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AS GOVERNMENT AND
POLITICS
POLITICAL PARTIES
Key Questions- Lesson Objectives
1. Define a Political Party.
2. Explain the roles of the main Political Parties.
3. Asses...
Questions, Questions
How do we define a political party?
“ A group of like-minded individuals who seek to realise their sh...
Goodness Gracious Great Balls Of Mainstream and One-Issue
Political Parties
Mainstream Political Parties
Like a tin of Ron...
And What Do You Do?
It’s all very well having a political party, but what is the point of them? According to
Lynch and Fai...
National Pride
Whilst the Mainstream parties sit nicely within our definitions and the Single Issue
parties seem to be sit...
Green With Envy
One question which causes some scratching of heads is this:
After Caroline Lucas was elected as the first ...
Under Pressure Or Getting The Party
Started?
Political Party
1. Broad policies for broad groups.
2. Open Membership and st...
The Green Eyed Monster
To understand whether the Greens are a Political Party its worth looking at what
they actually offe...
Moving On Swiftly….
I remember saying (I think) a while
back that at the 2010 General
Election the 3 main Political Partie...
What’s The Story....
My point with this is.... Don’t underestimate the fringe parties.
If you choose to answer a question ...
It’s Our Party And We’ll (Hang On Haven’t I
Already Used This Joke?)
Here are some key terms with regards to parties (and ...
Are You UK With This?
The Question is often asked as to whether the UK is a multi-party or a two-party
system.
What do you...
The Ayes Have It... The Ayes Have It
Twos Company
1. Realistically only Labour and the
Conservatives have the size,
struct...
Part 2
A Quick (ish) Guide To Ideologies In UK Politics
Vs.
You Spin Me Right Round Or Was It
Left Round?
Political parties in the UK claim to represent the views of certain sections...
Simple Pleasures
However the Conventional Left/Right wing
scale is difficult to use on it’s own as it only
relates to the ...
Nice Pass From The Left To Right There
Left Wing Beliefs
1. Emphasis on people as social
beings working together for
commo...
Meet Me Halfway Right On The Borderline...
That’s Were I’m Going To Stay.
Both the traditional Left/Right Wing views are b...
Truly, Madly, Ideologically You
Whilst the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats are all somewhere
on the centre...
Party 1 (See What I Did There?)
A Beginners Guide To.....
The Labour Party
What Is The Labour Party?
If your Northern you might shout ‘Saviour’, if your Southern you might shout
‘Communists’. Howev...
What Makes It Tick?
The Labour Party has a very distinct hierarchy which is evident when you join.
National Executive Comm...
Local Branch Of Labour For Local People
For all new recruits to the Labour party the Local branch (BLP)
(e.g. St. Helens L...
Constituency Labour Party
The General Committee of the Constituency Labour Party
(CLP) is described by Labour as:
“Made up...
N.E.C
The National Executive Committee is the ‘Top Banana’ in the Labour party. This
body contains Labour members from all...
Pick-And-Mix
How a party picks a leader says a lot about how democratic they are. Labour has
been a proud advocate of the ...
The Fall and Deeper Fall Of Gordon
Brown
If you don’t like the Labour leader (and who does these days?) then there are 2
w...
Pick A Card.... ANY Card
Once our candidate has secured this level of support voting slips are sent out to all
members of ...
Choice and Loose Change
Whilst we all know a little bit about how Labour gets new leaders, what about new
candidates? Well...
A Brief-Ish Guide To Labour- Part 1
The Labour party has it’s origins in the Trade Union Movement and evolved as a
Sociali...
Part 2- A Brief-Ish Guide To Labour
As we all know Labour wasn’t exactly successful during the late 70’s and 80’s and
earl...
What Does Labour Stand For?
Old Labour
• Nationalised industries such as Coal
and Steel to minimise unemployment.
• Inclus...
Party 2 (2’s Company)
A Beginner’s Guide To……….
The Conservative Party
What Is The Conservative Party?
If your Southern you might shout ‘Saviours’ and if you’re a Northerner you might
shout ‘Mi...
Born To Lead
Behold the structure of the Conservative Party:
Local Branch of Conservative Party
(Local Party Members by Co...
Council
The Local Branch of the Conservative party performs a similar role to their Labour
Counterparts.
They are predomin...
Conservative Association
Again the Conservative Associations play a
similar role to the CLP’s of Labour. They are
mainly r...
CCHQ
Conservative Campaign Head Quarters (based at 30
Milbank London) is where all the magic happens.
CCHQ are responsible...
Toff At The Top
It’s that time when we look at how the Conservatives get rid of a leader:
If leader resigns....
15% of Par...
How Many Brilliant Ideas Can D.C.
Have In The Space Of 5 Years?
One way in which the Conservatives vary massively from Lab...
How Conservative Is Your Love- Part 1
The Conservative Party is the oldest of all the political parties. It has its origin...
The Sum Of All Conservatives
After the Second World War the Conservatives and Labour exchanged similar
policies whilst in ...
Party 3 (And Easy… Like Sunday Mornings)
A Beginners Guide To….
The Liberal Democrats
What Are The Liberal Democrats?
The Liberal Democrats are definitely the babies of modern British Politics (they
were only...
Structure of the Lib Dems
So how exactly are the Liberal Democrats structured?
Federal Conference- One each
for England, S...
The Old Clegg Over (How To Become
Leader Of The Liberal Democrats).
Party Leader Resigns or
falls ill.
Over 51% of Lib Dem...
Where Do I Sign?
Becoming a Liberal Democrat Parliamentary Candidate couldn’t be simpler:
Candidates write to
their federa...
I Remember When The Lib Dem’s Were
Young….
The Liberal Party had been a major political force in Britain since
the 1800’s,...
Me And The SDP Had So Much Fun
In 1981 there was a massive internal split within
the Labour party (caused in part by the c...
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AS Government & Politics - UK Political Parties

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AS Government & Politics - UK Political Parties

  1. 1. AS GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS POLITICAL PARTIES
  2. 2. Key Questions- Lesson Objectives 1. Define a Political Party. 2. Explain the roles of the main Political Parties. 3. Assess what they stand for. 4. Evaluate the similarities and differences between Political Parties and Pressure Groups.
  3. 3. Questions, Questions How do we define a political party? “ A group of like-minded individuals who seek to realise their shared goals by fielding candidates at elections and thereby securing election to public office”. P. Lynch and P. Fairclough (2010) “A political party is a group of people that is organised for the purpose of winning Government power, by electoral or other means”. Andrew Heywood (2010) “A political party is an organisation whose members share a common ideology and/ or policies, and come together to seek election to political office”. P. Fairclough (2008)
  4. 4. Goodness Gracious Great Balls Of Mainstream and One-Issue Political Parties Mainstream Political Parties Like a tin of Ronseal! These are the main political parties in the UK, of which the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats are the ‘Big 3’. Such parties fit well with the definitions shown before. They have a massive organisation structure (from Local to National level) and will campaign for the support of the public on a broad range of issues. Single Issue Parties These are political parties which can fall into 2 groups: 1.One Idea, Big Vision- e.g. Green Party, UKIP. These parties have a single ideological view which gives them a wide range of issues to campaign on. 2. One Idea, One Vision- e.g. Pro-Life Alliance and Independent Kidderminster Hospital and Health Concern Party. These parties campaign for support on a single issue of either local or national importance.
  5. 5. And What Do You Do? It’s all very well having a political party, but what is the point of them? According to Lynch and Fairclough (2010) there are 5 main reasons! 1. Representation- Parties represent our traditional views. Is this still true in 2010? 2. Participation- Party members are involved in shaping a party and internal democracy. 3. Recruitment- Party members are judged and selected on how appropriate they are for Government. Picking the most able candidates. 4. Policy- Parties produce manifestos which result from internal discussion and consultation. This means they know what to do when they get into power. 5. Stability- Parties mean unity in Parliament and the ability to get things done. It ensures that power is transferred safely and that individuals do not try to sabotage the system.
  6. 6. National Pride Whilst the Mainstream parties sit nicely within our definitions and the Single Issue parties seem to be sitting in a different room, we also need to look at where Nationalist Parties are sitting. Broadly speaking the main Nationalist parties are: Scottish National Party- Campaign for full independence of Scotland Plaid Cymru- Campaign for greater autonomy and finance for Wales Mebyon Kernow- Campaign for recognition of Cornwall as a state British National Party- Campaign for greater recognition of British values and indigenous life.
  7. 7. Green With Envy One question which causes some scratching of heads is this: After Caroline Lucas was elected as the first Green Party MP in history at 2010 General Election (for Brighton Pavilion) it’s worth asking the question…. Are the Green Party a Political Party or a Pressure Group? Well at this stage it’s always handy to do a bit of a comparison. By answering this question it then becomes a lot easier to see what the features of a Political Party and a Pressure Group are.
  8. 8. Under Pressure Or Getting The Party Started? Political Party 1. Broad policies for broad groups. 2. Open Membership and structure 3. Win seats to Win Power 4. Grassroots organisation 5. Internal Democracy 6. Donations from across society to party. Pressure Group 1. Specific policy or issue. 2. Exclusive or selective membership 3. Win seat to raise public awareness 4. Grassroots based. 5. Run by small group of individuals 6. Usually donations from local community.
  9. 9. The Green Eyed Monster To understand whether the Greens are a Political Party its worth looking at what they actually offer. History Of The Greens * Pressure group in 1973 known as ‘People’. * Formed in 1975 as Ecology Party. * Renamed as Green Party in 1985. * Gain 2 MEP’s in 1999 EU elections. * Wins 2 seats in London Assembly in 2008. * Wins first MP in General Election 2010. 2010 Manifesto Pledges • £44 billion stimulus package investing in jobs, renewable resources and social housing. • Introduction of a living wage based on 60% of the average hourly earnings of the UK (now about £8.10 per hour). • Introduce free prescription, dental costs and other NHS services. Ending privatisation. • Break up Multi-National Banks into Local Banks and Mutual Building Societies. • Minimum £170 a week pension and free insulation scheme for the elderly. • Re-possess 300,000 abandoned privately owned homes for public use.
  10. 10. Moving On Swiftly…. I remember saying (I think) a while back that at the 2010 General Election the 3 main Political Parties gained 88.1% of the Public Vote. Whilst this is still a massive amount, it doesn’t really credit the wider growth of smaller fringe political parties. These groups tend to do better in Local Elections and slowly but surely they are gathering support. Year BNP Green SNP UKIP 2002 31,000 59,000 160,100 100,000 2003 55,000 53,000 95,000 160,000 2004 79,000 63,000 109,000 260,000 2005 65,000 71,000 110,000 190,000 2006 63,000 70,000 126,000 160,000 2007 98,000 74,000 139,000 159,000 2008 118,000 80,000 151,000 146,000
  11. 11. What’s The Story.... My point with this is.... Don’t underestimate the fringe parties. If you choose to answer a question on Political parties and Pressure Groups then it’s important not to talk just about the Conservatives, Labour and Liberal Democrats. There are a whole world of fringe parties which actively play a role in Britain today.
  12. 12. It’s Our Party And We’ll (Hang On Haven’t I Already Used This Joke?) Here are some key terms with regards to parties (and I don’t mean Glow sticks and Neon Lights) which you need to know! Single- Party System (e.g. North Korea, China and Eritrea)- Quite simple. One party has total control, there is no political opposition and no real means of protest. Elections may be held but the state controls the result. Dominant- Party System (e.g. Japan, Brazil and Russia) – These are democratic countries but one party is dominant and has held the bulk of power. E.g. In Japan the Liberal Democratic Power have held power almost continuously for the last 55 years.Multi- Party System (e.g. Italy, Germany and Australia) – There are numerous parties all competing for power. Larger parties are likely to form coalitions with smaller parties in making a Government.
  13. 13. Are You UK With This? The Question is often asked as to whether the UK is a multi-party or a two-party system. What do you think?
  14. 14. The Ayes Have It... The Ayes Have It Twos Company 1. Realistically only Labour and the Conservatives have the size, structure and experience to run the country. 2. In 2010 Conservatives and Labour secured 65.1% of the vote and won 86.8% of the seats available. 3. Even the 3rd Party Liberal Democrats are a long way off forming a Government. 4. The current electoral structure doesn’t favour the growth of new parties. Threes a Crowd 1. 34.9% of voters didn’t vote for Labour and the Conservatives. 2. Whilst the Liberal Democrats are 3rd Nationally. In individually seats they are sometimes 2nd or 1st preference. 3. In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland contests are a lot closer and there is genuine choice in which party to vote for. 4. Some 34.9% of the Population don’t vote. If ANYONE could win them over they would win an election.
  15. 15. Part 2 A Quick (ish) Guide To Ideologies In UK Politics Vs.
  16. 16. You Spin Me Right Round Or Was It Left Round? Political parties in the UK claim to represent the views of certain sections of society. Clearly everyone has a different opinion of how they want the country to be run. These views are often referred to as an Ideology. The measurement of a person or parties ideology is usually done on the ‘Political Spectrum’. Left Wing Right Wing Communism Socialism Liberalism Fascism Conservatism
  17. 17. Simple Pleasures However the Conventional Left/Right wing scale is difficult to use on it’s own as it only relates to the Economic ideologies of people and parties. To look at how people feel society should be run we also add a vertical scale. 1. The higher we go up the scale, the more powerful the state is. The state has a bigger say and more legal and physical power to control society. 2. The lower we go on the scale, the smaller the state is. Traditional features such as welfare and public services are removed to allow greater individual freedom. Authoritarian Libertarian
  18. 18. Nice Pass From The Left To Right There Left Wing Beliefs 1. Emphasis on people as social beings working together for common good. 2. The state is chosen by the people and should reflect their views. The state should serve to give the poorer in society similar opportunities to the richer in society. 3. The state should provide welfare and opportunities for people to better themselves. Right Wing Beliefs 1. Emphasis on the individual and the need to preserve order in society. 2. People need strong Government. This can only be achieved with strong leadership and caring for the very needy. 3. Believe in slow gradual change in society rather than radical reform. 4. Belief in a small state and minimal welfare provided by the state, with more emphasis on the private sector.
  19. 19. Meet Me Halfway Right On The Borderline... That’s Were I’m Going To Stay. Both the traditional Left/Right Wing views are based on a society which is divided into the very rich and very poor. Some argue that as we move away from this, there is less need for such radical policies. Indeed since 1992 all the main Political Parties have begun to move from their original positions towards the centre ground. This area of ideology is commonly referred to as Liberalism and has some of the following beliefs: 1. Minimal state Welfare (aimed at needy) 2. Pragmatic policies (right place, right time) 3. Balance between Public and Private sector 4. Protection of Civil Liberties and Human Rights 5. Maintaining sovereignty of the state.
  20. 20. Truly, Madly, Ideologically You Whilst the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats are all somewhere on the centre of the ideological spectrum, this doesn’t mean that they have a strict ideology. In the next slides we’ll look at where each of the parties currently stand on major ideological issues as well as looking at how they are structured. However consider the following questions. 1. What are the strengths of having an clear ideological view? 2. What are the weaknesses of having a clear ideological view? 3. Is pragmatic policies all we seem to get now? 4. Is this the end of ideologies?
  21. 21. Party 1 (See What I Did There?) A Beginners Guide To..... The Labour Party
  22. 22. What Is The Labour Party? If your Northern you might shout ‘Saviour’, if your Southern you might shout ‘Communists’. However a better definition comes from Labour’s own website: “Labour, are the people to carry out this next stage of national renewal because of our values and our understanding of the role of government: to stand by ordinary people so they can change their lives for the better. It is our belief that it is active, reforming government, not absent government, that helps make people powerful”. From this quote is it clear who Labour are aimed at?
  23. 23. What Makes It Tick? The Labour Party has a very distinct hierarchy which is evident when you join. National Executive Committee (NEC) (National Organ of Labour Party) General Committee of Constituency Labour (CLP) (Organises party at Constituency level) Local Branch of Labour Party (Local Members of Labour Party) Local and Regional Policy Forums National Policy Forum
  24. 24. Local Branch Of Labour For Local People For all new recruits to the Labour party the Local branch (BLP) (e.g. St. Helens Labour Party, or Knowsley Labour Party). The Local Branches of the Labour party are essentially the grassroots activists of the Labour Party. According to the Labour Party website they are: “Your local party, based on the ward boundaries for the election of councillors. A lot of Labour Party activity takes place at branch level. Labour members can take part in choosing local council candidates.” They are primarily responsibly for organising the Local Labour Party, campaigning on Local Issues, putting forward candidates and sending their best representatives to the CLP.
  25. 25. Constituency Labour Party The General Committee of the Constituency Labour Party (CLP) is described by Labour as: “Made up of several branches and based on the electoral area for the election of MPs. Via your CLP, you can choose the members from your area to represent you at annual conference and you can help select your parliamentary candidate”. However its role is much bigger then this definition the CLP is also responsible for ensuring that the Constituency parties are following the Party line and the CLP also plays a vital role in checking that all Labour candidates at any election are suitable. Don’t forget the so-called ‘Parachute Regiment’.
  26. 26. N.E.C The National Executive Committee is the ‘Top Banana’ in the Labour party. This body contains Labour members from all sections of the party including MP’s, MEP’s, Councillors, Trade Unions and CLP’s (elected every year). When Labour is at a party conference, members vote on the annual policies. At other times it is the responsibility of the N.E.C. to run the Labour Party. This mainly involves the funding and monitoring of the party nationally. The N.E.C ensures that policy is followed Nationally and that internally disputes are resolved.
  27. 27. Pick-And-Mix How a party picks a leader says a lot about how democratic they are. Labour has been a proud advocate of the One Member One Vote (OMOV) system since 1981. Before we look at the voting, when electing a leader the party is split into 3 groups: Group 1- Parliamentary Party • MP’s • MEP’s Group 2- Constituency Party • Local Councils • Councillors • Local Party Members Group 3- Affiliate Members • Trade Unions • Socialist Societies • Professional Bodies
  28. 28. The Fall and Deeper Fall Of Gordon Brown If you don’t like the Labour leader (and who does these days?) then there are 2 ways you can go about this you sneaky urchin..... Option 1 In Power: 1. If there is a vacancy- You need the support of 20% of Labour MP’s to run for leader. 2. If challenging a current leader- You need 20% of Labour MP’s and 66.6% of the Labour Party Conference. Option 2 Out of Power: 1. If there is a vacancy- You need the support of 12.5% of Labour MP’s to run for leader of opposition. 2. If challenging a current leader- You need 20% of Labour MP’s
  29. 29. Pick A Card.... ANY Card Once our candidate has secured this level of support voting slips are sent out to all members of the Labour party (divided into the 3 groups shown before). Each College Group gets an equal share of the vote. Members rank their candidates in order of preference. 1. Parliamentary Labour Party (and MEP’s)- 33.3% of the vote 2. Affiliated Organisations- 33.3% of the vote 3. Constituency Labour Party- 33.3% of the vote All members vote under the One Member One Vote System (OMOV) and the winner is selected using Alternative Vote (must secure over 50% of the vote) Can you see any mathematical problems with this system?
  30. 30. Choice and Loose Change Whilst we all know a little bit about how Labour gets new leaders, what about new candidates? Well it’s surprisingly straight forward (honest). 1. The N.E.C gives a list of ‘Approved Candidates’ to the Constituency Labour Party. 2. The Constituency Labour Party draws up a shortlist from this Approved list. 3. Constituency Labour Party members vote for their preferred candidate on shortlist (OMOV). 4. The N.E.C either agrees with the CLP choice or imposes its own candidate.
  31. 31. A Brief-Ish Guide To Labour- Part 1 The Labour party has it’s origins in the Trade Union Movement and evolved as a Socialist party committed to improving the conditions of the working class. It’s most notable successes where the Attlee administration (1945-1950) during which the party was responsible for introducing a raft of Welfare Reform such as the creation of the NHS, Compulsory National Insurance, Nationalising of key Industries, Social Housing and State Benefits. It spent some time in opposition until re-election in 1964 under Harold Wilson. In this Labour era the party was best known for it’s social policy developments such as decriminalising homosexuality, legalising abortion, the creation of the Open University and Ending Capital Punishment.
  32. 32. Part 2- A Brief-Ish Guide To Labour As we all know Labour wasn’t exactly successful during the late 70’s and 80’s and early 90’s. In fact they say if you remember Labour being, you weren’t really their. However a young buck called Tony Blair became the first party leader elected under the OMOV system in 1994. What Tony Blair did to Labour between 1994 and 2006 should not be underestimated. He revitalised a party that had been deflated by 4 straight election defeats. Repositioning the party at the centre on the political spectrum and removing Clause IV from the party constitution gave Labour a fresh start and spurred them onto an unprecedented 3 successive election victories.
  33. 33. What Does Labour Stand For? Old Labour • Nationalised industries such as Coal and Steel to minimise unemployment. • Inclusive Welfare System to tackle poverty and improve social justice. • Working-Class policies- improve lives of the poor at expense of rich. • Improving equality in society through legislation. • Social Housing schemes • Keynesist Economics- Top Down Spending to encourage economic growth. New Labour • Part Privatised/Public ownership schemes e.g. NHS Trusts and Banks. • Increase types of welfare such as Child Tax Credits. • Broader policies to appeal to all groups. • Encourage equality through legislation and growth. • More power to Local Councils • 3rd Way Economics in Public Sector.
  34. 34. Party 2 (2’s Company) A Beginner’s Guide To………. The Conservative Party
  35. 35. What Is The Conservative Party? If your Southern you might shout ‘Saviours’ and if you’re a Northerner you might shout ‘Milk-Snatcher’. However the Conservatives define themselves as: “Our vision is for a stronger, safer society where opportunity is spread much more widely and fairly. We want to reverse the school failure, low skills and lack of opportunity that are holding Britain back. Labour’s approach hasn’t worked: their big, impersonal state-controlled schemes fail to support the institutions that could really help tackle social problems – like schools, families, communities and the voluntary sector”.
  36. 36. Born To Lead Behold the structure of the Conservative Party: Local Branch of Conservative Party (Local Party Members by Council Ward) Conservative Associations (Constituency Level Organisers) Conservative Campaign Headquarters (CCHQ)- Organises all aspects of party 1. National Conservative Convention. 2. Conservative Political Forum. Advisory Bodies to party Fresh Future- Policy Group appointed by party leader
  37. 37. Council The Local Branch of the Conservative party performs a similar role to their Labour Counterparts. They are predominantly involved in grassroots local events and recruiting and organising the Conservative Future Movement (aimed at members under 25). They are designed to reflect Council boundaries and as such are responsible for picking candidates to be local councillors.
  38. 38. Conservative Association Again the Conservative Associations play a similar role to the CLP’s of Labour. They are mainly responsible for ensuring that the Branches are behaving and that candidates are following the policies appointed from Conservative HQ. They are also mainly responsible for putting candidates forward for Parliamentary Election (though they don’t have the final say).
  39. 39. CCHQ Conservative Campaign Head Quarters (based at 30 Milbank London) is where all the magic happens. CCHQ are responsible for organising the activities of the National Conservative party, they also decide policy (through the party leader) and ensure that this policy is quoted and used by the Local Conservative organisations. CCHQ used to have the final say on Parliamentary candidates for an election. However thanks to David Cameron’s lust for new ideas this has all changed.
  40. 40. Toff At The Top It’s that time when we look at how the Conservatives get rid of a leader: If leader resigns.... 15% of Parliamentary MP’s call for motion of ‘No Confidence’. Conservative MP’s then vote on this motion More then 50% support leader? Leader stays in charge Leader resigns MP’S Vote for candidates More than 2 Candidates Only 2 candidates MP’s vote in rounds until only 2 candidates left Final Ballot of all party members New Leader
  41. 41. How Many Brilliant Ideas Can D.C. Have In The Space Of 5 Years? One way in which the Conservatives vary massively from Labour is the way in which they select candidates to stand in Parliamentary Elections. Since he was elected leader of the Conservatives in 2005, David Cameron has introduced new methods. The A-Lists (2005) When Cameron became leader he introduced these new lists. Branch parties must seek out a diverse range of candidates within their communities. These lists are then submitted to the Associations and CCHQ to decide whether to interview or not. Hustings (2009) In more then 100 seats candidates were selected using hustings. These are public meetings in which all Conservative Party members are invited. The prospective candidates will debate a range of issues. Members will then vote for the one the prefer to stand as their election candidate. Open Primaries (2009) This has only been used to select the candidate for Totnes so far. In Open Primaries all members of the local community are invited to vote to decide which candidate they want to stand in the next general election. All 68,000 locals were eligible to vote and it cost the party £38,000.
  42. 42. How Conservative Is Your Love- Part 1 The Conservative Party is the oldest of all the political parties. It has its origin in pro- monarchist movements in the 17th Century and evolved to become a party which is primarily associated with the Middle and Upper Class from about 1817 onwards. The Conservative Party of the 19th Century developed a policy of ‘One-Nation Conservatism’ which it used to justify introducing limited welfare reforms to alleviate the dire poverty in British society in a bid to deter a Socialist Revolution. Throughout the 19th Century the Conservatives main rivals for power where the Liberals.
  43. 43. The Sum Of All Conservatives After the Second World War the Conservatives and Labour exchanged similar policies whilst in Government on a range of issues. At this stage the Conservative Party was primarily about slow and steady change. However after Ted Heath’s electoral defeat, the party elected Margaret Thatcher in 1976. She became Prime Minister in 1979 and preceded over a period of radical change such as mass privatisation, defeating the miners’ strikes, war with Argentina, the growth of the FTSE, social upheaval, industrial decline, the poll tax, poor relations with the EU and the shrinking of the welfare state. Now under David Cameron it is still unclear whether the Conservatives are ‘One- Nation Tories’ (looking at the Big Society and ring-fencing the NHS) or Neo-Liberal Thatcherites (the Spending Review and slashing of the Welfare Bill).
  44. 44. Party 3 (And Easy… Like Sunday Mornings) A Beginners Guide To…. The Liberal Democrats
  45. 45. What Are The Liberal Democrats? The Liberal Democrats are definitely the babies of modern British Politics (they were only conceived in 1988), they describe themselves as: “The Liberal Democrats exist to build and safeguard a fair, free and open society, in which we seek to balance the fundamental values of liberty, equality and community, and in which no-one shall be enslaved by poverty, ignorance or conformity. We champion the freedom, dignity and well-being of individuals, we acknowledge and respect their right to freedom of conscience and their right to develop their talents to the full. We aim to disperse power, to foster diversity and to nurture creativity. We believe that the role of the state is to enable all citizens to attain these ideals, to contribute fully to their communities and to take part in the decisions which affect their lives."
  46. 46. Structure of the Lib Dems So how exactly are the Liberal Democrats structured? Federal Conference- One each for England, Scotland and Wales meet twice to decide policy Federal Executive- Run by party leaders, checks everyday running of the party. State- Liberal Democrats for the individual states in the UK. Regional- The Liberal Democrats representatives in constituencies. Local- The Liberal Democrats party at local council level. Federal Policy Commission- Representatives from local levels meet up to produce policy to be referred to higher up the party.
  47. 47. The Old Clegg Over (How To Become Leader Of The Liberal Democrats). Party Leader Resigns or falls ill. Over 51% of Lib Dem MP’s or 75 Local Parties demand a leadership race. 2 years have passed since General Election in opposition. Nominating Candidates Candidate must be: •An MP • Proposed and seconded by 10% of Lib Dem MP’s • Supported by 200 Lib Dem members from at least 20 different local parties.
  48. 48. Where Do I Sign? Becoming a Liberal Democrat Parliamentary Candidate couldn’t be simpler: Candidates write to their federal party (either England, Wales or Scotland) to express an interest. Once accepted by Federal Party, candidates contact their local party. Local Party then selects a shortlist of candidates from the applicants.Members of the Constituency party chose a candidate from the shortlist (OMOV).
  49. 49. I Remember When The Lib Dem’s Were Young…. The Liberal Party had been a major political force in Britain since the 1800’s, however by the beginning of the 19th Century they had dwindled as a Political force. Throughout the period of 1914-1945 they were always a small party within a larger coalition. By the time Labour had formed its first single Government in 1945 the Liberal Party were down to single figures of MP’s. Throughout the age of consensus (1950-1979) they began to dwindle as a political force. Could ANYTHING save our heroes?
  50. 50. Me And The SDP Had So Much Fun In 1981 there was a massive internal split within the Labour party (caused in part by the choice of Michael Foot as new party leader) and 4 Labour MP’s (Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Shirley Williams and William Rogers) split from the party to form their own known as the Social Democratic Party (SDP). Almost immediately the Liberals and SDP entered an election pact. They consistently gained at least 20% of the vote until they merged to form the Liberal Democrats in 1988.

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