,;disappears by after 3- 4wk,to be replaced by deliberate movement
  12. 12. crawl  When placed on abdomen infant makes crwling movements with arms and legs,dissapers by 6wk
  13. 13. placing  When infant is held upright under arms and dorsal side of the foot is briskly placed against hard object such as table ,leg lifts as if foot is stepping on table,age of disappearnce varies