LED Continuing Education Presentation


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The Kirlin Company's online LED lighting presentation.

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LED Continuing Education Presentation

  1. 1. “ Don’t be misLED” Dispelling the misinformation on Light Emitting Diodes
  2. 2. The Kirlin Company <ul><ul><li>The Kirlin Company is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to C.E.S. Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AIA/CES </li></ul>AIA/CES: Don’t be misLED
  3. 3. Commitment to Education Don’t be misLED <ul><li>Lunch and Learn Seminars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.25 AIA/CES LUs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 LEU (NCQLP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Development Credit Hours for Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kirlin Reflection Point Seminars – Detroit, MI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.0 LEUs for NCQLP re-certification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 CEUs authorized by the IESNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 LUs for AIA/CES </li></ul></ul>AIA/CES: Healthcare and Medical Lighting
  4. 4. “ Don’t be misLED” – Illuminating Solid State Lighting Technology <ul><li>What is an light emitting diode? </li></ul><ul><li>How does LED technology produce light? </li></ul><ul><li>How do LED’s differ from traditional light sources? </li></ul><ul><li>Standardizing solid state lighting testing procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>12 common myths about LED’s. </li></ul><ul><li>12 critical issues a specifier must know when specifying LED’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical LED downlight products available today. </li></ul>Let’s take a look at why LED’s really are a revolution…
  5. 5. The LED Revolution has been an Evolution… From simple indicators, traffic signals and signage
  6. 6. The LED Revolution has been an Evolution… To high-tech systems, able to be solar powered or remotely configurable.
  7. 7. LED’s – an introduction <ul><li>What is a LED? </li></ul><ul><li>LED stands for light-emitting diode. </li></ul><ul><li>LED’s are diodes (gates) which create photons </li></ul><ul><li>of light (electroluminescence) due to the flow </li></ul><ul><li>of electrons through a semiconductor material </li></ul><ul><li>when electrical current is applied. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why use LED? <ul><li>The U.S. Department of Energy estimates that rapid adoption of LED lighting in the U.S. over the next 20 years can: </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver savings of approximately $265 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid 40 new power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce lighting electricity demand 33% by 2027. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why use LED? <ul><li>Incandescent bulbs create light by passing electricity through a metal filament until it becomes so hot that it glows. Incandescent bulbs release 90% of their energy as heat. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why use LED? <ul><li>In a CFL , an electric current is driven through a tube containing gases. This reaction produces ultraviolet light that gets transformed into visible light by the fluorescent coating (called phosphor) on the inside of the tube. A CFL releases about 80% of its energy as heat </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why use LED? <ul><li>LED lighting products use semiconductors to produce light very efficiently. By passing current through the diode, excess energy is either released as a photon of light or heat. The heat must be thermally managed, but no infrared is emitted into the space. Heat produced is minimal in comparison to other sources. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why use LED? <ul><li>How does LED differ from other sources like incandescent, </li></ul><ul><li>fluorescent or metal halide? </li></ul><ul><li>No filament or arc tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing to heat or ignite. </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelength specific light (no Ultraviolet or Infrared). </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to create and distribute only what is required (minimal waste). </li></ul><ul><li>Small in size. </li></ul><ul><li>Better performance as temperature is lowered. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved fixture efficiencies – especially in recessed luminaires. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-voltage, multi hertz capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Life” determined at 70% initial lumen output (L-70). </li></ul>
  13. 13. LED’s – an introduction <ul><li>Power LED’s </li></ul><ul><li>LED’s used for general lighting. Also referred to </li></ul><ul><li>as surface mounted devices (SMDs), these </li></ul><ul><li>packages generally range from 1 watt up to 100 </li></ul><ul><li>watt (multi-die). </li></ul>Lamp Type LED’s Low powered, low cost LED’s often used as indicators such as power on, back lighting switches/buttons or found in toys.
  14. 14. Surface Mounted Device (SMDs) “Power LEDs”
  15. 15. Power LED Construction
  16. 16. LED’s – Types of SMD <ul><li>Single Die LED </li></ul><ul><li>Generally 5 watts or less and used in either “stand-alone” </li></ul><ul><li>systems or fixtures using multiple LED’s. Single die work </li></ul><ul><li>best with optics for varying beam spreads. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Die LED </li></ul><ul><li>Generally 3 watts or greater and containing 4 or more die. </li></ul><ul><li>As with all LED, thermal management is critical and can be </li></ul><ul><li>challenging with multi-die packages. </li></ul><ul><li>Self Boarded multi-die LED, usually over 5 watts. These </li></ul><ul><li>LED typically do not lend themselves to the use of optics, </li></ul><ul><li>but are generators of many lumens. Thermal </li></ul><ul><li>management is mission critical with these packages. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Creation of Light Anatomy of a Die P layer P/N Junction N layer Substrate P Electrode (Anode) N Electrode (Cathode) “ Active Layer” “ Depletion Layer” “ Forbidden Layer” Junction
  18. 18. Creation of Light Anatomy of a Die P/N Junction Substrate (Anode) (Cathode) Current + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Current Out - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Bond Wire Applying current causes electrons to flow, the union creates a release of energy - either light or heat
  19. 19. Spectral Power Distribution of Light
  20. 20. Spectral Power Distribution Comparison Typical White Power LED (blue diode w/phosphors) Spike at 450 nm represents the contribution from the blue diode. Wavelengths of light above 500 nm are result of the phosphors.
  21. 21. LED – Creating White Light <ul><li>RGB (red, green, blue) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult, requires a “recipe” or combination of red, green and blue… </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal degradation between colors occurs, making the quality of white light over time suspect. </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive. Due to the degradation variation between colors, these systems require relatively expensive electronics which attempt to keep the “recipe” constant over time. </li></ul>Great for color changing applications
  22. 22. InGaN Blue LED- Creating White Light Indium Gallium Nitride (most common method for white)
  23. 23. Creating White Light – InGaN/Phosphor <ul><li>High Brightness blue diode with phosphor overlay </li></ul><ul><li>Blue photons of light excite and mix with the phosphor </li></ul><ul><li>to create white light </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphor most commonly placed directly over diode </li></ul><ul><li>or “conformally coated” on diode </li></ul><ul><li>High Efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>High CRI available (unique phosphor blends) </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase “zones” or bins of chromaticity </li></ul>
  24. 24. Lighting Class White Binning Similar LEDs can vary in… <ul><li>Forward Voltage (efficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity (lumens) </li></ul><ul><li>Chromaticity (blue) </li></ul><ul><li>Color (customized phosphor blend) </li></ul>Removing most of the variables, allows more precise binning.
  25. 25. Results of Premium binning procedures Due to variance during production, a bin is a “zone” of chromaticity in which a customer will receive product. in variance Red bin represents a 57% reduction
  26. 26. Standards for LED product testing L70 “ End of Life” determined at 70% of initial lumen output. Junction Temperature, Operating Temperature, Drive Current all play a role in the determination of L70
  27. 27. Standards for LED product testing L70 predicated on keeping the LEDs cool.
  28. 28. <ul><li>IES LM-79-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Approved Method for the Electrical and Photometric Testing of Solid-State Lighting Devices “Specifies a standard test method for measuring the photometric properties of SSL devices, allowing calculation of luminaire efficacy.” </li></ul><ul><li>This is the actual photometry of a LED Luminaire. It is always </li></ul><ul><li>best to have truly independent testing done – especially with </li></ul><ul><li>LED fixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient temperature has effects </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cold” Lumens or testing at start-up is inaccurate and not </li></ul><ul><li>realistic as lumens will decrease as luminaire warms </li></ul>Standards for LED product testing ___________________________________________________
  29. 29. Lumens vs. Heat <ul><li>Lab results </li></ul><ul><li>Drive current </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient </li></ul>Lumen output can be dramatically reduced due to a rise in junction temperature
  30. 30. IES LM-80-2008 Approved Method for Measuring Lumen Depreciation of LED Light Sources “ Specifies a standard method for measuring the lumen depreciation of LEDs, allowing calculation of LED lifetime.” This is the actual, real-life (lab) lumen/life testing of diodes (but not in a luminaire). 6,000 hours are required, however 10,000 hours are preferred. This equates to 8 months of operational testing! Prior to LM80, most reputable LED manufacturers used the Assist method of calculation, proven to be very reliable. Standards for LED product testing ___________________________________________________
  31. 31. The 12 myths associated with LED <ul><li>LEDs last “ forever ” </li></ul><ul><li>An LED is an LED </li></ul><ul><li>3. No heat LED! </li></ul><ul><li>4. LEDs are inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>5. LEDs have poor CRI </li></ul><ul><li>6. LED lumens are better (somehow) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Don’t dim LED </li></ul><ul><li>8. Newer, brighter, bigger is better </li></ul><ul><li>9. LEDs are not for my sophisticated design </li></ul><ul><li>LEDs can go anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Retrofit LEDs – no problem! </li></ul><ul><li>12. “Our LED fixtures meet IES standards ” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Myth #1 LED’s last forever…. or LED’s last 100,000 hours <ul><ul><li>a. In “theory” they could </li></ul></ul><ul><li> b. Industry has standardized on 70% of </li></ul><ul><li> initial lumens (L70) </li></ul><ul><li> c. Operate brighter and last longer in cold </li></ul><ul><li> d. LED - heat is the enemy </li></ul>
  33. 33. Myth #2 A LED is a LED Are all fixtures created equally? <ul><li>It’s not just about the brand of LED you use </li></ul><ul><li>It’s all about the Tj and the operating temperature </li></ul><ul><li>c. The DOE reports 1/3 of products tested are </li></ul><ul><li>accurate </li></ul><ul><li>d. One third actually over report by as much </li></ul><ul><li>as 100%! </li></ul><ul><li>e. Life and light output are directly dependant </li></ul><ul><li>on junction temperature </li></ul>
  34. 34. Myth #3 No Heat with LEDs <ul><ul><li>While it’s true they don’t emit infrared… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy releases via photons and heat </li></ul><ul><li>High Powered LED create a great deal of both </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is the enemy and must be managed </li></ul>
  35. 35. Myth #4 LEDs are inexpensive No, they are more expensive – but they are starting to come down.
  36. 36. Myth #5 LEDs have poor CRI… <ul><li>Traditionally very deficient in red rendering </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized phosphors have dramatically improved </li></ul><ul><li>CRI (color rendering index) </li></ul><ul><li>Many popular LED are available in 90+ CRI </li></ul>
  37. 37. Myth #6 LED lumens are better (somehow) <ul><ul><li>Whereas it’s true that they produce light </li></ul></ul><ul><li> efficiently…the fixture and its design take over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many designs, lamp type vs. lamp type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the LED “lighthead” may not need to make as </li></ul><ul><li> many lumens (their small size and lack of arc tube </li></ul><ul><li> makes them inherently more efficient in a fixture) </li></ul><ul><li>– but footcandles are footcandles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no “scotopic” advantage to LED unless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you are talking very low level outdoor lighting. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Myth #6 LED lumens are better (somehow) <ul><li>a. Be skeptical of proposals offering less footcandles </li></ul><ul><li>b. Be skeptical of fewer fixtures (at this time) </li></ul><ul><li>c. If you just wanted to lower your light level you can </li></ul><ul><li> without spending money on LEDs </li></ul>
  39. 39. Myth #7 Don’t dim an LED <ul><li>Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) or Analog Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Best source available today for dimming </li></ul><ul><li>if done correctly! </li></ul><ul><li>Best color stability via PWM </li></ul><ul><li>0 – 100% </li></ul>
  40. 40. Myth #8 Newer, Brighter, Bigger is Better <ul><li>Blue (cooler Kelvin) is brighter, do you really want 6000K? </li></ul><ul><li>40 watt packages – you have to cool this monster! </li></ul><ul><li>Often, its more efficient to use more of a lower power die </li></ul><ul><li>To overdrive or not to overdrive…now that is the question! </li></ul>
  41. 41. Myth #9 LED lighting is unsophisticated
  42. 42. Myth #9 LED lighting is unsophisticated <ul><ul><li>Different beam spreads are available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various white: 3000, 3500, 4100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Colors and Color Changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimming </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Myth #10 LEDs go everywhere <ul><li>Beware of high ambient applications </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Caustic applications (Natatoriums) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Myth #11 LED retrofits are 50,000 hr products <ul><li>Entrepreneurs may need to re-write thermodynamic law </li></ul><ul><li>Will consumers “settle” for a less light novel gadget? </li></ul><ul><li>A socket is a very poor thermal path for cooling a LED </li></ul><ul><li>Each LED watt needs 6 inches of surface area in free </li></ul><ul><li>air for cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Buyer Beware! </li></ul>
  45. 45. Myth #12 Many will tout: our product “ meets IES standards ”… <ul><li>Generalized claims should frighten you </li></ul><ul><li>Make the “Herbs” of the world identify </li></ul><ul><li>their claims: LM-79, LM-80, Tj and </li></ul><ul><li>at what ambient temperature was the </li></ul><ul><li>information gathered at. </li></ul><ul><li>Do they have actual, non-biased, </li></ul><ul><li>independently tested to IES </li></ul><ul><li>standards, photometry? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Popular LED Applications <ul><li>Cold Applications (freezer, cooler) </li></ul><ul><li>Locations difficult to maintain (outdoor) </li></ul><ul><li>Tight or Small locations (automotive) </li></ul><ul><li>Dimming (nothing better!) </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction with Lighting Control Technology (motion sensors, timed on/off, daylight sense dimming) </li></ul><ul><li>Color changing (building exterior) </li></ul><ul><li>21 st century power (Solar) </li></ul>
  47. 47. The 12 questions your LED Luminaire Supplier must answer Mark McClear of Cree Scott Riesebosch of CRS Electronics February, 2009
  48. 48. The 12 questions… 1) Is your Diode Supplier a reliable company?
  49. 49. The 12 questions… 2) Has your diode supplier provided an IESNA LM-80 Test? LM-80 was finalized and published by the IESNA in September of 2008. All reputable LED manufacturers should now be submitting existing and new LED packages for LM-80 testing. If your fixture manufacturer cannot produce LM-80 test results for the LED they are employing in their luminaire – buyer beware!
  50. 50. The 12 questions… 3) What is the operating range specification and what is the maximum junction temperature (Tj) of the lamps over that percentage range? Each LED has operating characteristics that need to be adhered to when employing them in a lighting fixture. The most critical item of note is the LED package operating junction temperature or Tj. The Luminaire manufacturer should be able to provide not only maximum rated junction temperature for the LED, but also what the Tj is as operated in their fixture. Care should be taken when applying luminaires in different climates (operating temperatures). Quality Luminaire manufacturers will build in an allowance in their design for variances in ambient operating temperatures.
  51. 51. The 12 questions… 4) What is the expected L-70 lifetime of your fixture ? How was it calculated? L70 is a designation for the amount of time it will take a LED to depreciate to 70% initial lumen output (as set forth by LM-79 photometric testing) in a fixture. Again, what is the fixture’s L70 and at what ambient is that tested at? Is it a realistic ambient?
  52. 52. The 12 questions… 5) Can you supply an IESNA LM-79 test report and is it from a third party laboratory with an .ies file? Independent Testing Laboratories, Boulder Colorado is one of the premier testing houses for lighting fixtures.
  53. 53. The 12 questions… 6) What are the delivered lumens and LPW of the fixture? The delivered lumens stated in fixture manufacturer’s literature should reflect the “total” lumens each fixture produces. When evaluating the specification sheet, the stated luminous output is the same as the output reported to us in our LM-79 test, in other words, “no in-house tricks.” We do not report “ lighthead” lumens, but actual light delivered out of the fixture. Fixture wattage should be total draw, including driver losses.
  54. 54. The 12 questions… 7) Is the chromaticity of the fixture in the ANSI C78.377A color space and is it stable over time? How do you know? Reputable LED manufacturers all publish binning practices. Typical bins are representative of (7) MacAdams Ellipse. Lighting Class LEDs should be much more precise (3) Ellipse.
  55. 55. The 12 questions… MacAdams Ellipse Over 90 percent of the population can see the difference in (7) Ellipse A reduction from 7 to 3 MacAdams Ellipse reduces the percentage to less than 65 percent.
  56. 56. The 12 questions… 8) Does the color of the light output vary from fixture to fixture or in different spatial locations for a single fixture? Fixture manufacturers need to be very careful and record keep the bins from which they receive their LED and supply to project sites. How critical this is depends on the quantity of LEDs used in the fixture design, as well as the size of the bins in which they purchase from.
  57. 57. The 12 questions… 9) What is the power factor of your fixture? How much power does it consume in the off position? Properly designed luminaires should consume no power in the off position. Power factor is how effectively the electrical design (driver) uses the input power it receives. Luminaires should meet or exceed the USDOE Energy Star rating.
  58. 58. The 12 questions… 10) Have you applied for DOE Energy Star for this fixture? Why/Why not? Energy Star has traditionally been associated with residential grade products. Although it is better to have than have not, many new luminaires have either not been submitted or await the review of the DOE. Similar to appliances, Energy Star sets a minimum performance level and is not the end all to quality LED luminaires.
  59. 59. The 12 questions… 11) Is your fixture lead free, mercury free, and RoHS compliant? In order to meet the Reduction of Hazardous Substances compliance, lead and mercury are eliminated from the product, as well as an extensive list of other potentially harmful materials.
  60. 60. The 12 questions… 12) What is the warranty and do you have the means to STAND BEHIND IT? LED Lighting represents an unprecedented level of reliability and the manufacturer should have the confidence to stand behind their design. Warranties should be a minimum of 3 year, as long as 5 year and incorporate not only the LED circuitry, but driver and optics as well. Does the manufacturer you are dealing with have experience in the lighting industry? Have they stood behind prior technologies? Will they be around in the future to service an offered warranty?
  61. 61. Typical Designs should include serviceable parts
  62. 62. Typical LED Downlight Features <ul><li>Energy Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually Maintenance Free </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent CRI </li></ul><ul><li>4” and 6” apertures </li></ul><ul><li>IC Standard on 4” </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustables for Task Specific Lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Beam Spreads </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Low Glare </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Best Dimming…Period” </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of Trims Finishes </li></ul><ul><li>Tech meets Tech </li></ul><ul><li>Truly Green Lighting </li></ul>
  63. 63. Typical LED Downlight Solutions <ul><li>1000 Lumens </li></ul><ul><li>50 Lumens/Watt </li></ul><ul><li>3000, 3500, 4100K </li></ul><ul><li>4 Beam Spreads </li></ul><ul><li>.3 (SPT), .5 (NFL) </li></ul><ul><li>.7 (MFL), 1.0 (WFL) </li></ul>
  64. 64. Open and Lensed, Round and Square Aperture
  65. 65. Open and Lensed, Round and Square Adjustables
  66. 66. Round and Square Pinhole Downlights
  67. 67. 6” Open Appearance and Regressed Lensed Downlights
  68. 68. Vandal and IP65 Rated LED Downlights
  69. 69. LED Cylinder
  70. 70. LED downlights for use in MRI Suites <ul><li>Non-Ferrous </li></ul><ul><li>Low Energy </li></ul><ul><li>DC Powered </li></ul><ul><li>No Filament </li></ul><ul><li>No Infrared </li></ul><ul><li>No Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Configurable </li></ul><ul><li>Dimming </li></ul>
  71. 71. LED downlights for use in MRI Suites <ul><li>38 watt available </li></ul><ul><li>2450 Lumens </li></ul><ul><li>65+ Lumens/Watt </li></ul><ul><li>Better Performance than </li></ul><ul><li>a 42 watt CFL </li></ul>LED Remote Driver powers up to 6 fixtures. 3 dimming zones. Must be used with the above fixtures.
  72. 72. Other LED Solutions Nightlights and Steplights <ul><li>2 - 3 Watt Light Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>120V – 277V input </li></ul><ul><li>50,000+ Life to 70% initial lm </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Deep Octagon Junc. Box </li></ul><ul><li>UL Damp and Dry listed </li></ul>
  73. 73. Other LED Solutions Nightlights and Steplights
  74. 74. Other LED Solutions Nightlights and Steplights <ul><li>2 – 3 Watt Light Engine </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Power Supply </li></ul><ul><li>120V input </li></ul><ul><li>50,000+ Life to 70% initial lm </li></ul><ul><li>Std. Deep Single gang Junction Box </li></ul><ul><li>UL Damp and Dry Listed </li></ul>
  75. 75. Other LED Solutions Nightlights and Steplights <ul><li>Standard Brick Design </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Security Design </li></ul>
  76. 76. Other LED Solutions Nightlights and Steplights <ul><li>Single sided and Thru-the-Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Five Colors Available </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Compartment for: Duplex Receptacle, On/Off Switch, </li></ul><ul><li>Photocell, Occupancy Sensor </li></ul>
  77. 77. www.kirlinlighting.com