Marine management – a history
of monumental failure, a future of
success?
Dr Kirsty Kemp
Institute of Zoology,
Zoological ...
A whistle-stop tour of major fishery issues
1
2
3
4
5
6

Overfishing
Bycatch
Benthic community damage
Expansion of fisheri...
Bycatch and discards
Benthic damage: ground gear
Trawling is on very rough
terrain
Ground gear includes large
rubber bobbins to help gear
to be...
Benthic community damage

Octocorals ~2700 years old - recovery will be slow (~ 100 – 1000y)
Expansion: Fishing deeper

Time series of bottom fisheries
catches by depth
(Morato et al. 2005 Fish & Fisheries 7: 24-34)...
Expansion: Fishing seamounts
Seamounts difficult to fish
Require special gear and techniques to
fish
Trawl doors modified ...
Expansion: Seamounts - unfished

Original slide: Alex Rogers
Expansion: Seamounts - fished

Original slide: Alex Rogers
Fishing down the foodweb

Pauly, D. et al (1998) Science, New Series, Vol. 279, No. 5352, 860-963
Non compliance: Move on rule
Scientific investigations for
trawling indicate levels should be:

75kg sponge
2kg for large ...
Decision making and conflict resolution
Consensus-based decision making
means that the interests of a few
parties lead to ...
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
Dividing up the ocean
Territorial waters (defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea) are coastal...
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
Regional fisheries management organisations
RFMOs are international organisations formed by countries with fishing
interes...
RFMOs

Reference: http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/international/rfmo/
RFMOs

Reference: http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/international/rfmo/
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
International advisory bodies
UN – United Nations (eg FAO, UNEP)
ICES – International Council for Exploration of the Sea
c...
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
Major policy documents
1982 UNCLOS United Nations Law of the Sea Convention
– international agreement regulating conservat...
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
Shifts in management ideology
MSY Maximum sustainable yield
• The common fisheries policy – 1970s EU member states agreed ...
Shifts in management ideology
MSY Maximum sustainable yield
• The common fisheries policy – 1970s EU member states agreed ...
Shifts in management ideology
MSY Maximum sustainable yield
Ecosystem-based

management

• The common fisheries policy – 1...
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
Shifts in regulatory approach
Government regulation
approach

Economic incentive approach

Market based approach
(voluntar...
Market based approach (voluntary labeling)
In the past decade – explosion of voluntary certification and labeling
schemes
...
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
An independent, global, non-profit organisation
working to enhance responsible development of
seafood resources
Standard f...
Fisheries (and seafood businesses) voluntarily seek
certification
Assessments are carried out by independently accredited
...
Three core principles form the MSC fisheries standard:
Principle 1: Sustainable fish stocks: The fishing activity must be ...
A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance
1
2
3
4

Dividing up the ocean
Regional fisheries management bodies
Internati...
Fishery location
West Greenland (NAFO sub-areas 1A-F
and 0B)
• Inshore and offshore fleet
• 35 small vessels
• 12 factory ...
Fishing method: Otter trawls
Fishery management: Greenland Fishery Act through a series of regulations:
•
•
•
•
•

Fishing...
Enforcement by Directorate of Fisheries (Greenland Fisheries Licence
Control)
• Track vessels, landing reports, and contro...
Deep water shrimp
Pandalus borealis
Soft, muddy sediment
1-6°C
150-600 metres
Hermaphrodite: mature as a
males at age ~2, ...
• 2011 - IoZ approached by SFG to develop a pilot study to assess
Greenlandic benthos (part of MSC certification process)
...
Approach – 3 paths of research
1. Ecological survey of the benthos
• What is there
• How is it changing
2. Genetic analysi...
Ecological survey of the benthos
– camera survey
Ecological survey of the benthos
– camera survey

2011 & 2012
• 25 days at sea
• only 3 days lost to weather
• 97 stations...
Grab Sampling: 21 stations
Species identifications
confirmed by:
Taxonomy
Expert advice
Genetic analysis
Original slide: Chris Yesson
Analysis
• Fishing Impact Data
• Shannon Index
• Vulnerable Marine
Organisms

Original slide: Chris Yesson
Analysis
• Fishing Impact Data
• Shannon Index
• Vulnerable Marine Organisms
Analysis
Original slide: Chris Yesson
Results: what can we see so far

Original slide: Irina Chemshirova
Market based approach (voluntary labeling)
In the past decade – explosion of voluntary certification and labeling
schemes
...
Student Debate Activity
Consumer power is more effective than government
regulation in the management of shared natural re...
Student Debate Activity
All commercial fisheries should be legally obligated to enter
into a 3rd party certification schem...
Student Debate Activity
Socio-economic concerns are disproportionately considered
in the management of commercial fisherie...
Student Debate Activity
It is appropriate for an independent research scientist to be
paid with money that originates from...
Kirsty kemp silwood nov 19 2013
Kirsty kemp silwood nov 19 2013
Kirsty kemp silwood nov 19 2013
Kirsty kemp silwood nov 19 2013
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  • Marine Stewardship Council – what it is and why it exists
  • This is the process and we were approached and asked to participate by SFG, in association with GINR
  • Largely within the environmental impact assessment
  • This is the fishery
  • This is the species
  • Marine Stewardship Council – what it is and why it exists
  • Looking for signs of recovery in areas that have not been trawled in past 5 year period
  • Marine Stewardship Council – what it is and why it exists
  • Kirsty kemp silwood nov 19 2013

    1. 1. Marine management – a history of monumental failure, a future of success? Dr Kirsty Kemp Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4RY Kirsty.kemp@ioz.ac.uk
    2. 2. A whistle-stop tour of major fishery issues 1 2 3 4 5 6 Overfishing Bycatch Benthic community damage Expansion of fisheries “Fishing down the food web” Non-compliance
    3. 3. Bycatch and discards
    4. 4. Benthic damage: ground gear Trawling is on very rough terrain Ground gear includes large rubber bobbins to help gear to be towed over obstructions Used to be steel bobbins but rubber are more efficient
    5. 5. Benthic community damage Octocorals ~2700 years old - recovery will be slow (~ 100 – 1000y)
    6. 6. Expansion: Fishing deeper Time series of bottom fisheries catches by depth (Morato et al. 2005 Fish & Fisheries 7: 24-34) Original slide: Alex Rogers
    7. 7. Expansion: Fishing seamounts Seamounts difficult to fish Require special gear and techniques to fish Trawl doors modified to hold net open with minimal or no bottom contact Shoals targeted with acoustics Tow times very short (as little as15 minutes) Original slide: Alex Rogers
    8. 8. Expansion: Seamounts - unfished Original slide: Alex Rogers
    9. 9. Expansion: Seamounts - fished Original slide: Alex Rogers
    10. 10. Fishing down the foodweb Pauly, D. et al (1998) Science, New Series, Vol. 279, No. 5352, 860-963
    11. 11. Non compliance: Move on rule Scientific investigations for trawling indicate levels should be: 75kg sponge 2kg for large octocorals 0.2kg for small octocorals Management threshold levels set at: NEAFC – 1000kg sponge, 100kg live coral NAFO – 1000kg sponge, 60kg coral NPFC – 50kg coral CCAMLR – 10kg of VME taxa Original slide: Alex Rogers
    12. 12. Decision making and conflict resolution Consensus-based decision making means that the interests of a few parties lead to poor decision making or a lack of timely decisions Even where majority decisions are allowed members may not be bound by decisions if they register an objection Lack of information is often used as an excuse for inaction instead of application of the precautionary principle Lack of transparency Lack of formal mechanisms for conflict resolution Original slide: Alex Rogers
    13. 13. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    14. 14. Dividing up the ocean Territorial waters (defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) are coastal waters extending12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state. The territorial sea is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign ships (both military and civilian) are allowed innocent passage through it; this sovereignty also extends to the airspace over and seabed below. Adjustment of these boundaries is called, in international law, maritime delimitation. Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) (as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) is a sea zone over which a state has special rights to the exploration and use of marine resources. An EEZ stretches from the baseline of a coastal state (usually the mean low-water mark) out to 200 nautical miles. International waters is any body of water that transcends international boundaries Oceans, seas, and waters outside of national jurisdiction are also referred to as the high seas. Ships sailing the high seas are generally under the jurisdiction of the flag state however, when a ship is involved in certain criminal acts, such as piracy, any nation can exercise jurisdiction under the doctrine of universal jurisdiction.
    15. 15. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    16. 16. Regional fisheries management organisations RFMOs are international organisations formed by countries with fishing interests in an area. Some of them manage all the fish stocks found in a specific area, while others focus on particular highly-migratory species, notably tuna, throughout vast geographical areas. They are open both to countries in the region (“coastal states”) and countries with interests in the fisheries concerned. Some have a purely advisory role, but most have management powers to set catch and fishing effort limits, technical measures, and control obligations.
    17. 17. RFMOs Reference: http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/international/rfmo/
    18. 18. RFMOs Reference: http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/international/rfmo/
    19. 19. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    20. 20. International advisory bodies UN – United Nations (eg FAO, UNEP) ICES – International Council for Exploration of the Sea coordinates research and advises management bodies such as the EU with respect to North Atlantic fisheries http://www.ices.dk/Pages/default.aspx OSPAR – The OSPAR Convention is the current legal instrument guiding international cooperation on the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic.http://www.ospar.org/ IWC – International Whaling Commission is the global intergovernmental body charged with the conservation of whales and the management of whaling. And many more…
    21. 21. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    22. 22. Major policy documents 1982 UNCLOS United Nations Law of the Sea Convention – international agreement regulating conservation: MSY-based 1992 CBD Convention on Biological Diversity -the only global agreement focusing on biodiversity management 1995 UNFSA United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement – shift in emphasis: first global fisheries agreement requiring the precautionary approach to fisheries management 1995 UN FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries - Voluntary, includes detailed technical guidance for implementation of the precautionary approach
    23. 23. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    24. 24. Shifts in management ideology MSY Maximum sustainable yield • The common fisheries policy – 1970s EU member states agreed that fishermen should share access and have common rules for fishing in each other’s waters. 1983 the CFP was created • Tragedy of the Commons • (2010) 88% of European stocks fished beyond sustainable levels, 30% close to collapse Ecosystem-based fisheries management and the Precautionary Principle • 2012 reform of the CFP: ecosystem-based fisheries management now obligatory
    25. 25. Shifts in management ideology MSY Maximum sustainable yield • The common fisheries policy – 1970s EU member states agreed that MSY fishermen should share access and have common rules for fishing in each other’s waters. 1983 the CFP was created • Tragedy of the Commons • (2010) 88% of European stocks fished beyond sustainable levels, 30% close to collapse Cochrane, K.L., FAO Corporate Document Repository, A fishery manager’s guidebook Ecosystem-based fisheries Management Measures and Theirthe Precautionary USE OF SCIENTIFIC management and Application, CHAPTER 5: THE Principle INFORMATION IN THE DESIGN OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES • 2012 reform of the CFP: ecosystem-based fisheries management now obligatory
    26. 26. Shifts in management ideology MSY Maximum sustainable yield Ecosystem-based management • The common fisheries policy – 1970s EU member states agreed that fishermen should share access and have common rules for fishing in each other’s waters. 1983 the CFP was created • Tragedy of the Commons • (2010) 88% of European stocks fished beyond sustainable levels, 30% close to collapse Ecosystem-based fisheries management and the Precautionary Principle • 2012 reform of the CFP: ecosystem-based fisheries management now obligatory
    27. 27. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    28. 28. Shifts in regulatory approach Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling)
    29. 29. Market based approach (voluntary labeling) In the past decade – explosion of voluntary certification and labeling schemes • 1st party – firm certifies itself to its own standard • 2nd party – standard is developed by an industry body that then certifies members to that standard • 3rd party – standard is developed by a group at arm’s length from individual companies and the industry, and compliance is audited by independent organisations with no vested interest in the outcome • Hybrid schemes Forest sector, mineral sector, fisheries, organic agriculture, coffee, clothing.. Does it work?
    30. 30. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    31. 31. An independent, global, non-profit organisation working to enhance responsible development of seafood resources Standard for sustainable fishing and seafood traceability To carry the label every business in the supply chain must have undertaken a detailed traceability audit against the MSC Chain of Custody standard
    32. 32. Fisheries (and seafood businesses) voluntarily seek certification Assessments are carried out by independently accredited certifiers (‘third-party’) • First party: an organisation, product or service meets standards it has set for itself • Second-party: it meets standards established by peers, for example by an industry association •    Third-party (‘certification’): an independent  assessment shows that the organisation, product or  service meets standards that have been set by impartial  experts. • A certificate is issued to prove that the standard has been met.
    33. 33. Three core principles form the MSC fisheries standard: Principle 1: Sustainable fish stocks: The fishing activity must be at a level which is sustainable for the fish population. Any certified fishery must operate so that fishing can continue indefinitely and is not overexploiting the resources. Principle 2: Minimising environmental impact: Fishing operations should be managed to maintain the structure, productivity, function and diversity of the ecosystem on which the fishery depends. Principle 3: Effective management: The fishery must meet all local, national and international laws and must have a management system in place to respond to changing circumstances and maintain sustainability.
    34. 34. A whistle-stop tour through ocean governance 1 2 3 4 Dividing up the ocean Regional fisheries management bodies International regulating bodies Major policy documents 5 6 7 8 Shifts in ideology of management of natural resources Government regulation approach Economic incentive approach Market based approach (voluntary labeling) 9 One voluntary certification scheme – the MSC 10 A case study
    35. 35. Fishery location West Greenland (NAFO sub-areas 1A-F and 0B) • Inshore and offshore fleet • 35 small vessels • 12 factory vessels • otter trawls • TAC for west and east Greenland is 139,700 tonnes • The west Greenland fishery accounted for 127,300 tonnes (2008)
    36. 36. Fishing method: Otter trawls Fishery management: Greenland Fishery Act through a series of regulations: • • • • • Fishing licences Fleet quotas Access restrictions Bycatch restrictions Control measures, including logbooks, landing declarations, VMS (vessel monitoring system), an observer program • Technical conservation measures, e.g. minimum mesh size
    37. 37. Enforcement by Directorate of Fisheries (Greenland Fisheries Licence Control) • Track vessels, landing reports, and control the observer programme • Observers 60% of the offshore and inshore fleet with processing facilities on-board • 10% of the inshore fleet without processing facilities Policing is carried out by the Control Unit and through at-sea inspections by (Danish) naval vessels. Vessels are inspected at sea around 2-3 times per year. Since 2004 the TAC (total allowable catch) for the entire fishery has been set at 130,000 tonnes. Commercial market All coldwater prawn product is exported. Product for domestic consumption is re-imported from Denmark.
    38. 38. Deep water shrimp Pandalus borealis Soft, muddy sediment 1-6°C 150-600 metres Hermaphrodite: mature as a males at age ~2, mate for 2-3 years, then change sex and live the remainder of their lifespan as a female Spawn in autumn Females carry the eggs until April/May Hatch into pelagic larvae Day -feed on or near the bottom Night - migrate up to feed on zooplankton heavily predated by ground fish and seals
    39. 39. • 2011 - IoZ approached by SFG to develop a pilot study to assess Greenlandic benthos (part of MSC certification process) • Pilot study showed promise, agreed to undertake a 2 year project • Currently underway (June 2012- June 2014) Primary Aim • To assess what is there • To determine the impact, and historical impact, of trawling on the benthic habitat • To generate results and establish a survey system that will aid fisheries managers in monitoring benthic impact Project made possible by • SFG (Sustainable Fisheries Greenland) who initiated and fund the work • GINR (Greenland Institute of Natural Resources) who provide shiptime SFG and GINR – fisheries data
    40. 40. Approach – 3 paths of research 1. Ecological survey of the benthos • What is there • How is it changing 2. Genetic analysis • What is there • Connectivity (genetic links between populations) 3. How to improve and reduce analysis cost • Machine learning towards automation of analysis • Building a tool for use by non-experts
    41. 41. Ecological survey of the benthos – camera survey
    42. 42. Ecological survey of the benthos – camera survey 2011 & 2012 • 25 days at sea • only 3 days lost to weather • 97 stations covering ~1400 km continental shelf
    43. 43. Grab Sampling: 21 stations Species identifications confirmed by: Taxonomy Expert advice Genetic analysis
    44. 44. Original slide: Chris Yesson
    45. 45. Analysis • Fishing Impact Data • Shannon Index • Vulnerable Marine Organisms Original slide: Chris Yesson
    46. 46. Analysis • Fishing Impact Data • Shannon Index • Vulnerable Marine Organisms
    47. 47. Analysis
    48. 48. Original slide: Chris Yesson
    49. 49. Results: what can we see so far Original slide: Irina Chemshirova
    50. 50. Market based approach (voluntary labeling) In the past decade – explosion of voluntary certification and labeling schemes • 1st party – firm certifies itself to its own standard • 2nd party – standard is developed by an industry body that then certifies members to that standard • 3rd party – standard is developed by a group at arm’s length from individual companies and the industry, and compliance is audited by independent organisations with no vested interest in the outcome Forest sector. Mineral sector. Fisheries. Organic agriculture. Coffee. Clothing. Does it work?
    51. 51. Student Debate Activity Consumer power is more effective than government regulation in the management of shared natural resources Yes No
    52. 52. Student Debate Activity All commercial fisheries should be legally obligated to enter into a 3rd party certification scheme such as MSC Legal obligation to enter into MSC certification scheme would be detrimental to the integrity of the scheme itself Yes No
    53. 53. Student Debate Activity Socio-economic concerns are disproportionately considered in the management of commercial fisheries Yes No
    54. 54. Student Debate Activity It is appropriate for an independent research scientist to be paid with money that originates from “industry” Yes No

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