In 1860 Nightingale set up the firstnurse training school at St ThomasHospital, London. Nightingalescurriculum was largely base aroundnursing practice, with instructionfocused upon the need for hygieneand task competence. Her methodsare reflected in her Notes onNursing, (1898).
Some other nurses at thattime, notably Ethel GordonFenwick, were in favor offormalized nursing registrationand curricula that were formallybased in higher education and notwithin the confines of hospitals.
Nurse education in the United Statesis conducted within university schools,although it is unclear who offered thefirst degree level program. So far asknown Yale School of Nursing becamethe first autonomous school of nursingin the United States in 1923. In Europethe University of Edinburgh was thefirst European institution to offer anursing degree in 1972.
ALPHABETICAL LISTING OFNURSING AND RELATEDCREDENTIALS ANDCERTIFICATIONS
CONCEPTS AND METHODS OFEVALUATION IN NURSINGEDUCATION
Programme evaluation is a complex butintegral component of a nursingeducation programme. It is an ongoingprocess of collecting and describing datawhich provides the basis for decisionmaking.
Specifically, evaluative data can be usedto prepare for accreditation visits;account for budgetary expenditures;answer requests for information; developfaculty and staff; and examine theplanned and actual effects of theprogramme within the community andmake changes accordingly.
There are several programme evaluation modelsavailable to guide the evaluation process, but nosingle model is best and nurse educators mustconsider a variety of variables. Ideally, theselection of a model should be based on thepurpose of the evaluation, programme needs,material and spatial resources, and personneltime, as well as the needs and desires of keyinterest groups. Several considerations are alsorequired before the model is implemented.
These include determining specific priorities forevaluation since all aspects of a programme(conceptual framework, philosophy, programmegoals, student characteristics, graduatesperformance, faculty and administrativeexpertise, as well as adequacy of resources)usually cannot be evaluated simultaneously; howthe evaluation should proceed; time frames forspecific evaluation projects; and personnelresponsible for the evaluative activities.
WHAT IS EVALUATION A systematic process by whichthe worth or value of something isjudged.
Ralph Tyler defines evaluation as “theprocess of determining to what extent theeducational objectives are being realised.”
MEASUREMENTIt is a process involving the assigning ofa number to an individuals characteristics.
MEASUREMENT VS EVALUATIONQuantitativeObjective &impersonalPrecise & scientificNot a continuosprocess, occasionalQualitativePersonal &subjectiveInterpretative &philosophicalContinuos process
PURPOSES OF EVALUATION Facilitate learning Diagnose problems Make decisions Improve products Judge effectiveness
TYPES OF EVALUATIONFormative-takes place continuosly-meant for diagnosis & remedialinstructionSummative-occurs at the end of a course-meant for placement ,prediction &guidance
FORMATIVE EVALUATIONto enable people and agencies makejudgements about the work undertaken; to identify their knowledge, attitudes andskills to understand the changes that haveoccurred in theseto increase their ability to assess theirlearning and performance
SUMMATIVE EVALUATIONto enable people and agencies todemonstrate that they have fulfilled theobjectives of the programme or project, or to demonstrate they have achieved thestandard required .
Formative evaluations provideinformation to improve a product orprocess.Summative evaluations provideshort-term effectiveness or long-termimpact information to decide whetheror not to adopt a product or process.
TYPES -CONTDCriterion referenced- evaluates an individuals performance withrespect to specific characteristics expected in theperformance.-used to measure the effectiveness of a programmeor instruction.Norm referenced-compares individual performance with those ofother persons taking the same test.-measures individual differences.-classify and grade learners in various categories.
EVALUATION PROCESS-STEPSIdentify purpose of evaluationIdentify a time frameDetermine when to evaluateSelect the evaluatorsChoose an evaluation design
EVALUATION PROCESS-CONTDSelect an evaluation instrumentCollect dataInterpret dataReport the findingsUse the findingsConsider the cost of evaluation
EVALUATION FOCUS INCLUDES FIVEBASIC COMPONENTSAudiencePurposeQuestionsScopeResources
EVALUATION -TOOLSChecklistsRating scaleQuestionniare and inventoriesAnecdotal recordsCumulative recordsTestsPerformance testsOral tests Written tests
CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OFEVALUATIVE DEVICESRelate to:1. Sampling of objectives2. Sampling of the content3. Validity4. Reliability5. Practicability6. Usefulness
COMMON ERRORS IN RATINGPersonal biasGenerosity errorsCentral tendency errorLogical errorHalo effect
COMMON DEFECTS OF WRITTENEXAMINATIONSTrivialityErrorBiasComplicated instructionsAmbiguityComplexityObsolescence
JOINT COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS FOREDUCATIONAL EVALUATIONThe Student Evaluation Standards The Propriety standards The Utility standards. The Feasibility standards The Accuracy standards
PROPRIETY STANDARDS The propriety standards help ensure that studentevaluations will be conducted legally, ethically andwith due regard for the well-being of the studentsbeing evaluated and other people affected by theevaluation results. P1 Service to Students Evaluations of studentsshould promote sound education principles, fulfillmentof institutional missions, and effective student work,so that educational needs of students are served. P2 Appropriate Policies and Procedures Writtenpolicies and procedures should be developed,implemented, and made available, so that evaluationsare consistent, equitable, and fair.
P3 Access to Evaluation Information Access tostudent’s evaluation information should beprovided, but limited to the student and others withestablished legitimate permission to view theinformation, so that confidentiality is maintained andprivacy protected. P4 Treatment of Students Students should be treatedwith respect in all aspects of the evaluation process, sothat their dignity and opportunities for educationaldevelopment are enhanced.
P5 Rights of Students Evaluations of studentshould be consistent with applicable laws andbasic principles of fairness and human rights, sothat students’ rights and welfare are protected. P6 Balanced Evaluation Evaluations of studentsshould provide information that identifies bothstrengths and weaknesses, so that strengths canbe built upon and problem areas addressed.
UTILITY STANDARDS The utility standards help ensure that studentevaluations are useful. Useful student evaluationsare informative, timely, and influential. U1 Constructive Orientation Student evaluationsshould be constructive, so that they result ineducational decisions that are in the best interest ofthe student. U2 Defined Users and Uses The users and usesof a student evaluation should be specified, so thatevaluation appropriately contributes to studentlearning and development.
U3 Information Scope The information collected forstudent evaluations should be carefully focused andsufficiently comprehensive, so that evaluation questionscan be fully answered and the needs of studentaddressed U4 Evaluator Qualifications Teachers and others whoevaluate students should have the necessaryknowledge and skills, so that evaluations are carried outcompetently and the results can be used withconfidence. U5 Explicit Values In planning and conducting studentevaluations, teachers and others who evaluate studentsshould identify and justify the values used to judgestudent performance, so that the bases for theevaluations are clear and defensible.
U6 Effective Reporting Student evaluation reportsshould be clear, timely, accurate, and relevant, so thatthey are useful to students, their parents/guardians, andother legitimate users. U7 Follow-Up Student evaluations should includeprocedures for follow-up, so that students,parents/guardians, and other legitimate users canunderstand the information and take appropriate follow-upactions.
FEASIBILITY STANDARDS The feasibility standards help ensure that studentevaluations can be implemented as planned. Feasibleevaluations are practical, diplomatic, and adequatelysupported. F1 Practical Orientation Student evaluation proceduresshould be practical, so that they produce the neededinformation in efficient, nondisruptive ways. F2 Political Viability Student evaluations should beplanned and conducted with the anticipation of questionsfrom students, their parents/guardians, and other legitimateusers, so that their questions can be answered effectivelyand their cooperation obtained. .
F3 Evaluation Support Adequate time and resourcesshould be provided for student evaluations, so thatevaluations can be effectively planned andimplemented, their results fully communicated, andappropriate follow-up activities identified
ACCURACY STANDARDS The accuracy standards help ensure that a studentevaluation will produce sound information about astudent’s learning and performance. Sound informationleads to valid interpretations, justifiable conclusions, andappropriate follow-up. A1 Validity Orientation Student evaluations should bedeveloped and implemented, so that interpretationsmade about the performance of a student are valid andnot open to misinterpretation. A2 Defined Expectations for Students Theperformance expectations for students should be clearlydefined, so that evaluation results are defensible andmeaningful.
A3 Context Analysis Student and contextualvariables that may influence performance should beidentified and considered, so that a student’sperformance can be validly interpreted. A4 Documented Procedures The procedures forevaluating students, both planned andactual, should be described, so that the procedurescan be explained and justified.
A5 Defensible Information The adequacy ofinformation gathered should be ensured, so that gooddecisions are possible and can be defended andjustified. A6 Reliable Information Evaluation procedures shouldbe chosen or developed and implemented, so that theyprovide reliable information for decisions about theperformance of a student. A7 Bias Identification and Management Studentevaluations should be free from bias, so thatconclusions can be fair. A8 Handling Information and Quality Control Theinformation collected, processed, and reported aboutstudents should be systematically reviewed, correctedas appropriate, and kept secure, so that accuratejudgments can be made.
A9 Analysis of Information Information collected forstudent evaluations should be systematically andaccurately analyzed, so that the purposes of theevaluation are effectively achieved. A10 Justified Conclusions The evaluative conclusionsabout the student performance should be explicitlyjustified, so that the students, theirparents/guardians, and others can have confidence inthem. A11 Metaevaluation Student evaluation proceduresshould be examined periodically using these and otherpertinent standards, so that mistakes are prevented ordetected and promptly corrected, and sound studentevaluation practices are developed over time.
INTERNAL ASSESSMENTInternal assessment is continuous, periodic andinternal, in which assessment is done in relation tocertain abilities and skills of the students periodicallyand continuously.Internal assessment has to be planned at the timeof curriculum development and syllabus interpretation.• Internal assessment will be assessed by the teacher/instructor of the college or school and no externalteacher or instructor involved in this.•Internal assessment demands the out come ofstudents than the abilities and skills of the students
PURPOSES OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENTThe main purpose of introducinginternal assessment is to integrateteaching and evaluation and to testthe skills and abilities which can not betested through written examination
NEED FOR INTERNAL ASSESSMENT1,Helpful for the student to assess their qualitative andquantitative evaluation.2. Teacher may use different method of teaching –learning process.3. Internal assessment improves the teaching learningprocess, it gives a comprehensive pi . The objectives ofaffective domain(attitude, interest, and appreciation)and its technique can be assessed by internalassessment.5. Internal assessment motivate the students to study.6. Diagnostic and remedial teaching are possible andmore scientific.7.Internal assessment motivate the student to givemore weight age to the annual examination of thestudents learning
SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENT•Internal assessment should be1. Comprehensive (eg) academic achievementpersonality traits achievement objects.(cognitiveaffective and psychomotor)2. Follow the education commission(1964-66)Recommendation3. Built in to the total educational program andshould be used for improvement rather thancertifying the level of student.
4. not to follow scoring procedure,(some of the items needsdescription.)5.keep separate record, not to be combined with otherrecords.6. help the student in changing their attitudes towards theday-to day program.. supplement the final examination8. very objective, unbiased on all the items—- unit test-oral test- practical test- home work- class work- observational scale- participation in social andcultural- group activities etc.
COMPONENTS OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENTItems to be observed.• -periodic test (unit test/term test)• - oral test• - laboratory work• - terms paper(written)• - study habits• - participation• - co-curricular activities• - personality tests• - visits
3. Assessment of personality traits.Traits, co operation, initiation, honest, leadership,fellowship, perseverance, confidence etc
ADVANTAGE / MERITS OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENT.1. This is logical and psychological2. Proper study habits are likely to be developed.3. Students will be more regular, alert, sincere in their study.4. 11th hour preparation will be reduced.5. Students will pay equal attention to all the activities6. Helps the students to minimize their anxietyand nervous breakdown.
•7. Gives comprehensive picture to the teacher.•8. It is a good device for motivating.•9. It helps to diagnose the weakness andstrength of the student.•10. It brings changes in their attitude, interest,and appreciation.•11. Gives ample opportunity to assess thestudent.”The teacher who teaches shouldassess.”•12. Parents feel more comfortable in knowingabout their children.
DEMERITS OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENT1. It may be misused by teacher2. It can cause a great harm in the handsof an Inexperienced, insincere, inefficientand dishonest teacher.3. It lose it validity if a teacher showsfavoritism personal prejudices andsubjectivity in assessment.
EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONSConducting university examination, or boards ofexamination for awarding certificates or degrees related tonursing.In our country usually state boards and universities areconducting examinations for awarding diplomas and degrees.Controller or registrar is over all in charge on behalf ofthe university matters relating to conduct examinations,announcement of results and conferment of degrees andmaintain confidence.
STEPS FOLLOWED•Invite applications from eligible candidates.•Fix a date of commencement of examinations 3 months inadvance.•Issue notification to all the colleges/students.•Select centers for conducting examinations.•Check with the calendar of events one month prior toexaminations(theory/practical/viva-voice)•Select list of examiners for setting the questions(respectivesubjects and courses etc).•Send communication to respective teachers along withguideline pattern of theory question papers, blank white sheetsto set the questions.
PERSONNEL INVOLVES IN EXTERNALEXAMS•Registrar (controller of exams)•Deputy Registrar(deputy controller ofexams)•Verifiers•Dispatching officer•Chief supt. Of examination.•Room superintendent.•Invigilators•Group D staff